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TITLE 4. PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS 
CHAPTER 36. DEPARTMENT OF FIRE, BUILDING AND LIFE SAFETY 

Supp. 07-2 

(Authority: A.R.S. § 41-2141 et seq.) 

Editor's Note: The Department of Building and Fire Safety's name was changed to the Department of Fire, Building 
and Life Safety under the authority ofA.R.S. § 41-2141, Laws 2005, Ch. 245, effective June 30, 2006 (Supp. 06-2). 

Editor's Note: Chapter 36, formerly the Department of Building and Fire Safety, is now the Department of Fire, 
Building and Life Safety. This change became effective when the Department of Building and Fire Safety changed its 
name to the Department of Fire, Building and Life Safety, effective June 30, 2006 (Supp. 06-2). 

ARTICLE 1. RESERVED 

ARTICLE 2. ARIZONA STATE FIRE CODE 

4 A.A.C. 34, Article 11, consisting of Section R4-34-1101, renumbered to A.A.C. R4-36-201 (Supp. 95-4). 
Introduction and Section number below corrected (Supp. 97-4). 

Article 11 consisting of Section R4-34-1101 adopted as a permanent rule effective November 16, 1988. 

Article 11 consisting of Section R4-34-1101 adopted as an emergency effective March 14, 1988 pursuant to A.R.S. § 
41-1026, valid for only 90 days. Emergency expired. 

Section 

R4-36-201. Incorporation by Reference of the International Fire Code 

ARTICLE 3. INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE MODIFICATIONS 

Article 3, consisting of Sections R4-36-301 through R4-36-311, made by final rulemaking at 13 A.A.R. 449, effective 
April 7, 2007 (Supp. 07-1). 

Article 3, consisting of Sections R4-36-301 through R4-36-308, repealed by summary action with an interim effective 
date of December 26, 1997; filed in the Office of the Secretary of State December 5, 1997 (Supp. 97-4). Interim 
effective date corrected Supp. 98-2. Adopted summary rules filed June 5, 1998; interim effective date of December 
26, 1997, now the permanent effective date (Supp. 98-2). 

Article 3, consisting of Sections R4-36-301 through R4-36-308, adopted effective November 1, 1995 (Supp. 95-4). 
Introduction corrected (Supp. 97-4). 

Section 

R4-3 6-3 01. Definitions 

R4-36-302. Appendices 

R4-36-303. Fees and Permits 

R4-36-304. Inspections and Enforcement 

R4-36-305. General Precautions Against Fire 

R4-36-306. Emergency Planning and Preparedness 

R4-36-307. Fire Service Features 

R4-36-308. Building Services and Systems 

R4-36-309. Fire Protection Systems 

R4-36-3 10. Explosives and Fireworks 

R4-36-311. Referenced Standards 

ARTICLE 1. RESERVED 

ARTICLE 2. ARIZONA STATE FIRE CODE 

R4-36-201. Incorporation by Reference of the International Fire Code 

Unless otherwise provided by law, any person residing, doing business, or who is physically present within the state 
of Arizona shall comply with the provisions of the International Fire Code (2003 Edition), including D 102.1 and 



D 107.1 of Appendix D and all provisions of Appendices B, C, E, F and G, which is published by the International 
Code Council, incorporated by reference as the State Fire Code, and modified by Article 3. The incorporated material 
does not include any later amendments or editions. Copies of the International Fire Code are available from the 
International Code Council, 4051 W. Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5795 and a copy is available for 
inspection at the Office of the State Fire Marshal. 

Historical Note 

Adopted as an emergency effective March 24, 1982, pursuant to A.R.S. § 41-1003, valid for only 90 days 

(Supp. 82-2). Former Section R8-2-41 adopted as an emergency now adopted as a permanent rule effective 

June 24, 1982 (Supp. 82-3). Adopted as an emergency effective October 12, 1984, pursuant to A.R.S. § 

41-1003, valid for only 90 days (Supp. 84-5). Emergency expired, former Section R8-2-41 repealed, new 

Section R8-2-41 adopted effective April 2, 1985 (Supp. 85-2). Former Section R8-2-41 repealed, new 

Section R4-34-1101 adopted as an emergency effective March 14, 1988, pursuant to A.R.S. § 41-1026, 

valid for only 90 days (Supp. 88-1). Emergency expired. Former Section R8-2-41 repealed, new Section 

R4-34-1101 adopted as a permanent rule with editorial corrections effective November 16, 1988 (Supp. 

88-4). Section R4-34-1101 repealed, new Section adopted effective July 20, 1990 (Supp. 90-3). Section 

R4-36-201 renumbered from R4-34-1101 (Supp. 95-4). Amended by final rulemaking at 13 A.A.R. 449, 

effective April 7, 2007 (Supp. 07-1). 

Editor's Note: Article 3, consisting of Sections R4-26-301 through R4-36-308, repealed by summary action 
with an interim effective date of December 26, 1997. Historical notes in this Article were corrected for 
clarification in Supp. 98-2. Adopted summary rules filed June 5, 1998; interim effective date of December 26, 
1997, now the permanent effective date (Supp. 98-2). 

ARTICLE 3. INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE MODIFICATIONS 

R4-36-301. Definitions 

The following terms apply to the state fire code established in this Chapter: 

1. Wherever "International Plumbing Code" is used within the International Fire Code, substitute the term "State 

Plumbing Code." 

2. Wherever the terms "fire chief or "fire code official" are used in the International Fire Code, these terms 

include the State Fire Marshal or the State Fire Marshal's designated representative, unless the context 
otherwise requires. 

3. Wherever the terms "fire department" or "department of fire prevention" are used in the International Fire 

Code, these terms include the State Fire Marshal or the State Fire Marshal's designated representative 
unless the context otherwise requires. 

4. Section 202, the definition of Occupancy Classification for R-3 within the Residential Group is modified to 

read: Residential occupancies where the occupancies are primarily permanent in nature and not classified 
as R-1, R-2, or I and where buildings do not contain adult or child care facilities or more than five dwelling 
units. 

Historical Note 

Adopted effective November 1, 1995 (Supp. 95-4). R4-36-301 repealed by summary action with an interim 
effective date of December 26, 1997; filed in the Office of the Secretary of State December 5, 1997 (Supp. 
97-4). Adopted summary rules filed June 5, 1998; interim effective date of December 26, 1997, now the 
permanent effective date (Supp. 98-2). New Section made by final rulemaking at 13 A.A.R. 449, effective 

April 7, 2007 (Supp. 07-1). 

R4-36-302. Appendices 

The International Fire Code (2003 Edition), which is incorporated by reference, is published by the International 

Code Council and available from the International Code Council, 405 1 W. Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL, 

60478-5795, and modified as shown in Exhibit A. 

EXHIBIT A. Incorporated Appendices 

Section 101.2.1 The following appendices are adopted as part of this Code: 

B: Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings 

C: Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution 

D: Fire Apparatus Access and Loading 

D 102.1 or the minimum requirement of the local fire response agency. 

D 107.1 or the minimum requirement of the local building/subdivision authority. 

E: Hazard Categories 

F: Hazard Ranking 

G: Cryogenic Fluids - Weight and Volume Equivalents 

Historical Note 

Adopted effective November 1, 1995 (Supp. 95-4). R4-36-302 repealed by summary action with an interim 
effective date of December 26, 1997; filed in the Office of the Secretary of State December 5, 1997 (Supp. 
97-4). Adopted summary rules filed June 5, 1998; interim effective date of December 26, 1997, now the 



permanent effective date (Supp. 98-2). New Section made by final rulemaking at 13 A.A.R. 449, effective 

April 7, 2007 (Supp. 07-1). 

R4-36-303. Fees and Permits 

A. Section 105.1.1 is modified to add: The State Fire Safety Committee shall establish a fee schedule on or before 

May 15 of each fiscal year for the coming fiscal year. 

B. The State Fire Marshal shall post notice of the established fee schedule on or before June 1 of each fiscal year 

C. The fee schedule described in subsection (A) shall include fees for the following services and any person may 

obtain the fee schedule from the Office of the State Fire Marshal: 

1 . Plan submission; 

2. Plan review; 

3. Permit issuance; and 

4. Reinspection necessitated by failure to cancel, lack of preparation for inspection, or failing the inspection. 

D. The following time-frames are established for permits issued under the state fire code: 

1 . The Office of the State Fire Marshal shall determine within five business days from receipt of a permit 

application and plan submission whether the permit application and plan are administratively complete and 
ready for review. 

2. The Office of the State Fire Marshal shall either grant or deny the permit within 60 calendar days from the 

date that the documents are determined to be administratively complete. 

3. The permittee shall commence work within 180 days of the issuance of a permit or apply for an extension in 

writing from the State Fire Marshal. Without an extension, the permit is valid for 180 days from the date of 
issuance. 

E. The holder of an operational or construction permit is entitled to inspections as prescribed in this Chapter. 

Reinspection because of a violation or cancellation without 24-hours notice shall be invoiced at a rate 
established in the fee schedule, and the reinspection shall not be conducted until the fee is paid. 

F. The State Fire Marshal may authorize the refunding of any fee paid in accordance with this Section that was 

erroneously paid or collected if the permittee applies for the refund on a form furnished by the State Fire 
Marshal not later than 180 days after the date of fee payment. 

G. Section 105.1.2 is modified to read: Types of permits. There shall be two types of permits as follows: 

1. Operational permit. An operational permit allows the applicant to conduct an operation for which a permit is 

required by Section 105.6 for a period that does not exceed 180 days from the date of issuance. 

2. Construction permit. A construction permit allows the applicant to install or modify systems and equipment 

for which a permit is required by Section 105.7. 
H. Section 105.2.4, the first sentence is modified to read: The fire code official shall examine or cause to be 

examined each application for a permit or a permit amendment. 
I. Section 105.3.1, the first sentence is modified to read: An operational permit shall remain in effect until reissued, 

renewed, or revoked or for a period of time that does not exceed 180 days. 
J. Section 105.3.3, the sentence is modified to read: The building or structure shall not be occupied prior to the fire 

code official issuing a report indicating that applicable provisions of this code have been met. 
K. Sections 105.6.1 through 105.6.3 are deleted. 
L. Sections 105.6.5 through 105.6.13 are deleted. 
M. Sections 105.6.16 through 105.6.26 are deleted. 
N. Sections 105.6.28 through 105.6.32 are deleted. 
O. Sections 105.6.34 through 105.6.36 are deleted. 
P Sections 105.6.38 through 105.6.42 are deleted. 
Q. Sections 105.6.45 through 105.6.47 are deleted. 
R. Section 105.7.5.1 is deleted. 
S. Section 105.7.5.2 is modified to read: To install, construct, or alter, equipment, tanks, plants, terminals, wells, 

fuel-dispensing stations, refineries, distilleries and similar facilities where flammable and combustible liquids 

are processed, transported, stored, dispensed, or used. 

Historical Note 

Adopted effective November 1, 1995 (Supp. 95-4). 

R4-36-303 repealed by summary action with an interim effective date of December 26, 1997; filed in the 

Office of the Secretary of State December 5, 1997 (Supp. 97-4). Adopted summary rules filed June 5, 

1998; interim effective date of December 26, 1997, now the permanent effective date (Supp. 98-2). New 

Section made by final rulemaking at 13 A.A.R. 449, effective April 7, 2007 (Supp. 07-1). 

R4-36-304. Inspections and Enforcement 

A. Sections 103.1 through 103.4.1 are deleted. 

B. Sections 108.1 through 108.3 are deleted. 

C. Section 109.3 is modified to read: Violation penalties. If a person violates a provision of this code or fails to 

comply with any of the requirements of the code, the State Fire Marshal shall proceed in accordance with 
A.R.S. §41-2196. 

D. Section 111.2 is modified to read: Issuance. The State Fire Marshal shall issue a stop work order, referred to in 



statute as a cease and desist order, in accordance with A.R.S. § 41-2196. 
E. Section 111.4 is modified to read: Failure to Comply. Any person who shall continue any work having been served 
with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe 
condition, is subject to the provisions of A.R.S. § 41-2196. 

Historical Note 

Adopted effective November 1, 1995 (Supp. 95-4). 
R4-36-304 repealed by summary action with an interim effective date of December 26, 1997; filed in the 

Office of the Secretary of State December 5, 1997 (Supp. 97-4). Adopted summary rules filed June 5, 

1998; interim effective date of December 26, 1997, now the permanent effective date (Supp. 98-2). New 

Section made by final rulemaking at 13 A.A.R. 449, effective April 7, 2007 (Supp. 07-1). 

R4-36-305. General Precautions Against Fire 

A. Section 307.2 is modified to read: Permit required. A permit shall be obtained in accordance with requirements of 

the Department of Environmental Quality before kindling a fire. 

B. Section 311.1.1 is modified to read: Abandoned premises. Abatement of abandoned structures and premises shall 

be conducted in accordance with state law. 

Historical Note 

Adopted effective November 1, 1995 (Supp. 95-4). 

R4-36-305 repealed by summary action with an interim effective date of December 26, 1997; filed in the 

Office of the Secretary of State December 5, 1997 (Supp. 97-4). Adopted summary rules filed June 5, 

1998; interim effective date of December 26, 1997, now the permanent effective date (Supp. 98-2). New 

Section made by final rulemaking at 13 A.A.R. 449, effective April 7, 2007 (Supp. 07-1). 

R4-36-306. Emergency Planning and Preparedness 

Section 401.1 is modified to read: Scope. Reporting of emergencies, coordination with the local authorized 
emergency response providers, emergency plans, and procedures for managing or responding to emergencies shall 
comply with the provisions of this Section. 

Historical Note 

Adopted effective November 1, 1995 (Supp. 95-4). 

R4-36-306 repealed by summary action with an interim effective date of December 26, 1997; filed in the 

Office of the Secretary of State December 5, 1997 (Supp. 97-4). Adopted summary rules filed June 5, 

1998; interim effective date of December 26, 1997, now the permanent effective date (Supp. 98-2). New 

Section made by final rulemaking at 13 A.A.R. 449, effective April 7, 2007 (Supp. 07-1). 

R4-36-307. Fire Service Features 

A. Section 501.2 is modified to read: Permits. A permit shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7 as 

modified by this Article. 

B. Section 509.1, the second sentence is modified to read: The location and accessibility of the fire command center 

shall be approved by a local authorized emergency response provider. 

Historical Note 

Adopted effective November 1, 1995 (Supp. 95-4). R4-36-307 repealed by summary action with an interim 
effective date of December 26, 1997; filed in the Office of the Secretary of State December 5, 1997 (Supp. 
97-4). Adopted summary rules filed June 5, 1998; interim effective date of December 26, 1997, now the 
permanent effective date (Supp. 98-2). New Section made by final rulemaking at 13 A.A.R. 449, effective 

April 7, 2007 (Supp. 07-1). 

R4-36-308. Building Services and Systems 

A. Section 601.2 is deleted. 

B. Section 606.2 is modified to read: Refrigerants. The use and purity of new, recovered, and reclaimed refrigerants 

shall be in accordance with state law. 

C. Section 606.13 is modified to read: Notification of refrigerant discharges. The fire department shall be notified 

immediately when a discharge becomes reportable under state, federal, or local regulations in accordance with 
Section 2703.3.1. 

D. Sections 2703.3.1 and 2703.3.1.4 replace "fire code official" with "fire department." 

Historical Note 

Adopted effective November 1, 1995 (Supp. 95-4). 

R4-36-308 repealed by summary action with an interim effective date of December 26, 1997; filed in the 

Office of the Secretary of State December 5, 1997 (Supp. 97-4). Adopted summary rules filed June 5, 

1998; interim effective date of December 26, 1997, now the permanent effective date (Supp. 98-2). New 

Section made by final rulemaking at 13 A.A.R. 449, effective April 7, 2007 (Supp. 07-1). 

R4-36-309. Fire Protection Systems 

A. Section 901.1 is modified to read: Scope. The provisions of this Chapter shall specify where fire protection 
systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation, inspection, operation, testing, and maintenance 



of all fire protection systems. Absent specific statutory authority to the contrary, these provisions provide the 
minimum protective standards relating to fire protection systems. 
B. Section 903.3.5 is modified to read: Monitoring. Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire 
extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with state law. 

Historical Note 

New Section made by final rulemaking at 13 A.A.R. 449, effective April 7, 2007 (Supp. 07-1). 

R4-36-310. Explosives and Fireworks 

A. Section 3301.1.3, the first paragraph is modified to read: Fireworks. Except as otherwise provided by A.R.S., Title 

36, Chapter 13, Article 1, it is unlawful to sell, offer or expose for sale, use, explode, or possess any fireworks. 
A.R.S. § 36-1602(A). 

B. Section 3301.1.3, exception 4 is deleted and replaced as follows: This section shall not be construed to prohibit or 

restrict the manufacture or possession, by a qualified pyrotechnic expert, of aerial set pieces designed for use in 
pyrotechnic displays, or the display of such set pieces in accordance with the terms of A.R.S. , Title 36, Chapter 
13, Article 1. A.R.S. § 3 6- 1602(B). 

C. Section 3301.1.3, exception 5 is added to read: 5. Additional uses are permitted as provided by law. 

D. Section 3301.2.4.2 is modified to read: Fireworks display. The permit holder shall furnish a bond or certificate of 

insurance in the amount of one million dollars for the payment of all potential damages to a person or persons or 
to property by reason of the permitted display, and arising from any acts of the permit holder, the agency, 
employees, or subcontractors. 

E. Section 3302.1 is modified to substitute the following definition of "FIREWORKS" for the existing definition: 

"Fireworks" (a) Means any combustible or explosive composition, substance or combination of substances, or 
any article prepared for the purpose of producing a visible or audible effect by combustion, explosion, 
deflagratinon or detonation, and toy cannons in which explosives are used, the type of balloon which requires 
fire underneath to propel it, firecrackers, torpedoes, skyrockets, roman candles, daygo bombs, sparklers or other 
fireworks of like construction, fireworks containing any explosive or combustible compound, and any tablet or 
other device containing an explosive substance, (b) Does not include: (i) Toy pistols, toy canes, toy guns or 
other devices in which paper caps containing not more than twenty-five hundredths grains of explosive 
compound are used if constructed so that the hand cannot come in contact with the cap when in place for the 
explosion, (ii) Toy pistol paper caps that contain less than twenty-hundredths grains of explosive mixture, or 
fixed ammunition or primers therefore, (iii) Federally deregulated novelty items known as snappers, snap caps, 
party poppers or glow worms that contain less than twenty-five hundredths grains of explosive compound." 
A.R.S. §36-1601(1). 

Historical Note 

New Section made by final rulemaking at 13 A.A.R. 449, effective April 7, 2007 (Supp. 07-1). 

R4-36-311. Referenced Standards 

Chapter 45 of the International Fire Code, 2003 Edition, incorporated by reference, is modified to substitute the 
following: National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Installation of Sprinkler Systems, Standard 13, 1999 edition, 
is replaced by NFPA Installation of Sprinkler Systems, Standard 13, 2002 edition; National Fire Protection 
Association (NFPA) National Fire Alarm Code, Standard 72, 1999 edition, is replaced by NFPA National Fire Alarm 
Code, Standard 72, 2002 edition. 

Historical Note 

New Section made by final rulemaking at 13 A.A.R. 449, effective April 7, 2007 (Supp. 07-1). 

Rhonda Paschal 
Scott Cancelosi A.A.C. TABLE OF CONTENTS Editor 

Director Arizona Administrative Code 

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2003 International Fire Code® 



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Third Printing: March 2004 

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Fifth Printing: March 2005 



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COPYRIGHT © 2002 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2003 International Fire Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, 
Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed, or transmit- 
ted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and not 
limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy ma- 
terial exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5795 (Phone 
800-214-4321). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Fire Code" are trademarks 
of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



m 



Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modem, up-to-date fire code addressing conditions hazardous to life and 
property from fire, explosion, handling or use of hazardous materials and the use and occupancy of buildings and premises. The In- 
ternational Fire Code®, in this 2003 edition, is designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the pub- 
lic health and safety in all communities, large and small. 

This comprehensive fire code establishes minimum regulations for fire prevention and fire protection systems using prescriptive 
and performance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new 
system designs. This 2003 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes ("I-Codes") pubhshed by the International 
Code Council (ICC), including the International Building Code, ICC Electrical Code, International Energy Conservation Code, In- 
ternational Existing Building Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code, ICC Performance Code, Inter- 
national Plumbing Code, International Private Sewage Disposal Code, International Property Maintenance Code, International 
Residential Code, International Urban-Wildland Interface Code and International Zoning Code. 

The International Fire Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that offers 
an international forum for fire safety professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides 
an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of 
provisions. 



The first edition of the International Fire Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1997 by a development commit- 
tee appointed by ICC and consisting of representatives of the three statutory members of the International Code Council: Building 
Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) and South- 
em Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The intent was to draft a comprehensive set of fire safety regulations consistent 
with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical content of the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, 
ICBO and SBCCI was utiHzed as the basis for the development, followed by public hearings in 1 998 and 1 999 to consider proposed 
changes. This 2003 edition presents the code as originally issued, with changes approved through the ICC Code Development Pro- 
cess through 2002. A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years. 

With the development and publication of the family of International Codes in 2000, the continued development and maintenance 
of the model codes individually promulgated by BOCA ("BOCA National Codes"), ICBO ("Uniform Codes") and SBCCI ("Stan- 
dard Codes") was discontinued. This 2003 International Fire Code, as well as its predecessor — the 2000 edition, is intended to be 
the successor fire code to those codes previously developed by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI. 

The development of a single set of comprehensive and coordinated family of International Codes was a significant milestone in 
the development of regulations for the built environment. The timing of this publication mirrors a milestone in the change in struc- 
ture of the model codes, namely, the pending Consolidation of BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI into the ICC. The activities and services 
previously provided by the individual model code organizations will be the responsibility of the Consolidated ICC. 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a fire code that adequately pro- 
tects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not re- 
strict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to 
particular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 



The International Fire Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental jurisdic- 
tion is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdiction's 
laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local informa- 
tion, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in the code 
and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page v addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, 
including the information required for insertion into the code text. 



The International Fire Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, indus- 
try representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an open 
code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 



2003 TOTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that en- 
acts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Development 
Department of the International Code Council. 

While the development procedure of the International Fire Code assures the highest degree of care, ICC and the founding mem- 
bers of ICC — BOCA, ICBO, SBCCI — their members and those participating in the development of this code do not accept any lia- 
bihty resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provisions because ICC and its founding members do not have the 
power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code 
into law has such authority. 

Letter Designatioiis in Front ©f Section Numbers 

In each code development cycle, proposed changes to this code are considered at the Code Development Hearing by the Interna- 
tional Fire Code Development Committee, whose action constitutes a recommendation to the voting membership for final action on 
the proposed change. Proposed changes to a code section whose number begins with a letter in brackets are considered by a different 
code development committee. For instance, proposed changes to code sections which have the letter [P] in front (e.g. [P] 912.5), are 
considered by the International Plumbing Code Development Committee at the Code Development Hearing. Where this designa- 
tion is applicable to the entire content of a main section of the code, the designation appears at the main section number and title and 
is not repeated at every subsection in that section. 

The content of sections in this code which begin with a letter designation are maintained by another code development committee 
in accordance with the following: [B]= International Building Code Development Committee; [EB] = International Existing Build- 
ing Code Development Committee; [M] = International Mechanical Code Development Conmiittee; [P] = International Plumbing 
Code Development Committee. 

iiarginat iVIarlcirigs 

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2000 edition. 
Deletion indicators ( ^ ) are provided in the margin where a paragraph or item has been deleted. 

Chapter 10 user note: Chapter 10 of the code has been reorganized from the 2000 edition as a result of an approved code change 
proposal. This resulted in a renumbering of the chapter from nine sections to 27. The presentation of text predominantly follows that 
of the 2000 edition; however, the section numbers have been revised. Marginal markings are included at each section number but 
have not been included to reflect the subsection renumbering. A comprehensive 2000/2003 Chapter 10 section number cross index 
is posted in the ICC website at www.intlcode.org. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2003 International Fire Code as an enforceable regulation governing regulating and governing the safeguarding of life and prop- 
erty from fire and explosion hazards arising from the storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, materials and devices, and 
from conditions hazardous to life or property in the occupancy of buildings and premises should ensure that certain factual infor- 
mation is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. The 
following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information re- 
quired for insertion into the code text. 



An ordinance of the [JURlSDiCTIION] adopting the 2003 edition of the International Fire Code, regulating and governing the safe- 
guarding of life and property from fire and explosion hazards arising from the storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, 
materials and devices, and from conditions hazardous to life or property in the occupancy of buildings and premises in the 

[JURSSDlCTIOiSS]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No. of the 

5SD1CT10N] and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 



The [G0VEIRN8NG BODY] of the |JUBISDiCT10N] does ordain as follows: 

Section 1, That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTDOM'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of [WkME OF JURISDICTIOM], being marked and designated as the International Fire Code, 2003 edition, including 
Appendix Chapters [FILL m THE APPEiMDlX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Fire Code Section 101 .2. 1 , 2003 edi- 
tion), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Fire Code of the [JURISDICTIOIM], in the State 
of [STATE MAME] regulating and governing the safeguarding of life and property from fire and explosion hazards arising from the 
storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, materials and devices, and from conditions hazardous to life or property in the 
occupancy of buildings and premises as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; and 
each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Fire Code on file in the office of the 
[JURISDBCTIION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, in- 
sertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

SecMom 2. That the following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1 Insert: [NAME OF JURBSDBCTIONI 

Section 109.3. Insert: [OFFENSE, DOLLAR AMOUNT, NUMBER OF DAYS] 

Section 11 1.4. Insert: [DOLLAR AMOUNT DN TWO LOCATDONS] 

Sectlom 3o That the geographic limits referred to in certain sections of the 2003 International Fire Code are hereby established as 
follows: 

Section 3204.3. 1 . 1 (geographic limits in which the storage of flammable cryogenic fluids in stationary containers is prohibited): 

ise 



Section 3404.2.9.5.1 (geographic limits in which the storage of Class I and Class II liquids in above-ground tanks outside of 
buildings is prohibited): [JURDSDICTION TO SPECIFY] 

Section 3406.2.4.4 (geographic limits in which the storage of Class I and Class II hquids in above-ground tanks is prohibited): 

[JURBSDICTION TO SPECIFY] 

Section 3804.2 (geographic limits in which the storage of hquefied petroleum gas is restricted for the protection of heavily popu- 
lated or congested areas): [JORISDICTJON TO SPECIFY] 

Section 4. That Ordinance No. of [JURBSDICTION] entitled [F8LL BN BJERE THE COMPLETE TBTLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR 

ORDINANCES BN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY W8LL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all other ordi- 
nances or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section S.That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, 
such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNBI^G BODY] hereby declares that 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



it would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one or 
more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 6. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Fire Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding im- 
pending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any 
act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 2 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character 
be lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Section 7. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be pub- 
lished. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it 
is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 8. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters estabhshed and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 



vi 2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODEa 



CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION . « . » , o o o . . o , . . . » 1 
Section 

101 General 1 

102 Applicability 1 

103 Department of Fire Prevention 2 

104 General Authority and Responsibilities 2 

105 Permits 3 

106 Inspections 10 

107 Maintenance 11 

108 Board of Appeals 11 

109 Violations 11 

110 Unsafe Buildings 12 

111 Stop Work Order 12 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS o » . , o o « . . . o « . . . . . . . . 13 

Section 

201 General 13 

202 General Definitions 13 

CHAPTER 3 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS 

AGAINST FIRE. ... ... ......,.,. o. 25 

Section 

301 General 25 

302 Definitions 25 

303 Asphalt Kettles 25 

304 Combustible Waste Material 25 

305 Ignition Sources 26 

306 Motion Picture Film and Screens 26 

307 Open Burning and Recreational Fires 26 

308 Open Flames 27 

309 Powered Industrial Trucks 29 

310 Smoking 29 

3 1 1 Vacant Premises 29 

312 Vehicle Impact Protection 30 

313 Fueled Equipment 30 

314 Indoor Displays 30 

315 Miscellaneous Combustible Materials Storage . . 30 

CHAPTER 4 EMERGENCY PLANNING AND 

PREPAREDNESS . . . . o . . . . . , » o . o . . 33 

Section 

401 General 33 

402 Definitions 33 



403 Public Assemblages and Events 33 

404 Fire Safety and Evacuation Plans 33 

405 Emergency Evacuation Drills 34 

406 Employee Training and Response Procedures ... 35 

407 Hazard Communication 35 

408 Use and Occupancy-Related Requirements 36 

CHAPTER 5 FIRE SERVICE FEATURES. ....... 39 

Section 

501 General 39 

502 Definitions 39 

503 Fire Apparatus Access Roads 39 

504 Access to Building Openings and Roofs 40 

505 Premises Identification 40 

506 Key Boxes 40 

507 Hazards to Fire Fighters 41 

508 Fire Protection Water Supplies 41 

509 Fire Command Center 42 

510 Fire Department Access to Equipment 42 

CHAPTER 6 BUILDING SERVICES AND 

SYSTEMS . o o ..... o ......... o ..... 43 

Section 

601 General 43 

602 Definitions 43 

603 Fuel-Fired Appliances 43 

604 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 45 

605 Electrical Equipment, Wiring and Hazards 47 

606 Mechanical Refrigeration 48 

607 Elevator Recall and Maintenance 50 

608 Stationary Lead-Acid Battery Systems 50 

609 Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) Battery 
Systems 50 

610 Commercial Kitchen Hoods 51 

CHAPTER 7 FIRE=RESISTANCE-EATED 

CONSTRUCTION. . ............... 53 

Section 

701 General 53 

702 Definitions 53 

703 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction 53 

704 Floor Openings and Shafts 53 



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CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE 
MATERIALS AND 
FURNISHINGS ................... S5 

Section 

801 General 55 

802 Definitions 55 

803 Furnishings 55 

804 Decorative Vegetation 57 

805 Decorations and Trim 57 

806 Interior Finish and Decorative Materials 58 

CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS .... 61 
Section 

901 General 61 

902 Definitions 62 

903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 64 

904 Alternative Automatic Fire-Extinguishing 

Systems 69 

905 Standpipe Systems 72 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 74 

907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 75 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 85 

909 Smoke Control Systems 85 

910 Smoke and Heat Vents 91 

911 Explosion Control 93 

912 Fire Department Connections 95 

913 Fire Pumps 95 

CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS 97 

Section 

1001 General 97 

1002 Definitions 97 

1003 General Means of Egress 98 

1004 Occupant Load 99 

1005 Egress Width 100 

1006 Means of Egress Illumination 101 

1007 Accessible Means of Egress 101 

1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 103 

1009 Stairways and Handrails 108 

1010 Ramps 110 

1011 Exit Signs Ill 

1012 Guards 112 

1013 Exit Access 113 

1014 Exit and Access Doorways 114 

1015 Exit Access Travel Distance 116 

1016 Corridors 116 



1017 Exits 117 

1018 Number of Exits and Continuity 118 

1019 Vertical Exit Enclosures 118 

1020 Exit Passageways 120 

1021 Horizontal Exits 120 

1022 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 121 

1023 Exit Discharge 122 

1024 Assembly 123 

1025 Emergency Escape and Rescue 127 

1026 Means of Egress for Existing Buildings 128 

1027 Maintenance of the Means of Egress 133 

CHAPTER 11 AVIATION FACILITIES .......... 135 

Section 

1101 General 135 

1 102 Definitions 135 

1 103 General Precautions 135 

1104 Aircraft Maintenance 135 

1105 Portable Fire Extinguishers 136 

1 106 Aircraft Fueling 136 

1 107 Helistops and Heliports 141 

CHAPTER 12 DRY CLEANING 143 

Section 

1201 General 143 

1202 Definitions 143 

1203 Classifications 143 

1204 General Requirements 143 

1205 Operating Requirements 144 

1206 Spotting and Pretreating 144 

1207 Dry Cleaning Systems 145 

1208 Fire Protection 145 

CHAPTER 13 COMBUSTIBLE DUST-PRODUCING 
OPERATIONS .................. 147 

Section 

1301 General 147 

1302 Definitions 147 

1303 Precautions 147 

1304 Explosion Protection 147 

CHAPTER 14 FIRE SAFETY DURING 
CONSTRUCTION AND 
DEMOLITION. 149 

Section 

1401 General 149 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



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1402 Definitions 149 

1403 Temporary Heating Equipment 149 

1404 Precautions Against Fire 149 

1405 Flammable and Combustible Liquids 149 

1406 Flammable Gases 150 

1407 Explosive Materials 150 

1408 Owner's Responsibility for Fire Protection .... 150 

1409 Fire Alarm Reporting 150 

1410 Access for Fire Fighting 150 

141 1 Means of Egress 150 

1412 Water Supply for Fire Protection 150 

1413 Standpipes 150 

1414 Automatic Sprinkler System 151 

1415 Portable Fire Extinguishers 151 

1416 Motorized Equipment 151 

1417 Safeguarding Roofing Operations 151 

CHAP'TEE 15 FLAMMABLE FINISHES. . .o., ... 153 
Section 

1501 General 153 

1502 Definitions 153 

1503 Protection of Operations 153 

1504 Spray Finishing 155 

1505 Dipping Operations 158 

1506 Electrostatic Apparatus 159 

1507 Powder Coating 160 

1508 Automobile Undercoating 161 

1509 Organic Peroxides and Dual-Component 

Coatings 161 

1510 Floor Surfacing and Finishing Operations 161 

1511 Indoor Manufacturing of Reinforced Plastics . . 161 

CHAPTER 16 FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING .... 163 
Section 

1601 General 163 

1602 Definitions 163 

1603 Ethylene Gas 163 

1604 Sources of Ignition 163 

1605 Combustible Waste 163 

1606 Ethylene Generators 163 

1607 Warning Signs 163 

CHAPTER 17 FUMIGATION AND THERMAL 

INSECTICIDAL FOGGING ....... 165 

Section 

1701 General 165 



1702 Definifions 165 

1703 Fire Safety Requirements 165 

CHAPTER 18 SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION 

FACILITIES. . ................... 167 

Section 

1801 General 167 

1802 Definitions 167 

1803 General Safety Provisions 167 

1804 Storage 171 

1805 Use and Handling 171 

CHAPTER 19 LUMBER YARDS AND 

WOODWORKING FACILITIES ... 175 

Section 

1901 General 175 

1902 Definitions 175 

1903 General Requirements 175 

1904 Fire Protection 176 

1905 Plywood, Veneer and Composite Board 

Mills 176 

1906 Log Storage Areas 176 

1907 Storage of Wood Chips and Hogged Material 

Associated With Timber and Lumber 
Production Facilities 176 

1908 Storage and Processing of Wood Chips, Hogged 

Material, Fines, Compost and Raw Product 
Associated With Yard Waste and Recycling 
Facilities 176 

1909 Exterior Storage of Finished Lumber 

Products 177 

CHAPTER 20 MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC 

COATINGS. ..................... 179 

Section 

2001 General 179 

2002 Definitions 179 

2003 General Precaudons 179 

2004 Electrical Equipment and Protection 179 

2005 Process Structures 180 

2006 Process Mills and Kettles 180 

2007 Process Piping 180 

2008 Raw Materials in Process Areas 181 

2009 Raw Materials and Finished Products 181 

CHAPTER 21 INDUSTRIAL OVENS ............ 183 

Section 

2101 General 183 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



2102 Definitions 183 

2103 Location 183 

2104 Fuel Piping 183 

2105 Interlocks 183 

2106 Fire Protection 184 

2107 Operation and Maintenance 184 

CHAPTER 22 MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITIES AND REPAIR 
GARAGES ...................... 185 

Section 

2201 General 185 

2202 Definitions 185 

2203 Location of Dispensing Devices 185 

2204 Dispensing Operations 186 

2205 Operational Requirements 187 

2206 Flammable and Combustible Liquid Motor Fuel- 
Dispensing Facilities 187 

2207 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Motor 
Fuel-Dispensing Facilities 191 

2208 Compressed Natural Gas Motor 
Fuel-Dispensing Facilities 192 

2209 Hydrogen Motor Fuel-Dispensing and 
Generation Facilities 193 

2210 Marine Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities 196 

2211 Repair Garages 198 

CHAPTER 23 HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE 

STORAGE 201 

Section 

2301 General 201 

2302 Definitions 201 

2303 Commodity Classification 202 

2304 Designation of High-Piled Storage Areas 204 

2305 Housekeeping and Maintenance 204 

2306 General Fire Protection and Life Safety 

Features 204 

2307 Solid-Piled and Shelf Storage 208 

2308 Rack Storage 208 

2309 Automated Storage 209 

2310 Specialty Storage 209 

CHAPTER 24 TENTS, CANOPIES AND OTHER 

MEMBRANE STRUCTURES. ..... 211 

Section 

2401 General 211 

2402 Definitions 211 



2403 Temporary Tents, Canopies and Membrane 
Structures 211 

2404 Temporary and Permanent Tents, Canopies and 
Membrane Structures 213 

5 TIRE REBUILDING AND TIRE 
STORAGE. ...... 217 

Section 

2501 General 217 

2502 Definitions 217 

2503 Tire Rebuilding 217 

2504 Precautions Against Fire 217 

2505 Outdoor Storage 217 

2506 Fire Department Access 218 

2507 Fencing 218 

2508 Fire Protection 218 

2509 Indoor Storage Arrangement 218 

CHAPTER 26 WELDING AND OTHER HOT 

WORK. 219 

Section 

2601 General 219 

2602 Definitions 219 

2603 General Requirements 219 

2604 Fire Safety Requirements 220 

2605 Gas Welding and Cutting 221 

2606 Electric Arc Hot Work 221 

2607 Calcium Carbide Systems 221 

2608 Acetylene Generators 221 

2609 Piping Manifolds and Hose Systems for 

Fuel Gases and Oxygen 221 

CHAPTER 27 HAZARDOUS 

MATERIALS— GENERAL 
PROVISIONS. ,223 

Section 

2701 General 223 

2702 Definidons 225 

2703 General Requirements 227 

2704 Storage 239 

2705 Use, Dispensing and Handling 243 

CHAPTER 28 AEROSOLS ..................... 247 

Section 

2801 General 247 

2802 Definitions 247 



• 



2003 INTERNATIONAL HRE CODEC 



TABLE OF COMTESMTS 



2803 Classification of Aerosol Products 247 

2804 Inside Storage of Aerosol Products 247 

2805 Outside Storage 249 

2806 Retail Display 250 

2807 Manufacturing Facilities 250 

CHAPTER 29 COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS ,. o,. .... 251 
Section 

2901 General 251 

2902 Definitions 251 

2903 General Precautions 251 

2904 Loose Fiber Storage 251 

2905 Baled Storage .251 

CHAPTER 30 COMPRESSED GASES ... o. ..o ... 253 
Section 

3001 General 253 

3002 Definitions 253 

3003 General Requirements 253 

3004 Storage of Compressed Gases 255 

3005 Use and Handling of Compressed Gases 255 

3006 Medical Gas Systems 256 

3007 Compressed Gases Not Otherwise Regulated . . 256 

CHAPTER 31 CORROSIVE MATERIALS ....... 257 

Section 

3101 General 257 

3102 Definitions 257 

3103 General Requirements 257 

3104 Storage 257 

3105 Use 257 

CHAPTER 32 CRYOGENIC FLUIDS. ........... 259 

Section 

3201 General 259 

3202 Definitions 259 

3203 General Requirements 259 

3204 Storage 262 

3205 Use and Handling 262 

CHAPTER 33 EXPLOSIVES AND 

FIREWORKS. ........ o ., o ....... 265 

Section 

3301 General 265 

3302 Definitions 267 

3303 Record Keeping and Reporting 269 



3304 Explosive Materials Storage and Handling 270 

3305 Manufacture, Assembly and Testing of Explosives, 

Explosive Materials and Fireworks 276 

3306 Small Arms Ammunition 279 

3307 Blasting 280 

3308 Fireworks Display 281 

CHAPTER 34 FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE 
LIQUIDS. . ...................... 283 

Section 

3401 General 283 

3402 Definitions 283 

3403 General Requirements 284 

3404 Storage 288 

3405 Dispensing, Use, Mixing and Handling 307 

3406 Special Operations 312 

CHAPTER 35 FLAMMABLE GASES. ........... 323 

Section 

3501 General 323 

3502 Definifions 323 

3503 General Requirements 323 

3504 Storage 324 

3505 Use 324 

CHAPTER 36 FLAMMABLE SOLIDS ........... 325 

Section 

3601 General 325 

3602 Definifions 325 

3603 General Requirements 325 

3604 Storage 325 

3605 Use 325 

3606 Magnesium 325 

CHAPTER 37 HIGHLY TOXIC AND TOXIC 

MATERIALS .................... 329 

Section 

3701 General 329 

3702 Definifions 329 

3703 Highly Toxic and Toxic Solids and Liquids. . . . 330 

3704 Highly Toxic and Toxic Compressed Gases. ... 331 

3705 Ozone Gas Generators 335 

CHAPTER 38 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM 

GASES. ......................... 337 

Section 

3801 General 337 



2003 INTERNAJBONAL FDRE CODE® 



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3802 Definitions 337 

3803 Installation of Equipment 337 

3804 Location of Containers 338 

3805 Prohibited Use of LP-Gas 339 

3806 Dispensing and Overfilling 339 

3807 Safety Precautions and Devices 339 

3808 Fire Protection 339 

3809 Storage of Portable LP-Gas Containers Awaiting 

Use or Resale 339 

3810 Containers Not in Service 340 

3811 Parking and Garaging 341 

CHAPTER 39 ORGANIC PEROXIDES ......,.,. 343 

Section 

3901 General 343 

3902 Definitions 343 

3903 General Requirements 343 

3904 Storage 343 

3905 Use 345 

CHAPTER 40 OXIDIZERS 347 

Section 

4001 General 347 

4002 Definitions 347 

4003 General Requirements 347 

4004 Storage 348 

4005 Use 349 

CHAPTER 41 PYROPHORIC MATERIALS. ..... 351 

Section 

4101 General 351 

4102 Definitions 351 

4103 General Requirements 351 

4104 Storage 351 

4105 Use 351 

4106 Silane Gas 352 

CHAPTER 42 PYROXYLIN (CELLULOSE 

NITRATE) PLASTICS ..,.,.,..... 355 

4201 General 355 

4202 Definitions 355 

4203 General Requirements 355 

4204 Storage and Handling 355 



CHAPTER 43 UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) 

MATERIALS ...... 357 

Section 

4301 General 357 

4302 Definitions 357 

4303 General Requirements 357 

4304 Storage 358 

4305 Use 358 

CHAPTER 44 WATER-REACTIVE SOLIDS AND 

LIQUIDS. 359 

Section 

4401 General 359 

4402 Definitions 359 

4403 General Requirements 359 

4404 Storage 359 

4405 Use 360 

CHAPTER 45 REFERENCED STANDARDS ..... 361 



APPENDIX A BOARD OF APPEALS 369 

Section 

AlOl General 369 

APPENDIX B FIRE-FLOW REQUIREM:ENTS 

FOR BUILDINGS , 371 

Section 

BlOl General 371 

B102 Definitions 371 

B103 Modifications 371 

B104 Fire-Flow Calculation Area 371 

B105 Fire-Flow Requirements for Buildings 371 

B106 Referenced Standards 371 

APPENDIX C FIRE HYDRANT LOCATIONS AND 

DISTRIBUTION ................. 373 

Section 

ClOl General 373 

C102 Location 373 

C103 Number of Fire Hydrants 373 

C104 Consideration of Existing Fire Hydrants 373 

CI 05 Distribution of Fire Hydrants 373 

APPENDIX D FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS 

ROADS 375 

Section 

DlOl General 375 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTEIMTS 



D102 Required Access 375 

D103 Minimum Specifications 375 

D104 Commercial and Industrial Developments 376 

D105 Aerial Fire Apparatus Access Roads 376 

D106 Multiple-Family Residential Developments ...376 

D107 One- or Two-Family Residential 

Developments 376 

APPENDIX E HAZARD CATEGORIES o . . . . . o „ . 379 
Section 

ElOl General 379 

E102 Hazard Categories 379 

E103 Evaluation of Hazards 382 

APPENDIX F HAZARD RANKING » , » o » o « . . . » „ . 385 
Section 

FlOl General 385 

F102 Referenced Standards 385 

APPENDIX G CRYOGENIC FLUIDS— WEIGHT 

AND VOLUME EQUIVALENTS » » o 387 

Section 

GlOl General 387 



2003 INTERNMIOMAL FJRE CODE® ^ mi 



xiv 2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 1 






These regulations shall be known as the Fire Code 
of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], hereinafter referred to as "this 
code." 

101.2 Scope. This code estabUshes regulations affecting or re- 
lating to structures, processes, premises and safeguards regard- 
ing: 

1 . The hazard of fire and explosion arising from the storage, 
handling or use of structures, materials or devices; 

2. Conditions hazardous to life, property or public welfare 
in the occupancy of structures or premises; 

3. Fire hazards in the structure or on the premises from oc- 
cupancy or operation; 

4. Matters related to the construction, extension, repair, al- 
teration or removal of fire suppression or alarm systems. 

1®1.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not 
apply unless specifically adopted. 

101.3 Inteflit. The purpose of this code is to establish the mini- 
mum requirements consistent with nationally recognized good 
practice for providing a reasonable level of life safety and prop- 
erty protection from the hazards of fire, explosion or dangerous 
conditions in new and existing buildings, structures and pre- 
mises and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency re- 
sponders during emergency operations. 

101.4 SeveraMMty. If a section, subsection, sentence, clause or 
phrase of this code is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remain- 
ing portions of this code. 



4. Existing structures, facilities and conditions which, in 
the opinion of the code official, constitute a distinct haz- 
ard to life or property. 



f. In the event any part or provision of this code is 
held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the effect of making 
void or illegal any of the other parts or provisions hereof, which 
are determined to be legal; and it shall be presumed that this 
% code would have been adopted without such illegal or invaUd 
parts or provisions. 



102.1 Construction and design provisioms. The construction 
and design provisions of this code shall apply to: 

1. Structures, facilities and conditions arising after the 
adoption of this code. 

2. Existing structures, facilities and conditions not legally 
in existence at the time of adoption of this code. 

3. Existing structures, facilities and conditions when identi- 
fied in specific sections of this code. 



IS. The administrative, operational and maintenance provi- 
sions of this code shall apply to: 

1 . Conditions and operations arising after the adoption of 
this code. 

2. Existing conditions and operations. 

[EB] 102.3 Change of use or occupancy. The provisions of 
the International Existing Building Code shall apply to all 
buildings undergoing a change of occupancy. 

102.4 Application off IbmiMimg code. The design and construc- 
tion of new structures shall comply with the International 
Building Code. Repairs, alterations and additions to existing 
structures shall comply with the International Existing Build- 
ing Code. 



[EB] 102oS Historic taildiegs. The construction, alteration, 
repair, enlargement, restoration, relocation or movement of ex- 
isting buildings or structures that are designated as historic 
buildings when such buildings or structures do not constitute a 
distinct hazard to life or property shall be in accordance with 
the provisions of the International Existing Building Code. 



is. The codes and stan- 
dards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed in 
Chapter 45 and such codes and standards shall be considered 
part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of 
each such reference. Where differences occur between the pro- 
visions of this code and the referenced standards, the provi- 
sions of this code shall apply. 

102.7 Snbjects not regelated by this code. Where no applica- 
ble standards or requirements are set forth in this code, or are 
contained within other laws, codes, regulations, ordinances or 
bylaws adopted by the jurisdiction, compliance with applicable 
standards of the National Fire Protection Association or other 
nationally recognized fire safety standards, as approved, shall 
be deemed as prima facie evidence of compliance with the in- 
tent of this code. Nothing herein shall derogate from the author- 
ity of the fire code official to determine compliance with codes 
or standards for those activities or installations within the code 
official's jurisdiction or responsibihty. 



nr. Requirements that are essen- 
tial for the public safety of an existing or proposed activity, 
building or structure, or for the safety of the occupants thereof, 
which are not specifically provided for by this code shall be de- 
termined by the fire code official. 



Where there is a conflict be- 
tween a general requirement and a specific requirement, the 
specific requirement shall be applicable. 



2003 INTERMATIOMAL FIRE CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



SECTfOM 103 
DEPARTMENT OF FIRE PREVENTION 

1(93.1 General. The department of fire prevention is estab- 
lished within the jurisdiction under the direction of the fire 
code official. The function of the department shall be the im- 
plementation, administration and enforcement of the provi- 
sions of this code. 

103.2 Appointmeet. The fire code official shall be appointed 
by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction; and the fire 
code official shall not be removed from office except for cause 
and after full opportunity to be heard on specific and relevant 
charges by and before the appointing authority. 

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures 
of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing 
authority, the fire code official shall have the authority to ap- 
point a deputy fire code official, other related technical officers, 
inspectors and other employees. 

103.4 Liability. The fire code official, officer or employee 
charged with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the 
jurisdiction, shall not thereby be rendered liable personally, 
and is hereby relieved from all personal liability for any dam- 
age accruing to persons or property as a result of an act required 
or permitted in the discharge of official duties. 

103.4.1 Legal defense. Any suit instituted against any offi- 
cer or employee because of an act performed by that officer 
or employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the 
provisions of this code shall be defended by the legal repre- 
sentative of the jurisdiction until the final termination of the 
proceedings. The fire code official or any subordinate shall 
not be liable for costs in an action, suit or proceeding that is 
instituted in pursuance of the provisions of this code; and 
any officer of the department of fire prevention, acting in 
good faith and without malice, shall be free from liability for 
acts performed under any of its provisions or by reason of 
any act or omission in the performance of official duties in 
connection therewith. 



SECTION 104 
GENERAL AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBi 

104.1 General. The fire code official is hereby authorized to 
enforce the provisions of this code and shall have the authority 
to render interpretations of this code, and to adopt policies, pro- 
cedures, rules and regulations in order to clarify the application 
of its provisions. Such interpretations, pohcies, procedures, 
rules and regulations shall be in compliance with the intent and 
purpose of this code and shall not have the effect of waiving re- 
quirements specifically provided for in this code. 

104.2 Applications and permits. The fire code official is au- 
thorized to receive applications, review construction docu- 
ments and issue permits for construction regulated by this code, 
issue permits for operations regulated by this code, inspect the 
premises for which such permits have been issued and enforce 
compliance with the provisions of this code. 

104.3 Right of entry. Whenever it is necessary to make an in- 
spection to enforce the provisions of this code, or whenever the 
fire code official has reasonable cause to believe that there ex- 
ists in a building or upon any premises any conditions or viola- 



tions of this code which make the building or premises unsafe, 
dangerous or hazardous, the fire code official shall have the au- 
thority to enter the building or premises at all reasonable times 
to inspect or to perform the duties imposed upon the fire code 
official by this code. If such building or premises is occupied, 
the fire code official shall present credentials to the occupant 
and request entry. If such building or premises is unoccupied, 
the fire code official shall first make a reasonable effort to lo- 
cate the owner or other person having charge or control of the 
building or premises and request entry. If entiy is refused, the 
fire code official has recourse to every remedy provided by law 
to secure entry. 

104.3.1 Warramt. When the fire code official has first ob- 
tained a proper inspection warrant or other remedy provided 
by law to secure entry, an owner or occupant or person hav- 
ing charge, care or control of the building or premises shall 
not fail or neglect, after proper request is made as herein pro- 
vided, to permit entry therein by the fire code official for the 
purpose of inspection and examination pursuant to this 
code. 

104.4 Identification. The fire code official shall carry proper 
identification when inspecting structures or premises in the 
performance of duties under this code. 

104.5 Notices and orders. The fire code official is authorized 
to issue such notices or orders as are required to affect comph- 
ance with this code in accordance with Sections 109.1 and 
109.2. 

104.6 Official records. The fire code official shall keep official 
records as required by Sections 104.6.1 through 104.6.4. Such 
official records shall be retained for not less than five years or 
for as long as the structure or activity to which such records re- 
late remains in existence, unless otherwise provided by other 
regulations. 

104.6.1 Approvals. A record of approvals shall be main- 
tained by the fire code official and shall be available for pub- 
lic inspection during business hours in accordance with 
applicable laws. 

104.6.2 Inspections. The fire code official shall keep a re- 
cord of each inspection made, including notices and orders 
issued, showing the findings and disposition of each. 

104.6.3 Fire records. The fire department shall keep a re- 
cord of fires occurring within its jurisdiction and of facts 
concerning the same, including statistics as to the extent of 
such fires and the damage caused thereby, together with 
other information as required by the fire code official. 

104.6.4 Administrative. Application for modification, al- 
ternative methods or materials and the final decision of the 
fire code official shall be in writing and shall be officially re- 
corded in the permanent records of the fire code official. 

104.7 Approved materials and equipment. All materials, 
equipment and devices approved by the fire code official shall 
be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

104.7,1 Material and equipment reuse. Materials, equip- 
ment and devices shall not be reused or reinstalled unless 
such elements have been reconditioned, tested and placed in 
good and proper working condition and approved. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



104.7.2 Technkal assnstaece. To determine the acceptabil- 
ity of technologies, processes, products, facilities, materials 
and uses attending the design, operation or use of a building 
or premises subject to inspection by the fire code official, the 
fire code official is authorized to require the owner or agent 
to provide, without charge to the jurisdiction, a technical 
opinion and report. The opinion and report shall be prepared 
by a qualified engineer, specialist, laboratory or fire safety 
specialty organization acceptable to the fire code official 
and shall analyze the fire safety properties of the design, op- 
eration or use of the building or premises and the facilities 
and appurtenances situated thereon, to recommend neces- 
sary changes. The fire code official is authorized to require 
design submittals to be prepared by, and bear the stamp of, a 
registered design professional. 



Modfficatioms, Whenever there are practical difficulties 
involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the fire 
code official shall have the authority to grant modifications for 
individual cases, provided the fire code official shall first find 
that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code 
impractical and the modification is in compliance with the in- 
tent and purpose of this code and that such modification does 
not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements. The details 
of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered 
in the files of the department of fire prevention. 



5. The provisions of 
this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any ma- 
terial or to prohibit any method of construction not specifically 
prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has 
been approved. The fire code official is authorized to approve 
an alternative material or method of construction where the fire 
code official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and 
complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that 
the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose in- 
tended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in 
quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and 
safety. 



nSo The fire code official, the fire de- 
partment or other responsible authority shall have the authority 
to investigate the cause, origin and circumstances of any fire, 
explosion or other hazardous condition. Information that could 
be related to trade secrets or processes shall not be made part of 
the public record except as directed by a court of law. 

104.10.1 Asslstamce from other agencies. Police and other 
enforcement agencies shall have authority to render neces- 
sary assistance in the investigation of fires when requested 
to do so. 

104.11 Authority at ISres amd other emergenicles. The fire 
chief or officer of the fire department in charge at the scene of a 
fire or other emergency involving the protection of life or prop- 
erty or any part thereof, shall have the authority to direct such 
operation as necessary to extinguish or control any fire, per- 
form any rescue operation, investigate the existence of sus- 
pected or reported fires, gas leaks or other hazardous 
conditions or situations, or take any other action necessary in 
the reasonable performance of duty. In the exercise of such 
power, the fire chief is authorized to prohibit any person, vehi- 
cle, vessel or thing from approaching the scene and is autho- 



rized to remove, or cause to be removed or kept away from the 
scene, any vehicle, vessel or thing which could impede or inter- 
fere with the operations of the fire department and, in the judg- 
ment of the fire chief, any person not actually and usefully 
employed in the extinguishing of such fire or in the preserva- 
tion of property in the vicinity thereof. 



5. The fire chief or officer of the fire de- 
partment in charge at the scene of an emergency is autho- 
rized to place ropes, guards, barricades or other obstructions 
across any street, alley, place or private property in the vicin- 
ity of such operation so as to prevent accidents or interfer- 
ence with the lawful efforts of the fire department to manage 
and control the situation and to handle fire apparatus. 

104.11.2 OtostrMctimg operatioms. No person shall obstruct 
the operations of the fire department in connection with ex- 
tinguishment or control of any fire, or actions relative to 
other emergencies, or disobey any lawful command of the 
fire chief or officer of the fire department in charge of the 
emergency, or any part thereof, or any lawful order of a po- 
lice officer assisting the fire department. 

104.11.3 Systems and devices. No person shall render a 
system or device inoperative during an emergency unless by 
direction of the fire chief or fire department official in 
charge of the incident. 



PERMITS 
GemeraL Permits shall be in accordance with Section 



105. 



105.1.1 Permits required. Permits required by this code 
shall be obtained from the fire code official. Permit fees, if 
any, shall be paid prior to issuance of the permit. Issued per- 
mits shall be kept on the premises designated therein at all 
times and shall be readily available for inspection by the fire 
code official. 



105.1.2 Types of 
mits as follows: 



. There shall be two types of per- 



1 . Operational permit. An operational permit allows the 
applicant to conduct an operation or a business for 
which a permit is required by Section 105 .6 for either: 

1 . 1 . A prescribed period. 

1.2. Unfil renewed or revoked. 

2. Construction permit. A construction permit allows 
the applicant to install or modify systems and equip- 
ment for which a permit is required by Section 105 .7 . 

IOS.1,3 Permits for the same locatlonn. When more than 
one permit is required for the same location, the fire code of- 
ficial is authorized to consolidate such permits into a single 
permit provided that each provision is listed in the permit. 

105.2 Application. Apphcation for a permit required by this 
code shall be made to the fire code official in such form and de- 
tail as prescribed by the fire code official. Applications for per- 
mits shall be accompanied by such plans as prescribed by the 
fire code official. 



2003 TOTEBMATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



105.2.1 Refusal to issue permit. If the application for a per- 
mit describes a use that does not conform to the require- 
ments of this code and other pertinent laws and ordinances, 
the fire code official shall not issue a permit, but shall return 
the application to the appHcant with the refusal to issue such 
permit. Such refusal shall, when requested, be in writing and 
shall contain the reasons for refusal. 

105.2.2 Inspection! authorized. Before a new operational 
permit is approved, the fire code official is authorized to in- 
spect the receptacles, vehicles, buildings, devices, premises, 
storage spaces or areas to be used to determine compliance 
with this code or any operational constraints required. 

105.2.3 Time Mmitation of application. An application for 
a permit for any proposed work or operation shall be 
deemed to have been abandoned six months after the date of 
filing, unless such application has been diligently prose- 
cuted or a permit shall have been issued; except that the fire 
code official is authorized to grant one or more extensions of 
time for additional periods not exceeding 90 days each if 
there is reasonable cause. 

105.2.4 Action on application. The fire code official shall 
examine or cause to be examined applications for permits 
and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after fil- 
ing. If the apphcation or the construction documents do not 
conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the fire code 
official shall reject such application in writing, stating the 
reasons therefor. If the fire code official is satisfied that the 
proposed work or operation conforms to the requirements of 
this code and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the 
fire code official shall issue a permit therefore as soon as 
practicable. 

105.3 Conditions of a permit. A permit shall constitute per- 
mission to maintain, store or handle materials; or to conduct 
processes which produce conditions hazardous to life or prop- 
erty; or to install equipment utiUzed in connection with such 
activities; or to install or modify any fire protection system or 
equipment or any other construction, equipment installation or 
modification in accordance with the provisions of this code 
where a permit is required by Section 105.6 or 105.7. Such per- 
mission shall not be construed as authority to violate, cancel or 
set aside any of the provisions of this code or other applicable 
regulations or laws of the jurisdiction. 

105.3.1 Expiration, An operational permit shall remain in 
effect until reissued, renewed, or revoked or for such a pe- 
riod of time as specified in the permit. Construction permits 
shall automatically become invalid unless the work autho- 
rized by such permit is commenced within 180 days after its 
issuance, or if the work authorized by such permit is sus- 
pended or abandoned for a period of 180 days after the time 
the work is commenced. Before such work recommences, a 
new permit shall be first obtained and the fee to recom- 
mence work, if any, shall be one-half the amount required 
for a new permit for such work, provided no changes have 
been made or will be made in the original construction doc- 
uments for such work, and provided further that such sus- 
pension or abandonment has not exceeded one year. Permits 



are not transferable and any change in occupancy, operation, 
tenancy or ownership shall require that a new permit be is- 
sued. 

105.3.2 Extensions. A permittee holding an unexpired per- 
mit shall have the right to apply for an extension of the time 
within which the permittee will commence work under that 
permit when work is unable to be commenced within the 
time required by this section for good and satisfactory rea- 
sons. The fire code official is authorized to grant, in writing, 
one or more extensions of the time period of a permit for pe- 
riods of not more than 90 days each. Such extensions shall 
be requested by the permit holder in writing and justifiable 
cause demonstrated. 

105.3.3 Occupancy prohibited before approval. The 
building or structure shall not be occupied prior to the fire 
code official issuing a permit that indicates that applicable 
provisions of this code have been met. 

105.3.4 Conditional permits. Where permits are required 
and upon the request of a permit applicant, the fire code offi- 
cial is authorized to issue a conditional permit to occupy the 
premises or portion thereof before the entire work or opera- 
tions on the premises is completed, provided that such por- 
tion or portions will be occupied safely prior to full 
completion or installation of equipment and operations 
without endangering life or public welfare. The fire code of- 
ficial shall notify the permit appUcant in writing of any limi- 
tations or restrictions necessary to keep the permit area safe. 
The holder of a conditional permit shall proceed only to the 
point for which approval has been given, at the permit 
holder's own risk and without assurance that approval for 
the occupancy or the utilization of the entire premises, 
equipment or operations will be granted. 

105.3.5 Posting the permit. Issued permits shall be kept on 
the premises designated therein at all times and shall be 
readily available for inspection by the fire code official. 

105.3.6 Compliance with code. The issuance or granting of 
a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an ap- 
proval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code 
or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits pre- 
suming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions 
of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not 
be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction 
documents and other data shall not prevent the fire code offi- 
cial from requiring the correction of errors in the construc- 
tion documents and other data. Any addition to or alteration 
of approved construction documents shall be approved in 
advance by the fire code official, as evidenced by the issu- 
ance of a new or amended permit. 

105.3.7 Information on the permit. The fire code official 
shall issue all permits required by this code on an approved 
form furnished for that purpose. The permit shall contain a 
general description of the operation or occupancy and its lo- 
cation and any other information required by the fire code 
official. Issued permits shall bear the signature of the fire 
code official or other approved legal authorization. 



I» 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



Construction documents 
shall be in accordance with this section. 



Construction documents shall be sub- 
mitted in one or more sets and in such form and detail as re- 
quired by the fire code official. The construction documents 
shall be prepared by a registered design professional where 
required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the pro- 
ject is to be constructed. 

W§A,2 InformatHon oe comstrectloe docomemtSo Con- 
struction documents shall be drawn to scale upon suitable 
material. Electronic media documents are allowed to be 
submitted when approved by the fire code official. Con- 
struction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate 
the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and 
show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this 
code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations as 
determined by the fire code official. 



It shall be the responsi- 
bility of the applicant to ensure that the construction docu- 
ments include all of the fire protection requirements and the 
shop drawings are complete and in compliance with the ap- 
plicable codes and standards. 



Construction documents 
approved by the fire code official are approved with the in- 
tent that such construction documents comply in all respects 
with this code. Review and approval by the fire code official 
shall not reheve the applicant of the responsibility of com- 
pliance with this code. 



Is. Where field conditions ne- 
cessitate any substantial change from the approved con- 
struction documents, the fire code official shall have the 
authority to require the corrected construction documents to 
be submitted for approval. 



One set of 

construction documents shall be retained by the fire code of- 
ficial until final approval of the work covered therein. One 
set of approved construction documents shall be returned to 
the applicant, and said set shall be kept on the site of the 
building or work at all times during which the work autho- 
rized thereby is in progress. 

l(DSo5 Eevocatlwmo The fire code official is authorized to revoke 
a permit issued under the provisions of this code when it is 
found by inspection or otherwise that there has been a false 
statement or misrepresentation as to the material facts in the ap- 
plication or construction documents on which the permit or ap- 
proval was based including, but not limited to, any one of the 
following: 

1. The permit is used for a location or establishment other 
than that for which it was issued. 

2. The permit is used for a condition or activity other than 
that hsted in the permit. 

3. Conditions and limitations set forth in the permit have 
been violated. 



4. There have been any false statements or misrepresenta- 
tions as to the material fact in the application for permit 
or plans submitted or a condition of the permit. 

5. The permit is used by a different person or firm than the 
name for which it was issued. 

6. The permittee failed, refused or neglected to comply 
with orders or notices duly served in accordance with the 
provisions of this code within the time provided therein. 

7. The permit was issued in error or in violation of an ordi- 
nance, regulation or this code. 



tSo The fire code official is 
authorized to issue operational permits for the operations set 
forth in Sections 105.6.1 through 105.6.47. 



105.6.1 Aerosol products. An operational permit is re- 
quired to manufacture, store or handle an aggregate quantity 
of Level 2 or Level 3 aerosol products in excess of 500 
pounds (227 kg) net weight. 



ngs. An operational permit is 
required to operate a special amusement building. 



An operational permit is re- 
quired to use a Group H or Group S occupancy for aircraft 
servicing or repair and aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles. Ad- 
ditional permits required by other sections of this code in- 
clude, but are not limited to, hot work, hazardous materials 
and flammable or combustible finishes. 



r§„ An operational permit is re- 
quired to conduct a carnival or fair. 



i. A permit is required to install sta- 
tionary lead-acid battery systems having a liquid capacity of 
more than 50 gallons (189 L). 



Im, An operational permit is re- 
quired to store, handle or use cellulose nitrate film in a 
Group A occupancy. 

105.6,7 Comtoiistilble dust-prodnaoMg operations. An op- 
erational permit is required to operate a grain elevator, flour 
starch mill, feed mill, or a plant pulverizing aluminum, coal, 
cocoa, magnesium, spices or sugar, or other operations pro- 
ducing combustible dusts as defined in Chapter 2. 



rs. An operational permit is re- 
quired for the storage and handling of combustible fibers in 
quantities greater than 100 cubic feet (2.8 m^). 

K A permit is not required for agricultural stor- 



age. 

105.6,9 Compressed gases. An operational permit is re- 
quired for the storage, use or handling at normal tempera- 
ture and pressure (NTP) of compressed gases in excess of 
the amounts listed in Table 105.6.9. 

Exceptloe; Vehicles equipped for and using compressed 
gas as a fuel for propelling the vehicle. 



2003 BNTERBMATJOiSSAL FIRE CODE® 



ADWIINISTRATION 



TABLE 105.6.9 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR COMPRESSED GASES 



TYPE OF GAS 


AMOUNT 
{cubic feet at NTP) 


Corrosive 


200 


Flammable (except cryogenic fluids 
and liquefied petroleum gases) 


200 


Highly toxic 


Any Amount 


Inert and simple asphyxiant 


6,000 


Oxidizing (including oxygen) 


504 


Toxic 


Any Amount 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m^. 

105.6.10 Covered mall buildings. An operational permit is 
required for: 

1. The placement of retail fixtures and displays, conces- 
sion equipment, displays of highly combustible goods 
and similar items in the mall. 

2. The display of liquid- or gas-fired equipment in the 
mall. 

3 . The use of open-flame or flame-producing equipment 
in the mall. 

105.6.11 Cryogenic fluids. An operational permit is re- 
quired to produce, store, transport on site, use, handle or dis- 
pense cryogenic fluids in excess of the amounts listed in 
Table 105.6.11. 

Exception: Permits are not required for vehicles 
equipped for and using cryogenic fluids as a fuel for pro- 
pelling the vehicle or for refrigerating the lading. 



TABLE 105.6.11 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 



TYPE OF CRYOGENIC FLUID 


INSIDE BUILDING 
(gallons) 


OUTSIDE BUILDING 
(gallons) 


Flammable 


More than 1 


60 


Inert 


60 


500 


Oxidizing (includes 
oxygen) 


10 


50 


Physical or health hazard 
not indicated above 


Any Amount 


Any Amount 



For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

105.6.12 Cutting and welding. An operational permit is re- 
quired to conduct cutting or welding operations within the 
jurisdiction. 

105.6.13 Dry cleaning plants. An operational permit is re- 
quired to engage in the business of dry cleaning or to change 
to a more hazardous cleaning solvent used in existing dry 
cleaning equipment. 

105.6.14 Exhibits and trade shows. An operational permit 
is required to operate exhibits and trade shows. 

105.6.15 Explosives. An operational permit is required for 
the manufacture, storage, handling, sale or use of any quan- 



tity of explosive, explosive material, fireworks, or 
pyrotechnic special effects within the scope of Chapter 33. 

105.6.16 Fire hydrants and valves. An operational permit 
is required to use or operate fire hydrants or valves intended 
for fire suppression purposes which are installed on water 
systems and accessible to a fire apparatus access road that is 
open to or generally used by the pubhc. 

Exception; A permit is not required for authorized em- 
ployees of the water company that supplies the system or 
the fire department to use or operate fire hydrants or 
valves. 

105.6.17 Flammable and combustible liquids. An opera- 
tional permit is required: 

1. To use or operate a pipeline for the transportation 
within facilities of flammable or combustible liquids. 
This requirement shall not apply to the off-site trans- 
portation in pipelines regulated by the Department of 
Transportation (DOTn) nor does it apply to piping 
systems. 

2. To store, handle or use Class I liquids in excess of 5 
gallons (19 L) in a building or in excess of 10 gallons 
(37.9 L) outside of a building, except that a permit is 
not required for the following: 

2.1. The storage or use of Class I liquids in the fuel 
tank of a motor vehicle, aircraft, motorboat, 
mobile power plant or mobile heating plant, 
unless such storage, in the opinion of the code 
official, would cause an unsafe condition. 

2.2. The storage or use of paints, oils, varnishes or 
similar flammable mixtures when such liq- 
uids are stored for maintenance, painting or 
similar purposes for a period of not more than 
30 days. 

3. To store, handle or use Class II or Class IIIA liquids in 
excess of 25 gallons (95 L) in a building or in excess of 
60 gallons (227 L) outside a building, except for fuel 
oil used in connection with oil-burning equipment. 

4. To remove Class I or Class II liquids from an under- 
ground storage tank used for fueling motor vehicles 
by any means other than the approved, stationary 
on-site pumps normally used for dispensing purposes. 

5. To operate tank vehicles, equipment, tanks, plants, 
terminals, wells, fuel-dispensing stations, refineries, 
distilleries and similar facilities where flammable and 
combustible liquids are produced, processed, trans- 
ported, stored, dispensed or used. 

6. To place temporarily out of service (for more than 90 
days) an underground, protected above-ground or 
above-ground flammable or combustible hquid tank. 

7. To change the type of contents stored in a flammable 
or combustible liquid tank to a material which poses a 
greater hazard than that for which the tank was de- 
signed and constructed. 

8. To manufacture, process, blend or refine flammable 
or combustible liquids. 



2003 JNTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



« 



9. To engage in the dispensing of liquid fuels into the 
fuel tanks of motor vehicles at commercial, indus- 
trial, governmental or manufacturing establish- 
ments. 

10. To utiHze a site for the dispensing of liquid fuels 
from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehi- 
cles at commercial, industrial, governmental or 
manufacturing establishments. 

105o(6.18 Floor fflmnslimg. An operational permit is required 
for floor finishing or surfacing operations exceeding 350 
square feet (33 m^) using Class I or Class II liquids. 



ngo An operational permit is 
required to operate a fruit-, or crop-ripening facihty or con- 
duct a fruit-ripening process using ethylene gas. 



An operational permit is required to operate a business of fu- 
migation or thermal insecticidal fogging and to maintain a 
room, vault or chamber in which a toxic or flammable fumi- 
gant is used. 



llSo An operational permit is 
required to store, transport on site, dispense, use or handle 
hazardous materials in excess of the amounts listed in Table 
105.6.21. 



TABLE 105.6.21 
m AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS SVJATERDALS 



TYPE OF MATERIAL 


AWiOUNT 


Combustible liquids 


See Section 105.6.17 


Corrosive materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 


See Section 105.6.9 
55 gallons 
1000 pounds 


Explosive materials 


See Section 105.6.15 


Flammable materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 


See Section 105.6.9 
See Section 105.6.17 
100 pounds 


Highly toxic materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 


See Section 105.6.9 
Any Amount 
Any Amount 


Oxidizing materials 
Gases 
Liquids 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Solids 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 


See Section 105.6.9 

Any Amount 
1 gallon 
10 gallons 
55 gallons 

Any Amount 
10 pounds 
100 pounds 
500 pounds 


Organic peroxides 

Liquids 
Class I 
Class II 
Class III 
Class IV 
Class V 

Solids 
Class I 
Class II 
Class III 
Class IV 
Class V 


Any Amount 
Any Amount 

1 gallon 

2 gallons 

No Permit Required 

Any Amount 

Any Amount 

10 pounds 

20 pounds 

No Permit Required 



(continued) 



2003 



ADMSNISTRATiON 



TABLE 105.6.21 -continued 
PERMST AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 



TYPE OF MATERIAL 


AMOUNT 


Pyrophoric materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 


See Section 105.6.9 
Any Amount 
Any Amount 


Toxic materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 


See Section 105.6.9 
10 gallons 
100 pounds 


Unstable (reactive) materials 
Liquids 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Solids 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 


Any Amount 
Any Amount 
5 gallons 
10 gallons 

Any Amount 
Any Amount 
50 pounds 
100 pounds 


Water-reactive Materials 
Liquids 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Solids 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 


Any Amount 
5 gallons 
55 gallons 

Any Amount 
50 pounds 
500 pounds 



For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 



105.6.22 HPM facilities. An operational permit is required 
to store, handle or use hazardous production materials. 

105.6.23 High-piled storage. An operational permit is re- 
quired to use a building or portion thereof as a high-piled stor- 
age area exceeding 500 square feet (46 m^). 

105.6.24 Hot work operations. An operational permit is 
required for hot work including, but not limited to: 

1. Public exhibitions and demonstrations where hot 
work is conducted. 

2. Use of portable hot work equipment inside a struc- 
ture. 

Exception: Work that is conducted under a con- 
struction permit. 

3. Fixed-site hot work equipment such as welding 
booths. 

4. Hot work conducted within a hazardous fire area. 

5. Application of roof coverings with the use of an 
open-flame device. 

6. When approved, the fire code official shall issue a per- 
mit to carry out a Hot Work Program. This program 
allows approved personnel to regulate their facility's 
hot work operations. The approved personnel shall be 



trained in the fire safety aspects denoted in this 
chapter and shall be responsible for issuing permits 
requiring compliance with the requirements found in 
Chapter 26. These permits shall be issued only to their 
employees or hot work operations under their super- 
vision. 

105.6.25 Industrial ovens. An operational permit is re- 
quired for operation of industrial ovens regulated by Chap- 
ter 21. 

105.6.26 Lumber yards and woodworking plants. An op- 
erational permit is required for the storage or processing of 
lumber exceeding 100,000 board feet (8,333 ft^) (236 m^). 

105.6.27 Liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles or equipment in 
assembly buildings. An operational permit is required to 
display, operate or demonstrate liquid- or gas-fueled vehi- 
cles or equipment in assembly buildings. 

105.6.28 LP-gas. An operational permit is required for: 

1. Storage and use of LP-gas. 

Exception: A permit is not required for individual 
containers with a 500-gallon ( 1 893 L) water capac- 
ity or less serving occupancies in Group R-3. 

2. Operation of cargo tankers that transport LP-gas. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



An operational permit is required to 
melt, cast, heat treat or grind more than 10 pounds (4.54 kg) 
of magnesium. 



BS combesMble storage. An opera- 
tional permit is required to store in any building or upon any 
premises in excess of 2,500 cubic feet (71 m^) gross volume 
of combustible empty packing cases, boxes, barrels or simi- 
lar containers, rubber tires, rubber, cork or similar combusti- 
ble material. 



105.631 Open toiammg. An operational permit is required 
for the kindling or maintaining of an open fire or a fire on 
any public street, alley, road, or other public or private 
ground. Instructions and stipulations of the permit shall be 
adhered to. 

R% Recreational fires. 



j§. An operational permit 
is required to remove paint with a torch; or to use a torch or 
open-flame device in a hazardous fire area. 

105.6.33 Open flames aed candles. An operational permit 
is required to use open flames or candles in connection with 
assembly areas, dining areas of restaurants or drinking es- 
tablishments. 



ags. An operational permit is re- 
quired for any organic-coating manufacturing operation 
producing more than 1 gallon (4 L) of an organic coating in 
one day. 



An operational permit is re- 
quired to operate a place of assembly. 

105.6.36 Private lire Siydramtts. An operafional permit is re- 
quired for the removal from service, use or operation of pri- 
vate fire hydrants. 



ms A permit is not required for private industry 
with trained maintenance personnel, private fire brigade 
or fire departments to maintain, test and use private hy- 
drants. 



105.6.37 Pyroteclhmnc special effects materiaB. An opera- 
tional permit is required for use and handling of pyrotechnic 
special effects material. 

105.6.38 Pyroxylim plastics. An operational permit is re- 
quired for storage or handling of more than 25 pounds (11 
kg) of cellulose nitrate (pyroxyhn) plastics and for the as- 
sembly or manufacture of articles involving pyroxylin plas- 
tics. 

105.6.39 MeffrigeratloE eqrapmenit. An operafional permit 
is required to operate a mechanical refrigeration unit or sys- 
tem regulated by Chapter 6. 

105.6.40 Repair garages amd motor fiiiel=dispemsnmg fa= 
cilitles. An operational permit is required for operation of 
repair garages and automotive, marine and fleet motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities. 

105.6.41 Rooftop heliports. An operational permit is re- 
quired for the operation of a rooftop heliport. 

105.6.42 Spraying or dipping. An operafional permit is re- 
quired to conduct a spraying or dipping operation utilizing 



flammable or combustible liquids or the application of com- 
bustible powders regulated by Chapter 15. 

105,6,43 Storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts. An 
operational permit is required to establish, conduct or main- 
tain storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts that exceeds 
2,500 cubic feet (71 m^) of total volume of scrap tires and for 
indoor storage of tires and tire byproducts. 



canopies. An operational permit is required to operate an 
air-supported temporary membrane structure or a tent hav- 
ing an area in excess of 200 square feet (19 m^), or a canopy 
in excess of 400 square feet (37 m^). 



1. Tents used exclusively for recreational camping 
purposes. 

2. Fabric canopies open on all sides which comply 
with all of the following: 

2.1. Individual canopies having a maximum 
size of 700 square feet (65 m^). 

2.2. The aggregate area of multiple canopies 
placed side by side without a fire break 
clearance of not less than 12 feet (3658 
mm) shall not exceed 700 square feet (65 
m^) total. 

2.3. A minimum clearance of 12 feet (3658 
mm) to structures and other tents shall be 
provided. 

105.6.45 Tire-rebnilding plants. An operational permit is 
required for the operation and maintenance of a tire-rebuild- 
ing plant. 



ng. An operational permit is re- 
quired for the operation of wrecking yards, junk yards and 
waste material-handling faciUties. 



5. An operational permit is required 
to store chips, hogged material, lumber or plywood in ex- 
cess of 200 cubic feet (6 m^). 

105.7 Reqniired constrinctioe permits. The fire code official 
is authorized to issue construction permits for work as set forth 
in Sections 105.7.1 through 105.7.12. 



105.7.1 Aotomatic Sre=extingeisliieg systems. A 
construction permit is required for installation of or modifi- 
cation to an automatic fire-extinguishing system. Mainten- 
ance performed in accordance with this code is not 
considered a modification and does not require a permit. 

105.7.2 Compressed gases. When the compressed gases in 
use or storage exceed the amounts listed in Table 105.6.9, a 
construction permit is required to install, repair damage to, 
abandon, remove, place temporarily out of service, or close 
or substantially modify a compressed gas system. 



1 . Routine maintenance. 

2. For emergency repair work performed on an emer- 
gency basis, application for permit shall be made 
within two working days of commencement of 
work. 



2003 IMTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



The permit applicant shall apply for approval to close stor- 
age, use or handling facilities at least 30 days prior to the termi- 
nation of the storage, use or handling of compressed or 
liquefied gases. Such application shall include any change or 
alteration of the facility closure plan filed pursuant to Section 
2701.6.3. The 30-day period is not applicable when approved 
based on special circumstances requiring such waiver. 

105.7.3 Fire alarm and detection systems and related 
equipment. A construction permit is required for installa- 
tion of or modification to fire alarm and detection systems 
and related equipment. Maintenance performed in accor- 
dance with this code is not considered a modification and 
does not require a permit. 

105.7.4 Fire pumps and related equipment. A construc- 
tion permit is required for installation of or modification to 
fire pumps and related fuel tanks, jockey pumps, control- 
lers, and generators. Maintenance performed in accordance 
with this code is not considered a modification and does not 
require a permit. 

105.7.5 Flammable and combustible liquids. A construc- 
tion permit is required: 

1 . To repair or modify a pipeline for the transportation of 
flammable or combustible liquids. 

2. To install, construct or alter tank vehicles, equipment, 
tanks, plants, terminals, wells, fuel-dispensing sta- 
tions, refineries, distilleries and similar facilities 
where flammable and combustible liquids are pro- 
duced, processed, transported, stored, dispensed or 
used. 

3. To install, alter, remove, abandon or otherwise dis- 
pose of a flammable or combustible liquid tank. 

105.7.6 Hazardous materials. A construction permit is re- 
quired to install, repair damage to, abandon, remove, place 
temporarily out of service, or close or substantially modify a 
storage facility or other area regulated by Chapter 27 when 
the hazardous materials in use or storage exceed the 
amounts hsted in Table 105.6.21. 

Exceptions: 

1. Routine maintenance. 

2. For emergency repair work performed on an emer- 
gency basis, application for permit shall be made 
within two working days of commencement of 
work. 

105.7.7 Industrial ovens. A construction permit is required 
for installation of industrial ovens covered by Chapter 21. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Routine maintenance. 

2. For repair work performed on an emergency basis, 
application for permit shall be made within two 
working days of commencement of work. 

105.7.8 LP-gas. A construction permit is required for in- 
stallation of or modification to an LP-gas system. 

105.7.9 Private fire hydrants. A construction permit is re- 
quired for the installation or modification of private fire hy- 
drants. 



105.7.10 Spraying or dipping. A construction permit is re- 
quired to install or modify a spray room, dip tank or booth. 

105.7.11 Standpipe systems. A construction permit is re- 
quired for the installation, modification, or removal from 
service of a standpipe system. Maintenance performed in 
accordance with this code is not considered a modification 
and does not require a permit. 

105.7.12 Temporary membrane structures, tents and 
canopies. A construction permit is required to erect an 
air-supported temporary membrane structure or a tent hav- 
ing an area in excess of 200 square feet (19 m^), or a canopy 
in excess of 400 square feet (37 m^). 

Exceptions: 

1. Tents used exclusively for recreational camping 
purposes. 

2. Funeral tents and curtains or extensions attached 
thereto, when used for funeral services. 

3. Fabric canopies and awnings open on all sides 
which comply with all of the following: 

3.1 . Individual canopies shall have a maximum 
size of 700 square feet (65 m^). 

3.2. The aggregate area of multiple canopies 
placed side by side without a fire break 
clearance of not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) 
shall not exceed 700 square feet (65 m^) to- 
tal. 

3.3. A minimum clearance of 12 feet (3658 
mm) to structures and other tents shall be 
maintained. 



SECTBON 106 
INSPECTIONS 

106.1 Inspection authority. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to enter and examine any building, structure, marine ves- 
sel, vehicle or premises in accordance with Section 104.3 for 
the purpose of enforcing this code. 

106.2 Inspections. The fire code official is authorized to con- 
duct such inspections as are deemed necessary to determine the 
extent of compliance with the provisions of this code and to ap- 
prove reports of inspection by approved agencies or individu- 
als. All reports of such inspections shall be prepared and 
submitted in writing for review and approval. Inspection re- 
ports shall be certified by a responsible officer of such ap- 
proved agency or by the responsible individual. The fire code 
official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed 
necessary to report upon unusual, detailed or complex techni- 
cal issues subject to the approval of the governing body. 

106.3 Concealed work. Whenever any installation subject to 
inspection prior to use is covered or concealed without having 
first been inspected, the fire code official shall have the author- 
ity to require that such work be exposed for inspection. 



10 



2003 INTERNATIONAL F8RE CODE® 



MD7.1 Malmtemaiice off safeguards. Whenever or wherever any 
device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of 
protection, or any other feature is required for compliance with 
the provisions of this code, or otherwise installed, such device, 
equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protec- 
tion, or other feature shall thereafter be continuously main- 
tained in accordance with this code and applicable referenced 
standards. 

1®7.2 TestiEg and operatioe. Equipment requiring periodic 
testing or operation to ensure maintenance shall be tested or op- 
erated as specified in this code. 

107,2.1 Test amd mspectloE records. Required test and in- 
spection records shall be available to the fire code official at 
all times or such records as the fire code official designates 
shall be filed with the fire code official. 



sstieg. Where any work or in- 
stallation does not pass an initial test or inspection, the nec- 
essary corrections shall be made so as to achieve compliance 
with this code. The work or installation shall then be resub- 
mitted to the fire code official for inspection and testing. 

107.3 Sepervisnon, Maintenance and testing shall be under the 
supervision of a responsible person who shall ensure that such 
maintenance and testing are conducted at specified intervals in 
accordance with this code. 

107.4 Meedermg eqeipmemt imoperaMe. Portable or fixed 
fire-extinguishing systems or devices and fire-warning systems 
shall not be rendered inoperative or inaccessible except as nec- 
essary during emergencies, maintenance, repairs, alterations, 
drills or prescribed testing. 

107.5 Owmer/occepamt responsibility. Correction and abate- 
ment of violations of this code shall be the responsibility of the 
owner. If an occupant creates, or allows to be created, hazard- 
ous conditions in violation of this code, the occupant shall be 
held responsible for the abatement of such hazardous condi- 
tions. 

107.6 Overcrowding. Overcrowding or admittance of any per- 
son beyond the approved capacity of a building or a portion 
thereof shall not be allowed. The fire code official, upon finding 
any overcrowding conditions or obstructions in aisles, passage- 
ways or other means of egress, or upon finding any condition 
which constitutes a life safety hazard, shall be authorized to 
cause the event to be stopped until such condition or obstruc- 
tion is corrected. 



In order to hear and de- 
cide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the 
fire code official relative to the application and interpretation of 
this code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of ap- 
peals. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the governing 
body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The fire code official 
shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall have no 
vote on any matter before the board. The board shall adopt rules 



of procedure for conducting its business, and shall render all 
decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with a dupli- 
cate copy to the fire code official. 

108.2 Limitatioes om amitliority. An appUcation for appeal 
shall be based on a claim that the intent of this code or the rules □ 
legally adopted hereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, 
the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or an equivalent 
method of protecfion or safety is proposed. The board shall 
have no authority to waive requirements of this code. 

108.3 QoalificatioEis. The board of appeals shall consist of 
members who are qualified by experience and training to pass 
on matters pertaining to hazards of fire, explosions, hazardous 
condifions or fire protection systems and are not employees of 
thejurisdicfion. 



1( 



109,1 Umlawfel acts. It shall be unlawful for a person, firm or 
corporation to erect, construct, alter, repair, remove, demolish 
or utilize a building, occupancy, premises or system regulated 
by this code, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in vio- 
lation of any of the provisions of this code. 



L When the fire code official finds a 
building, premises, vehicle, storage facihty or outdoor area that 
is in violation of this code, the fire code official is authorized to 
prepare a written notice of violation describing the conditions 
deemed unsafe and, when compliance is not immediate, speci- 
fying a time for reinspection. 

109.2,1 Service, A notice of violation issued pursuant to 
this code shall be served upon the owner, operator, occu- 
pant, or other person responsible for the condition or viola- 
tion, either by personal service, mail, or by delivering the 
same to, and leaving it with, some person of responsibility 
upon the premises. For unattended or abandoned locations, 
a copy of such notice of violation shall be posted on the pre- 
mises in a conspicuous place at or near the entrance to such 
premises and the notice of violation shall be mailed by certi- 
fied mail with return receipt requested or a certificate of 
mailing, to the last known address of the owner, occupant or 
both. 



;§. A notice of 

violation issued or served as provided by this code shall be 
complied with by the owner, operator, occupant or other 
person responsible for the condition or violation to which 
the notice of violation pertains. 

109.2,3 Prosecetioe off violatioms. If the notice of violation 
is not complied with promptly, the fire code official is autho- 
rized to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to insti- 
tute the appropriate legal proceedings at law or in equity to 
restrain, correct or abate such violation or to require re- 
moval or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the 
structure in violation of the provisions of this code or of the 
order or direction made pursuant hereto. 



sg. Signs, tags or seals 
posted or affixed by the fire code official shall not be muti- 
lated, destroyed or tampered with or removed without au- 
thorization from the fire code official. 



2003 INTERMATDOMAL FIRE CODE® 



■31 



ADMINISTRATION 



109.3 Violation penalties. Persons who shall violate a provi- 
sion of this code or shall fail to comply with any of the require- 
ments thereof or who shall erect, install, alter, repair or do work 
in violation of the approved construction documents or direc- 
tive of the fire code official, or of a permit or certificate used un- 
der provisions of this code, shall be guilty of a [SPECIFY 
OFFENSE], punishable by a fine of not more than [AMOUNT] dol- 
lars or by imprisonment not exceeding [NUMBER OF DAYS], or 
both such fine and imprisonment. Each day that a violation 
continues after due nofice has been served shall be deemed a 
separate offense. 

109.3.1 Abatement of violation. In addition to the imposi- 
tion of the penalties herein described, the fire code official is 
authorized to institute appropriate action to prevent unlaw- 
ful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a violation; or 
to prevent illegal occupancy of a structure or premises; or to 
stop an illegal act, conduct of business or occupancy of a 
structure on or about any premises. 



SECTION 110 
UNSAFE BUILDINGS 

110.1 General. If during the inspection of a premises, a build- 
ing or structure or any building system, in whole or in part, con- 
stitutes a clear and inimical threat to human life, safety or 
health, the fire code official shall issue such notice or orders to 
remove or remedy the conditions as shall be deemed necessary 
in accordance with this section and shall refer the building to 
the building department for any repairs, alterations, remodel- 
ing, removing or demolition required. 

110.1.1 Unsafe conditions. Structures or existing equip- 
ment that are or hereafter become unsafe or deficient be- 
cause of inadequate means of egress or which constitute a 
fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human life or the 
public welfare, or which involve illegal or improper occu- 
pancy or inadequate maintenance, shall be deemed an un- 
safe condition. A vacant structure which is not secured 
against unauthorized entry as required by Section 311 shall 
be deemed unsafe. 

110.1.2 Structural hazards. When an apparent structural 
hazard is caused by the faulty installation, operation or mal- 
function of any of the items or devices governed by this 
code, the fire code official shall immediately notify the 
building code official in accordance with Section 110.1. 

110.2 Evacuation. The fire code official or the fire department 
official in charge of an incident shall be authorized to order the 
immediate evacuation of any occupied building deemed unsafe 
when such building has hazardous conditions that present im- 
minent danger to building occupants. Persons so notified shall 
immediately leave the structure or premises and shall not enter 
or re-enter until authorized to do so by the fire code official or 
the fire department official in charge of the incident. 

110.3 Summary abatement. Where conditions exist that are 
deemed hazardous to life and property, the fire code official or 
fire department official in charge of the incident is authorized 
to abate summarily such hazardous conditions that are in viola- 
tion of this code. 



110.4 Abatement. The owner, operator, or occupant of a build- 
ing or premises deemed unsafe by the fire code official shall 
abate or cause to be abated or corrected such unsafe conditions 
either by repair, rehabilitation, demolition or other approved 
corrective action. 



SECTION 111 
STOP WORK ORDER 

111.1 Order. Whenever the fire code official finds any work 
regulated by this code being performed in a manner contrary to 
the provisions of this code or in a dangerous or unsafe manner, 
the fire code official is authorized to issue a stop work order. 

111.2 Issuance. A stop work order shall be in writing and shall 
be given to the owner of the property, or to the owner's agent, or 
to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work or- 
der, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work or- 
der shall state the reason for the order, and the conditions under 
which the cited work is authorized to resume. 

111.3 Emergencies. Where an emergency exists, the fire code 
official shall not be required to give a written notice prior to 
stopping the work. 

111.4 Failure to comply. Any person who shall continue any 
work after having been served with a stop work order, except 
such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a vio- 
lation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a fine of not less 
than [AMOUNT] dollars or more than [amount] dollars. 



12 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



OHAPTER 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

2MA Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 

201o2 Imterchamgeabilityo Words used in the present tense in- 
clude the future; words stated in the masculine gender include 
the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plu- 
ral and the plural, the singular. 

201 o3 Terms deffimedl m ©ther codes. Where terms are not de- 
fined in this code and are defined in the International Building 
Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical 
Code or International Plumbing Code, such terms shall have 
the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes. 

201.4 Terms mot deinned. Where terms are not defined through 
the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have 
ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. Web- 
ster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage, Unabridged, shall be considered as providing ordinarily 
accepted meanings. 



SECTQ0W.202 
GENERAL DEFINITiOMS 

[B] ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. See Secdon 
1002.1. 



DSOL. See Section 2802.1. 

Level 1 aerosol products. See Section 2802. 1 . 

ts. See Section 2802.1. 

tSo See Section 2802.1. 

AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 2802.1. 

AEROSOL WAREHOUSE. See Section 2802.1. 

AGENT. A person who shall have charge, care or control of 
any structure as owner, or agent of the owner, or as executor, ex- 
ecutrix, administrator, administratrix, trustee or guardian of the 
estate of the owner. Any such person representing the actual 
owner shall be bound to comply with the provisions of this code 
to the same extent as if that person was the owner. 

AIM-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1. 

AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA). See Section 
1102.1. 

AIRPORT. -See Section 1 102. 1 . 

[B] AISLE ACCESSWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 
902.1. 

ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section 902.1. 



[B] ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. See Section 1002. 1 . 

AMMONIUM NITRATE, See Section 3302.1. 

ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902.1. 

Acceptable to the fire code official. 

^ REFUGE. See Section 1002.1. 

See Section 2302.1. 

, CLOSED, See Section 2302.1. 

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See 
Section 902.1. 

AUTOMATIC, See Section 902.1. 

AUTOMATIC FIRE=EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 
Section 902.1. 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL=DISPENSING FACIL= 
ITY, See Section 2202.1. 

IBIENT SOUND LEVEL. See Section 902. 1 . 

See Section 3302.1. 

See Section 3302.1. 

J. See Section 3302.1. 

See Section 3302.1. 

BATTERY, LEAD ACID. See Section 602.1. 

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. See 
Section 602.1. 

BIN BOX. See Section 2302.1. 

BLAST AREA. See Section 3302.1. 

BLAST SITE, See Section 3302.1. 

BLASTER. See Section 3302.1. 

BLASTING AGENT. See Section 3302.1. 

tS. See Section 1002.1. 

JT, See Section 2702.1. 

See Section 302.1. 

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU). The heat necessary to 
raise the temperature of 1 pound (0.454 kg) of water by 1 °F 
(0.5565°C). 

BULK OXYGEN SYSTEM. See Section 4002.1. 

BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL, See Section 3402.1. 

BULK TRANSFER, See Section 3402.1. 

BULLET RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1. 

f. See Section 2402.1. 

lOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 
Section 902.1. 

CARTON, A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product. 



2003 BNTEIRNy^TlOMAL FIRE CODE® 



13 



DEFINITIONS 



CEILING LIMIT, See Section 2702.1. 

CHEMICAL. See Section 2702.1. 

CHEMICAL NAME. See Section 2702. 1 . - 

CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902.1. 

CLOSED CONTAINER. See Section 2702.1. 

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous 
material involving a closed vessel or system that remains 
closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the 
product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the 
product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal opera- 
tions; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed 
systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed 
through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of 
equipment. 

COLD DECK. See Section 1902.1. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 1302.1. 

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 2902. 1 . 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1. 

Class IL See Section 3402.1. 

Class IIIA. See Section 3402.1. 

Class IIIB. See Section 3402. 1 . 

[M] COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. See Sec- 
tion 602.1. 

COMMODITY. See Section 2302.1. 

[B] COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. See Section 
1002.1. 

COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 3002.1. 

COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. See Section 3002.1. 

COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. See Section 3002.1. 

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 
902.1. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. The written, graphic 
and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing 
the design, location and physical characteristics of the ele- 
ments of the project necessary for obtaining a permit. 

CONTAINER, See Section 2702.1. 

CONTAINMENT SYSTEM, See Section 3702.1. 

CONTAINMENT VESSEL. See Section 3702.1. 

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM, See Section 
1802.1. 

CONTROL AREA, See Section 2702.1. 

[B] CORRIDOR, See Section 1002.1. 

CORROSIVE. See Section 3102.1. 

CRYOGENIC CONTAINER, See Section 3202.1. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202.1. 

CRYOGENIC VESSEL. See Section 3202.1. 

CYLINDER. See Section 2702.1. 

DEFLAGRATION. See Section 2702.1. 



DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 
DESIGN PRESSURE. See Section 2702.1. 
DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 2702.1, 
DETEAMNG, See Section 1502.1. 
DETECTOR, HEAT. See Section 902.1. 
DETONATING CORD. See Section 3302.1. 
J. See Section 3302.1. 
L See Section 3302.1. 
L See Section 1502.1. 
DISCHARGE SITE. See Section 3302.1. 
JSING. See Section 2702.1. 



DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. See Section 
2202.1. 



See Section 3302.1. 
[B] DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1. 
J. See Section 2302.1. 



DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Sec- 
tion 902.1. 

DRY CLEANING. See Section 1202.1. 

DRY CLEANING PLANT. See Section 1202.1. 

DRY CLEANING ROOM. See Section 1202.1. 

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. See Section 1202.1. 

EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) 
SPRINKLER. See Section 2302.1. 

[B] EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1. 

ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502. 1 . 

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM, See Section 902.1. 

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 1 802. 1 . 

[B] EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. 
See Section 1002.1. 

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. See Section 402. 1 . 

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS, 
See Section 902.1. 

EXCESS FLOW CONTROL, See Section 2702.1. 

EXCESS FLOW VALVE, See Section 3702.1. 

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE, See Section 2702.1. 

EXISTING, Buildings, faciUties or conditions which are al- 
ready in existence, constructed or officially authorized prior to 
the adoption of this code. 

[B] EXIT, See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1 . 

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE, See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT, HORIZONTAL. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITION^ 



PLASTICo See Section 2302.1. 
See Section 2702.1. 
EXPLOSIVE. See Section 3302.1. 

osive. See Section 3302.1. 

jsnveo See Section 3302.1. 

D Mass=detoeatliig Explosives., See Section 3302.1. 

UN/DOTe Class 1 Explosives. See Section 3302.1.. 

Divisnoe 1.1. See Section 3302.1. 

isiom 1.2. See Section 3302.1. 

1.3. See Section 3302.1. 

1.4. See Section 3302.1. 
isnoini 1.5. See Section 3302.1. 

1.6. See Section 3302.1. 

EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL, See Section 3302.1. 

EXTMA=MIGM=]RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See 
Section 2302.1. 

FABRICATION AREA. See Section 1802.1. 

FACILITY. A building or use in a fixed location including ex- 
terior storage areas for flammable and combustible substances 
and hazardous materials, piers, wharves, tank farms and similar 
uses. This term includes recreational vehicles, mobile home 
and manufactured housing parks, sales and storage lots. 

FALLOUT AREA. See Section 3302.1. 

FALSE ALARM. The willful and knowing initiation or trans- 
mission of a signal, message or other notification of an event of 
fire when no such danger exists. 

CS, See Section 1902.1. 



The giving, signahng or transmission to any 
public fire station, or company or to any officer or employee 
thereof, whether by telephone, spoken word or otherwise, of in- 
formation to the effect that there is a fire at or near the place in- 
dicated by the person giving, signaling, or transmitting such 
information. 



L. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. See Secfion 502.1. 

FIRE AREA. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE CHIEF. The chief officer of the fire department serving 
the jurisdiction, or a duly authorized representative. 

FIRE CODE OFFICIAL. The fire chief or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
il the code, or a duly authorized representative. 

FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 502.1. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. See Section 502.1. 

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 



[B] FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire 
door, frame, hardware, and other accessories that together pro- 
vide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening. 

[B] FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 

LANE. See Section 502.1. 



[B] FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials de- 
signed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are pro- 
tected. 



JT, See Section 3402.1. 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS, See Section 902.1. 

FIRE WATCH, A temporary measure intended to ensure con- 
tinuous and systematic surveillance of a building or portion 
thereof by one or more quahfied individuals for the purposes of 
identifying and controlling fire hazards, detecting early signs 
of unwanted fire, raising an alarm of fire and notifying the fire 
department. 

FIREWORKS, See Section 3302.1. 

Fireworks, 1.4G, See Section 3302. 1 . 

Fireworks, 1,3G. See Section 3302.1. 
FIREWORKS DISPLAY. See Section 3302.1. 
FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUID, See Section 3202. 1. 
FLAMMABLE FINISHES. See Section 1502.1. 
FLAMMABLE GAS, See Section 3502.1. 
FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 3502.1. 
FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1. 

Class lA. See Section 3402.1. 

Class IB. See Section 3402.1. 

Class IC, See Section 3402.1. 

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL, A material capable of being 
readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a tempera- 
ture of 600°F (3 16°C) or less. 

FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 3602.1. 

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 2702. 1 . 

FLASH POINT. See Section 3402.1. 

FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENS: 
CILITY. See Section 2202.1. 



DSS. See Section 1002.1. 

[B] FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1. 

FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502.1. 

FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM, See Section 902.1. 

[B] FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING, See Sec- 
tion 1002.1. 

FUEL LIMIT SWITCH. See Section 3402.1. 

FUMIGANT. See Section 1702.1. 

FUMIGATION. See Section 1702.1. 

FURNACE CLASS A. See Section 2102.1. 

FURNACE CLASS B, See Section 2102.1. 



<JED 



2003 INTEIRMATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



15 



DEFINITIONS 



FURNACE CLASS C. See Section 2102.1. 

FURNACE CLASS D. See Section 2102.1. 

GAS CABINET. See Section 2702. 1 . 

GAS ROOM. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] GRANDSTAND, See Section 1002.1. 

[B] GUARD. See Section 1002.1. 

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Sec- 
tion 902.1. 

HANDLING. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] HANDRAIL, See Section 1002.1. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIAL. See Section 2702.1. 

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). See 
Section 1802.1. 

HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 2702.1. 

HELIPORT. See Section 1102.1. 

HELISTOP. See Section 1102.1. 

I HI-BOY. See Section 302.1. 

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See Section 
2302.1. 

HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA, See Section 2302.1. 

HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 3702.1. 

i HIGHLY VOLATILE LIQUID. A liquefied compressed gas 
with a boiling point of less than 68 °F (20 °C). 

HIGHWAY. See Section 3302.1. 

HOGGED MATERIALS. See Section 1902.1. 

[M] HOOD. See Section 602.1. 

Type L See Section 602.1. 

HOT WORK. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK AREA. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK PERMITS. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK PROGRAM. See Section 2602.1. 

HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 1802.1. 

HPM ROOM. See Section 1802.1. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH 
(IDLH). See Section 2702.1. 

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. See Section 902.1. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS, See Section 2702.1. 

INHABITED BUILDING. See Section 3302.1. 

INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1. 

IRRITANT. A chemical which is not corrosive, but which 
causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by 
chemical action at the site of contact. A chemical is a skin irri- 
tant if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the 
methods of CPSC 16CFR Part 1500.41 for an exposure of four 
or more hours or by other appropriate techniques, it results in 
an empirical score of 5 or more. A chemical is classified as an 



eye irritant if so determined under the procedure hsted in CPSC 
16CFR Part 1500.42 or other approved techniques. 

KEY BOX. See Section 502.1. 

LABELED. Equipment or material to which has been attached 
a label, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recog- 
nized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organiza- 
tion concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic 
inspection of production of labeled equipment or materials, and 
by whose labeling is indicated compliance with nationally rec- 
ognized standards or tests to determine suitable usage in a spec- 
ified manner. 

LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. See Section 1502.1. 

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). See Section 2202.1. 

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LP-gas). See Section 
3802.1. 

LIQUID. See Section 2702.1. 

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 3402.1. 

LISTED. Equipment or materials included on a list published 
by an approved testing laboratory, inspection agency or other 
organization concerned with current product evaluation that 
maintains periodic inspection of production of hsted equip- 
ment or materials, and whose listing states that equipment or 
materials comply with approved nationally recognized stan- 
dards and have been tested or evaluated and found suitable for 
use in a specified manner. 

LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302.1. 

LOW-PRESSURE TANK. See Section 3202.1. 

LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See Section 2702.1. 

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 
2702.1. 

MAGAZINE, See Section 3302.1. 

Indoor. See Section 3302.1. 

Type 1, See Section 3302.1. 

Type 2. See Section 3302.1. 

Type 3. See Section 3302.1. 

Type 4, See Section 3302.1. 

Type 5. See Section 3302.1. 

MAGNESIUM. See Section 3602.1. 

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX, See Section 902.1. 

MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 2302.1. 

MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See i 
Section 2202.1. 

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). See Section 
2702.1. 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CON- 
TROL AREA. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 

MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 
2302.1. 

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1. 



It 



16 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFlNmONS 



• 



O 



MOBILE FUELING. See Section 3402.1. 

MORTAE, See Section 3302.1. 

MULTIPLE=STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 
902.1. 

MULTIPLE=§TATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 
902.1. 



NESTING. See Section 3002.1. 

□ NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (melt 
3302.1. 

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND 
See Section 2702.1. 

[B] NOS: 

NUI; 



welglhlt). See Section 



PRESSURE (NTP). 



.See Section 1002.1. 

NUISANCE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 

OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION. For the purposes of this 
code, certain occupancies are defined as follows: 

[B] AssembBy Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy in- 
cludes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for the gathering together of persons for 
purposes such as civic, social or religious functions, recre- 
ation, food or drink consumption or awaiting transportation. 
A room or space used for assembly purposes by less than 50 
persons and accessory to another occupancy shall be in- 
cluded as a part of that occupancy. Assembly areas with less 
than 750 square feet (69.7 m^) and which are accessory to 
another occupancy according to Section 302.2.1 of the In- 
ternational Building Code are not assembly occupancies. 
Assembly occupancies which are accessory to Group E in 
accordance with Section 302.2 oiihe, International Building 
Code are not considered assembly occupancies. Religious 
educational rooms and religious auditoriums which are ac- 
cessory to churches in accordance with Section 302.2 of the 
International Building Code and which have occupant loads 
of less than 100 shall be classified as A-3. A building or ten- 
ant space used for assembly purposes by less than 50 per- 
sons shall be considered a Group B occupancy. 

Assembly occupancies shall include the following: 

A=l Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended 
for the production and viewing of performing arts or mo- 
tion pictures including but not limited to: 

Motion picture theaters 

Symphony and concert halls 

Televison and radio studios admitting an audience 

Theaters 

A=2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink con- 
sumption including, but not limited to: 

Banquet halls 
Night clubs 
Restaurants 
Taverns and bars 

A=3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or 
amusement and other assembly uses not classified else- 
where in Group A, including, but not limited to: 

Amusement arcades 
Art galleries 



Bowling alleys 

Churches 

Community halls 

Courtrooms 

Dance halls (not including food or drink 

consumption) 
Exhibition halls 
Funeral parlors 

Gymnasiums (without spectator seating) 
Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) 
Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating) 
Lecture halls 
Libraries 
Museums 

Waiting areas in transportation terminals 
Pool and billiard parlors 

A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sport- 
ing events and activities with spectator seating including, 
but not limited to: 

Arenas 
Skating rinks 
Swimming pools 
Tennis courts 

A=5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or view- 
ing outdoor activities including, but not limited to: 

Amusement park structures 

Bleachers 

Grandstands 

Stadiums 



[B] Besleess Group B. Business Group B occupancy in- 
cludes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type 
transactions, including storage of records and accounts. 
Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, 
the following: 

Airport traffic control towers 

Animal hospitals, kennels, pounds 

Banks 

Barber and beauty shops 

Car wash 

Civic administration 

Clinic — outpatient 

Dry cleaning and laundries; pick-up and delivery stations 

and self-service 

Educational occupancies above the 12th grade 

Electronic data processing 

Laboratories; testing and research 

Motor vehicle showrooms 

Post offices 

Print shops 

Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, 

physicians, engineers, etc.) 
Radio and television stations 
Telephone exchanges 

[B] Edecatlonal Group E. Educational Group E occu- 
pancy includes, among others, the use of a building or struc- 
ture, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one 
time for educational purposes through the 12th grade. Reli- 



<a 



2003 8NTERIMATI0NAL FIRE CODE® 



17 



DEFINITIONS 



gious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which 
are accessory to churches in accordance with Section 302.2 
and have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified 
as Group A-3 occupancies. 

Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion 
thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care ser- 
vices for more than five children older than 2 I2 years of 
age shall be classified as an E occupancy. 

[B] Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group 
F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassem- 
bhng, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, re- 
pair or processing operations that are not classified as a 
Group H high-hazard or Group S storage occupancy. 



Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-Hazard 
pancy. Factory Industrial uses which are not classified as 
Factory Industrial Group F-2 shall be classified as F-1 
Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be hmited to, 
the following: 

Aircraft 

Appliances 

Athletic equipment 

Automobiles and other motor vehicles 

Bakeries 

Beverages; over 12 percent in alcohol content 

Bicycles 

Boats 

Brooms or brushes 

Business machines 

Cameras and photo equipment 

Canvas and similar fabric 

Carpet and rugs (includes cleaning) 

Disinfectants 

Dry cleaning and dyeing 

Electric generation plants 

Electronics 

Engines (including rebuilding) 

Food processing 

Furniture 

Hemp products 

Jute products 

Laundries 

Leather products 

Machinery 

Metals 

Millwork (sash and doors) 

Motion picture and television filming (without 

spectators) 
Musical instruments 
Optical goods 
Paper mills or products 
Photographic film 
Plastic products 
Printing or publishing 
Recreational vehicles 
Refuse incineration 
Shoes 

Soaps and detergents 
Textiles 



Tobacco 
Trailers 
Upholstering 
Wood; distillation 
Woodworking (cabinet) 

[B] Factory Industrial F-2 Low-Hazard Occupancy. 

Factory industrial uses involving the fabrication or man- 
ufacturing of noncombustible materials which, during 
finishing, packaging or processing do not involve a sig- 
nificant fire hazard, shall be classified as Group F-2 oc- 
cupancies and shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Beverages; up to and including 12 percent alcohol 

content 
Brick and masonry 
Ceramic products 
Foundries 
Glass products 
Gypsum 
Ice 
Metal products (fabrication and assembly) 

HigSi-Hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, process- 
ing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a phys- 
ical or health hazard in quantifies in excess of those found in 
Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2) of the International Building 
Code. (See also definifion of "Control area)". 

Exception: Occupancies as provided for in the Interna- 
tional Building Code shall not be classified as Group H, 
but shall be classified in the occupancy which they most 
nearly resemble. 

High-hazard Group H-1. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that pose a detonation hazard, shall be 
classified as Group H-1 . Such materials shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following: 

Explosives: 
Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 

Exception: Materials that are used and main- 
tained in a form where either confinement or 
configuration will not elevate the hazard from a 
mass fire to mass explosion hazard shall be al- 
lowed in Group H-2 occupancies. 

Division 1.4 

Exception: Articles, including articles pack- 
aged for shipment, that are not regulated as an 
explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and 
Firearms regulations, or unpackaged articles 
used in process operations that do not propagate 
a detonation or deflagration between articles 
shall be allowed in Group H-3 occupancies. 

Division 1.5 

Division 1.6 
Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable 
Oxidizers, Class 4 



P 



18 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable, and 

Class 4 
Detonable pyrophoric materials 



n 



D 

D 
D 



=2. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a haz- 
ard from accelerated burning, shall be classified as 
Group H-2. Such materials shall include, but not be lim- 
ited to, the following: 

Class I, or II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids 
which are used or stored in normally open 
containers or systems, or in closed containers or 
systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per 
square inch (103.4 kPa) gauge 

Combustible dusts 

Cryogenic fluids, flammable 

Flammable gases 

Organic peroxides, Class I 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
open containers or systems, or in closed containers 
or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per 
square inch (103.4 kPa) gauge 

Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 3, nondetonable 

Water-reactive materials. Class 3 



=3. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that readily support combustion or that 
pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. 
Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids 
which are used or stored in normally closed 
containers or systems pressurized at less than 15 
pounds per square inch (103.4 kPa) gauge 

Combustible fibers 

Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) 

Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing 

Flammable solids 

Organic peroxides. Class II and Class III 

Oxidizers, Class 2 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
closed containers or systems pressurized at less 
than 1 5 pounds per square inch (103.4 kPa) gauge 

Oxidizing gases 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 2 

Water-reactive materials. Class 2 



1=4. Buildings and structures 
which contain materials that are health hazards shall be 
classified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following: 

Corrosives 

Highly toxic materials 

Toxic materials 



1=5. Semiconductor fabrication 
facilities and comparable research and development 
areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) 
are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in ex- 



cess of those hsted in Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2) of the 
International Building Code shall be classified as Group 
H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with Section 415.9 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 



I lo Institutional Group I occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, in which people, cared for or living in a su- 
pervised environment and having physical limitations be- 
cause of health or age, are harbored for medical treatment or 
other care or treatment, or in which people are detained for 
penal or correctional purposes or in which the Hberty of the 
occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be 
classified as Group I-l, 1-2, 1-3 or 1-4. 

Groiiip I=lo This occupancy shall include buildings, □ 
structures or parts thereof housing more than 16 persons, 
on a 24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability 
or other reasons, live in a supervised residential environ- 
ment that provides personal care services. The occupants 
are capable of responding to an emergency situation 
without physical assistance from staff. This group shall 
include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Alcohol and drug centers 
Assisted hving faciUties 
Congregate care facilities 
Convalescent facilities 
Group homes 
Half-way houses 

Residential board and care faciUties 
Social rehabilitation facilities 

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons 
shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the 
International Residential Code. A facility such as above, 
housing at least six and not more than 1 6 persons, shall be 
classified as Group R-4. 



1=2. This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nurs- 
ing or custodial care on a 24-hour basis of more than five 
persons who are not capable of self-preservation. This 
group shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Hospitals 

Nursing homes (both intermediate care facilities and 

skilled nursing facilities) 
Mental hospitals 
Detoxification facilities. 

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons 
shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the 
International Residential Code. 

A child care facility which provides care on a 24-hour 
basis to more than five children 2 /2 years of age or less 
shall be classified as Group 1-2. 

Group 1=3, This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures which are inhabited by more than five persons 
who are under restraint or security. An 1-3 faciUty is occu- 
pied by persons who are generally incapable of self-pres- 
ervation due to security measures not under the occupants' 



2003 IMTERNATDOMAL FDRE CODE® 



19 



DERNITIONS 



control. This group shall include, but not be hmited to, the 
following: 

Correctional centers 

Detention centers 

Jails 

Prerelease centers 

Prisons 

Reformatories 

Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the 
occupancy conditions indicated in Sections 308.4.1 
through 308.4.5 (see Section 408.1) of the International 
Building Code. 

Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and other spaces where access or occu- 
pancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress 
without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted 
to be constructed as Group R. 

Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke com- 
partment to one or more other smoke compartments. 
Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits. 

Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed within in- 
dividual smoke compartments, such as within a resi- 
dential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and 
group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by re- 
mote-controlled release of means of egress from such 
smoke compartment to another smoke compartment. 

Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is pro- 
vided to permit movement from sleeping units, activ- 
ity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke 
compartment to other smoke compartments. 

Condition 5, This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is 
provided to permit movement from sleeping units, ac- 
tivity spaces and other occupied areas within the 
smoke compartment to other smoke compartments. 

Group 1-4, day care facilities. This group shall include 
buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age 
who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by individ- 
uals other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood mar- 
riage, or adoption, and in a place other than the home of the 
person cared for. A facility such as the above with five or 
fewer persons shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall com- 
ply with the International Residential Code. Places of wor- 
ship during religious functions are not included. 

Adult care facility. A facility that provides accom- 
modations for less than 24 hours for more than five 
unrelated adults and provides supervision and per- 
sonal care services shall be classified as Group 1-4. 

Exception: Where the occupants are capable of re- 
sponding to an emergency situation without physi- 



cal assistance from the staff the facility shall be 
classified as Group A-3. 

Cliild care facility. A facility that provides supervi- 
sion and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis for 
more than five children 2V2years of age or less shall be 
classified as Group 1-4. 



(i 



tion: A child day care facility which pro- 
vides care for more than five but no more than 100 
children 2'/^ years or less of age, when the rooms 
where such children are cared for are located on the 
level of exit discharge and each of these child care 
rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, shall 
be classified as Group E. 



[B] Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy 
includes, among others, buildings and structures or a portion 
thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, and in- 
volves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to 
such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occu- 
pancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following. 

Department stores 

Drug stores 

Markets 

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 

Retail or wholesale stores 

Sales rooms 



t. Residential Group R includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classed as Institutional 
Group I. Residential occupancies shall include the following: 

R-1 Residential occupancies where the occupants are 
primarily transient in nature including: 

Boarding houses (transient) 
Hotels (transient) 
Motels (transient) 

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units 
or more than two dwelling units where the occupants are 
primarily permanent in nature, including: 

Apartment houses 

Boarding houses (not transient) 

Convents 

Dormitories 

Fraternities and sororities 

Hotels (nontransient) 

Monasteries 

Motels (nontransient) 

Vacation timeshare properties 

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are 
primarily permanent in nature and not classified as R-1, 
R-2, or I and where buildings do not contain more than 
two dwelling units as applicable in Section 101.2 of the 
International Building Code, or adult and child care fa- 
cilities that provide accommodations for five or fewer 
persons of any age for less than 24-hours. Adult and child 
care facilities that are within a single-family home are 
permitted to comply with the International Residential 
Code. 



r 



20 



2003 8NTERNATI0NAL RRE CODEC 



DEFINITSONS 



O 



M=4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings ar- 
ranged for occupancy as Residential Care/Assisted Liv- 
ing Facilities including more than five but not more than 
16 occupants, excluding staff. 

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for 
construction as defined for Group R-3 except for the height 
and area limitations provided in Section 503 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code or shall comply with the International 
Residential Code. 

[B] Storage Groep So Storage Group S occupancy in- 
cludes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazard- 
ous occupancy. 



I S=l. Buildings occu- 
pied for storage uses which are not classified as Group 
S-2 including, but not hmited to, storage of the follow- 
ing: 

Aerosols, Level 2 and 3 

Aircraft repair hangar 

Bags, cloth, burlap and paper 

Bamboo and rattan 

Baskets 

Belting, canvas and leather 

Books and paper in rolls or packs 

Boots and shoes 

Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone 

Cardboard and cardboard boxes 

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 

Cordage 

Furniture 

Furs 

Glue, mucilage, paste and size 

Grain 

Horn and combs, other than celluloid 

Leather 

Linoleum 

Lumber 

Motor vehicle repair garages (complying with the 
International Building Code and containing less 
than the maximum allowable quantities of 
hazardous materials) 

Photo engraving 

Resilient flooring 

Silk 

Soap 

Sugar 

Tires, bulk storage of 

Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 

Upholstering and mattress 

Wax candles 

Low-tiazaird storage, Groep §=2o Includes, among oth- 
ers, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible 
materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper 
cartons with or without single thickness divisions; or in 
paper wrappings. Such products may have a negligible 
amount of plastic trim such as knobs, handles, or film 
wrapping. Storage uses shall include, but not be limited 
to, storage of the following: 



Aircraft hangar 

Asbestos 

Beverages up to and including 12-percent alcohol in 

metal, glass or ceramic containers 
Cement in bags 
Chalk and crayons 

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers 
Dry cell batteries 
Electrical coils 
Electrical motors 
Empty cans 
Food products 

Foods in noncombustible containers 
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or 

containers 
Frozen foods 
Glass 
Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible 

liquids 
Gypsum board 
Inert pigments 
Ivory 

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim 
Metal parts 
Metals 
Mirrors 

Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers 
Parking garages (open or enclosed) 
Porcelain and pottery 
Stoves 

Talc and soapstones 
Washers and dryers 

[B] Mnscellameoes Group Uo Buildings and structures of an 
accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classi- 
fied in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, 
equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of 
this code commensurate with the fire and hfe hazard inci- 
dental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following: 

Agricultural buildings 

Aircraft hangar, accessory to a one- or two-family 
residence (see Section 412.3 of the International Build- 
ing Code 
Bams 
Carports 

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high 
Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy 
Greenhouses 
Livestock shelters 
Private garages 
Retaining walls 
Sheds 
Stables 
Tanks 
Towers 

] OCCUPANT LOAD. See Section 1002.1. 

PEN BURNING. See Section 302.1. 



<:^ 



2003 INTERMATBONAL FIRE CODE® 



21 



DEFINITIONS 



OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous mate- 
rial involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the 
atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are lib- 
erated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during nor- 
mal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and 
liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or con- 
tainers, dip tank and plating tank operations. 

OPERATING BUILDING. See Section 3302.1. 

OPERATING PRESSURE. The pressure at which a system 
operates. 

ORGANIC COATING. See Section 2002.1. 

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 3902.1. 

Class I. See Section 3902.1. 

Class II. See Section 3902.1. 

Class III. See Section 3902.1. 

Class IV. See Section 3902.1. 

Class V. See Section 3902. 1 . 

Unclassified detonable. See Section 3902. 1 . 

OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA, See Section 2702.1. 

OVERCROWDING. A condition that exists when either 
there are more people in a building, structure or portion thereof 
than have been authorized or posted by the fire code official, or 
when the fire code official determines that a threat exists to the 
safety of the occupants due to persons sitting and/or standing in 
locations that may obstruct or impede the use of aisles, pas- 
sages, corridors, stairways, exits or other components of the 
means of egress. 

OWNER. A corporation, firm, partnership, association, orga- 
nization and any other group acting as a unit, or a person who 
has legal title to any structure or premises with or without ac- 
companying actual possession thereof, and shall include the 
duly authorized agent or attorney, a purchaser, devisee, fidu- 
ciary and any person having a vested or contingent interest in 
the premises in question. 

OXIDIZER. See Secdon 4002.1. 

Class 4. See Section 4002.1. 
Class 3. See Section 4002.1. 
Class 2. See Section 4002.1. 
Class 1. See Secdon 4002. 1 . 

OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 4002.1. 

OZONE-GAS GENERATOR. See Section 3702.1. 

[B] PANIC HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 

PASS-THROUGH. See Section 1802.1. 

PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). See Section 
2702.1. 

PESTICIDE. See Section 2702.1. 

PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 2702.1. 

PLOSOPHORIC MATERIAL. See Section 3302.1. 

PLYWOOD and VENEER MILLS. See Section 1902.1. 

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. See Section 302.1. 

PRESSURE VESSEL. See Section 2702.1. 



PRIMARY CONTAINMENT. The first level of containment, 
consisting of the inside portion of that container which comes 
into immediate contact on its inner surface with the material be- 
ing contained. 

PROCESS TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1. 

PROPELLANT. See Section 2802. 1 . 

PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. See Section 3302.1. 

[B] PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002.1. 

PYROPHORIC. See Section 4102.1. 

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 3302.1. 

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT. See Section 3302.1. 

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL-EFFECT M^kTERIAL. See 
Section 3302.1. 

RAILWAY. See Section 3302.1. 

[B] RAMP. See Section 1002.1. 

RAW PRODUCT. See Section 1902.1. 

READY BOX. See Section 3302.1. 

RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902.1. 

RECREATIONAL FIRE. See Section 302.1. 

REDUCED FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1. 

REFINERY. See Section 3402. 1 . 

REFRIGERANT. See Section 602.1. 

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM. See Section 602.1. 

[B] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An archi- 
tect or engineer, registered or licensed to practice professional 
architecture or engineering, as defined by the statutory require- 
ments of the professional registration laws of the state in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

REMOTE EMERGENCY SHUTOFF DEVICE. See Sec- 
tion 3402.1. 

REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. See Section 3402.1. 

REPAIR GARAGE. See Section 2202.1. 

RESIN APPLICATION AREA. See Section 1502.1. 

RESPONSIBLE PERSON. See Section 2602.1. 

RETAIL DISPLAY AREA. See Section 2802.1. 

ROLL COATING. See Section 1502.1. 

RUBBISH (TRASH). Combustible and noncombusdble 
waste materials, including residue from the burning of coal, 
wood, coke or other combustible material, paper, rags, cartons, 
tin cans, metals, mineral matter, glass crockery, dust and dis- 
carded refrigerators, and heating, cooking or incinerator-type 
appliances. 

SAFETY CAN. See Section 2702.1. 

[B] SCISSOR STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. See Section 2702.1. 

SEGREGATED. See Section 2702.1. 

SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACIL- 
ITY. See Section 2202.1. 



22 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFBNmOWS 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY, See 
Section 1802.1. 



wet See Section 902.1. 

Semiautomatic drvo See Section 902.1. 



See Section 1802.1. 

SHELF STORAGE, See Section 2302.1. 

SINGLE=STATION SMOKE ALARM, See Section 902.1. 

Q [B] SLEEPING UNIT, See Section 902. 1 . 

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION, See Section 3302.1. 

SMALL ARMS PRIMERS, See Section 3302.1. 

SMOKE ALARM, See Section 902.1. 

SMOKE DETECTOR, See Section 902.1. 

[B] SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING, See 
Section 1002.1. 



iLLANTS, See Section 3302.1. 

SOLID. See Section 2702.1. 

SOLID SHELVING, See Section 2302.1. 

SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT, See Section 3402.1. 

SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS, See Section 
1202.1. 



Is, See Section 1202.1. 
5. See Section 1202.1. 
ts. See Section 1202.1. 
solvents. See Section 1202.1. 
Class IV solvents. See Section 1202.1. 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING, A building that is 
temporary, permanent or mobile that contains a device or sys- 
tem that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, 
around or over a course in any direction as a form of amusement 
arranged so that the egress path is not readily apparent due to vi- 
sual or audio distractions or an intentionally confounded egress 
path, or is not readily available because of the mode of convey- 
ance through the building or structure. 

SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE, See Sec- 
tion 3302.1. 



u See Section 1502.1. 

SPRAY BOOTH, See Section 1502.1. 
L See Section 1502.1. 
See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY, See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR, See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY, INTERIOR, See Section 1002.1. 

[B] STAIRWAY, SPIRAL, See Section 1002.1. 

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF, See Section 902.1. 

Class I system. See Section 902.1. 
Class II system. See Section 902. 1 . 
Class III system. See Section 902. 1 . 

OF, See Section 902.1. 



iS. See Section 1902.1. 

STEEL. Hot- or cold-rolled as defined by the International 
Building Code. 

STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 
2702.1. 

SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1. 

SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL, See Section 902.1. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL4NITIATING DEVICE, See 
Section 902.1. 

SYSTEM, See Section 2702.1. 

TANK, A vessel containing more than 60 gallons (227 L). 

TANK, ATMOSPHERIC, See Section 2702.1. 

TANK, PORTABLE, See Section 2702.1. 

See Section 3402.1. 



TANK, PROTECTED ABOVE GROUND, See Section 
3402.1. 

TANK, STATIONARY, See Section 2702.1. 

TANK VEHICLE, See Section 2702.1. 

TENT, See Section 2402.1. 

THEFT RESISTANT, See Section 3302.1. 

THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. See Section 
1702.1. 

TIMBER amd LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES. 
See Section 1902.1. 

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. See Section 902.1. 

TOOL. See Section 1802.1. 

TORCH- APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1. 

TOXIC. See Section 3702.1. 

TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE, See Section 2302.1. 

TRASH, See "Rubbish." 

iL. See Section 902.1. 

See Section 2702.1. 



UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL, See Section 
4302.1. 

Class 4. See Section 4302.1. 
ss 3. See Section 4302.1. 
ass 2. See Section 4302.1. 
issl. See Section 4302.1. 



, See Section 902.1. 
wet. See Section 902.1. 
See Section 902.1. 



JTED FIRE, A fire not used for cooking, heating or 
recreational purposes or one not incidental to the normal opera- 
tions of the property. 

USE (MATERIAL), See Section 2702.1. 

VALVE-REGULATED LEAD-ACID (VRLA) BATTERY, 
See Section 602.1. 

See Section 1502.1. 



2003 BNTERWATBONAL FBRE CODE® 



23 



DEFINITIONS 



VAPOR PRESSURE. See Section 2702.1. 

VENTED (FLOODED) LEAD-ACID BATTERY. See Sec- 
tion 602.1. 

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See 
Section 902.1. 

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 4402.1. 

Class 3. See Section 4402.1. 
Class 2. See Section 4402.1. 
Class 1. See Section 4402.1. 

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Sec- 
tion 902.1. 

[B] WINDER. See Section 1002.1. 

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM, See Section 902.1. 

WORKSTATION. See Section 1802.1. 

ZONE. See Section 902.1. 



24 2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



L 



CHAPTER 



AGAIMST FBRI 



30)1.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the oc- 
cupancy and maintenance of all structures and premises for 
precautions against fire and the spread of fire. 

301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 
105.6 for the activities or uses regulated by Sections 306, 307, 
308.3, 308.4, 308.5 and 315. 



DEFDWmOWS 

3(D2.1 Deimltnoms. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

E. An outdoor fire utilized for ceremonial purposes. 

A cart used to transport hot roofing materials on a 
roof. 



, The burning of materials wherein products 
of combustion are emitted directly into the ambient air without 
passing through a stack or chimney from an enclosed chamber. 
Open burning does not include road flares, smudgepots and 
similar devices associated with safety or occuparional uses typ- 
ically considered open flames or recreational fires. For the pur- 
pose of this definition, a chamber shall be regarded as enclosed 
when, during the fime combustion occurs, only apertures, 
ducts, stacks, flues or chimneys necessary to provide combus- 
tion air and permit the escape of exhaust gas are open. 

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. A forklift, tractor, plat- 
form lift truck or motorized hand truck powered by an electrical 
motor or internal combustion engine. Powered industrial trucks 
do not include farm vehicles or automotive vehicles for high- 
way use. 

RECREATIONAL EIRE. An outdoor fire burning materials 
other than rubbish where the fuel being burned is not contained 
in an incinerator, outdoor fireplace, barbeque grill or barbeque 
pit and has a total fuel area of 3 feet (9 14 mm) or less in diame- 
ter and 2 feet (610 mm) or less in height for pleasure, religious, 
ceremonial, cooking, warmth or similar purposes. 



SECTION 303 
ASPHALT CCETTLES 

.1 Traesportieg. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be trans- 
ported over any highway, road or street when the heat source for 
the kettle is operating. 

Exceptloni: Asphalt (tar) kettles in the process of patching 
road surfaces. 



building surface or any building opening and within a con- 
trolled area identified by the use of traffic cones, barriers or 
other approved means. Asphalt (tar) kettles and pots shall not 
be utilized inside or on the roof of a building or structure. 
Roofing kettles and operating asphalt (tar) kettles shall not 
block means of egress, gates, roadways or entrances. 

303,3 Locatnoim off fuel comtaimers. Fuel containers shall be lo- 
cated at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from the burner. 



m Containers properly insulated from heat or 
flame are allowed to be within 2 feet (610 mm) of the burner. 



L An operating kettle shall be attended by a 
minimum of one employee knowledgeable of the operations 
and hazards. The employee shall be within 100 feet (30 480 
mm) of the kettle and have the kettle within sight. Ladders or 
similar obstacles shall not form a part of the route between the 
attendant and the kettle. 



Fnre extlngulsliiers. There shall be a portable fire extin- 
guisher complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 
40-B:C rating within 25 feet (7620 mm) of each asphalt (tar) 
kettle during the period such kettle is being utilized, and one 
additional portable fire extinguisher with a minimum 40-B:C 
rating on the roof being covered. 



Asphalt (tar) kettles shall be equipped with 
tight-fitting lids. 



Hn-boy§. Hi-boys shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. Hi- boys shall be limited to a capac- 
ity of 55 gallons (208 L). Fuel sources or heating elements shall 
not be allowed as part of a hi-boy. 

303.8 RooSmg kettles. Roofing kettles shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. 

303.9 Fuel comtaiiniers mnder air pressure. Fuel containers 
that operate under air pressure shall not exceed 20 gallons (76 L) 
in capacity and shall be approved. 



304.1 Waste accmmitiilatlon proMtoftedo Combustible waste 
material creating a fire hazard shall not be allowed to accumu- 
late in buildings or structures or upon premises. 

304.1.1 Waste material. Accumulations of wastepaper, 
wood, hay, straw, weeds, litter or combustible or flammable 
waste or rubbish of any type shall not be permitted to remain 
on a roof or in any court, yard, vacant lot, alley, parking lot, 
open space, or beneath a grandstand, bleacher, pier, wharf, 
manufactured home, recreational vehicle or other similar 
structure. 



1.2 Locatioini. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be located within 
20 feet (6096 mm) of any combustible material, combustible 



LI. 2 Vegetaftlom. Weeds, grass, vines or other growth 
that is capable of being ignited and endangering property, □ 
shall be cut down and removed by the owner or occupant of 



2003 INTERWATJOWAL FBRE CODE® 



25 



GENERAL PRECAUTSONS AGAINST F!RE 



the premises. Vegetation clearance requirements in ur- 
ban- wildland interface areas shall be in accordance with the 
International Urban/Wildland Interface Code. 

304.1.3 Space underneath seats. Spaces underneath 
grandstand and bleacher seats shall be kept free from com- 
bustible and flammable materials. Except where enclosed in 
not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction in ac- 
cordance with the International Building Code, spaces un- 
derneath grandstand and bleacher seats shall not be 
occupied or utilized for purposes other than means of 
egress. 

304.2 Storage. Storage of combustible rubbish shall not pro- 
duce conditions that will create a nuisance or a hazard to the 
public health, safety or welfare. 

304.3 Containers. Combustible rubbish, and waste material 
kept within a structure shall be stored in accordance with Sec- 
tions 304.3.1 through 304.3.3. 



304.3.1 Spontaneous Ignition. Materials susceptible to 
spontaneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a 
listed disposal container. Contents of such containers shall 
be removed and disposed of daily. 

304.3.2 Capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet. Containers 
with a capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet (40 gallons) (0.15 
m^) shall be provided with hds. Containers and lids shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials or approved com- 
bustible materials. 

304.3.3 Capacity exceeding 1.5 cubic yards. Dumpsters 
and containers with an individual capacity of 1.5 cubic 
yards (40.5 cubic feet) (1.15 m^) or more shall not be stored 
in buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combusti- 
ble walls, openings or combustible roof eave Hues. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Dumpsters or containers in areas protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system complying 
with Chapter 9. 

2. Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where 
the structure is of Type I or Type IIA construction, 
located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other 
buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or 
container storage. 



SECTION 305 
IGMITION SOURCES 

305.1 Clearance from ignition sources. Clearance between 
ignition sources, such as hght fixtures, heaters and flame-pro- 
ducing devices, and combustible materials shall be maintained 
in an approved manner. 

305.2 Hot ashes and spontaneous ignition sources. Hot 
ashes, cinders, smoldering coals or greasy or oily materials 
subject to spontaneous ignition shall not be deposited in a com- 
bustible receptacle, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of other combus- 



tible material including combustible walls and partitions or 
within 2 feet (610 mm) of openings to buildings. 

Exception: The minimum required separation distance to 
other combustible materials shall be 2 feet (610 mm) where 
the material is deposited in a covered, noncombustible re- 
ceptacle placed on a noncombustible floor, ground surface 
or stand. 

305.3 Open=flame warning devices. Open-flame warning de- 
vices shall not be used along an excavation, road, or any place 
where the dislodgment of such device might permit the device 
to roll, fall or slide on to any area or land containing combusti- 
ble material. 

305.4 Deliberate or negligent burning. It shall be unlawful to 
dehberately or through negligence set fire to or cause the burn- 
ing of combustible material in such a manner as to endanger the 
safety of persons or property. 



SECTION 306 
MOTION PICTURE FILM AND SCREENS 

306.1 Motion picture projection rooms. Electric arc, xenon 
or other light source projection equipment which develops haz- 
ardous gases, dust or radiation and the projection of rib- 
bon-type cellulose nitrate film, regardless of the light source 
used in projection, shall be operated within a motion picture 
projection room complying with Section 409 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

306.2 Cellulose nitrate film storage. Storage of cellulose ni- 
trate film shall be in accordance with NFPA 40. 



SECTION 307 
OPEN ByRNING AND RECREATIONAL FIRES 

307.1 General. A person shall not kindle or maintain or autho- 
rize to be kindled or maintained any open burning unless con- 
ducted and approved in accordance with this section. 

307.2 Permit required. A permit shall be obtained from the 
fire code official in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to 
kindling a fire for recognized silvicultural or range or wildlife 
management practices, prevention or control of disease or 
pests, or a bonfire. Application for such approval shall only be 
presented by and permits issued to the owner of the land upon 
which the fire is to be kindled. 



,1 Authorization. Where required by state or local 
law or reguladons, open burning shall only be permitted 
with prior approval from the state or local air and water qual- 
ity management authority, provided that all conditions spec- 
ified in the authorization are followed. 

307,2.2 Prohibited open burning. Open burning that will 
be offensive or objectionable because of smoke or odor 
emissions when atmospheric conditions or local circum- 
stances make such fires hazardous shall be prohibited. The 
fire code official is authorized to order the extinguishment 
by the permit holder or the fire department of open burning 



26 



2003 8NTERNATI0NAL FIRE CODE® 



GENERAL PRECAUTSONS AGAINST FSRE 




which creates or adds to a hazardous or objectionable situa- 
tion. 



on combustible balconies or within 10 feet (3048 mm) of 
combustible construction. 



^3 Locatnoe. The location for open burning shall not be less 
than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any structure, and provisions 
shall be made to prevent the fire from spreading to within 50 
feet (15 240 mm) of any structure. 



1. Fires in approved containers that are not less than 15 
feet (4572 mm) from a structure. 

2. The minimum required distance from a structure shall 
be 25 feet (7620 mm) where the pile size is 3 feet (914 
mm) or less in diameter and 2 feet (610 mm) or less in 
height. 

SiOTJol Bonfires, A bonfire shall not be conducted within 
50 feet (15 240 mm) of a structure or combustible material 
unless the fire is contained in a barbecue pit. Conditions 
which could cause a fire to spread within 50 feet (15 240 
mm) of a structure shall be eliminated prior to ignition. 



Recreational fires shall not be 
conducted within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure or com- 
bustible material. Conditions which could cause a fire to 
spread within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure shall be elim- 
inated prior to ignition. 



J. Open burning, bonfires or recreational fires 
shall be constantly attended until the fire is extinguished. A 
minimum of one portable fire extinguisher complying with 
Section 906 with a minimum 4-A rating or other approved 
on-site fire-extinguishing equipment, such as dirt, sand, water 
barrel, garden hose or water truck, shall be available for imme- 
diate utilization. 



O 



©FEN FLAMES 

, This section shall control open flames, fire and 
burning on all premises. 



A person shall not take or utilize an 
open flame or light in a structure, vessel, boat or other place 
where highly flammable, combustible or explosive material is 
utilized or stored. Lighting appliances shall be well-secured in 
a glass globe and wire mesh cage or a similar approved device. 



308.2.1 Tlhrowmg or pladng somrces oflgmltiom. No per- 
son shall throw or place, or cause to be thrown or placed, a 
lighted match, cigar, cigarette, matches, or other flaming or 
glowing substance or object on any surface or article where 
it can cause an unwanted fire. 

308.3 Opera lame, A person shall not utiUze or allow to be uti- 
lized, an open flame in connection with a pubhc meeting or 
gathering for purposes of deliberation, worship, entertainment, 
amusement, instruction, education, recreation, awaiting trans- 
portation or similar purpose in Group A or E occupancies with- 
out first obtaining a permit in accordance with Section 105.6. 



1. One- and two-family dwellings. 

2. Where buildings, balconies and decks are pro- 
tected by an automatic sprinkler system. 



LP-gas burners having an LP-gas container 
with a water capacity greater than 2.5 pounds [nominal 1 
pound (0.454 kg) LP-gas capacity] shall not be located 
on combustible balconies or within 10 feet (3048 mm) of 
combustible construction. 



Tki One- and two-family dwellings. 

308,3.2 Opem-fflame decorative devices. Open-flame dec- 
orative devices shall comply with all of the following re- 
strictions: 

1 . Class I and Class II hquids and LP-gas shall not be 
used. 

2. Liquid- or solid-fueled lighting devices containing 
more than 8 ounces (237 ml) of fuel must self-extin- 
guish and not leak fuel at a rate of more than 0.25 
teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) if tipped 
over. 

3. The device or holder shall be constructed to prevent 
the spillage of liquid fuel or wax at the rate of more 
than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) 
when the device or holder is not in an upright posi- 
tion. 

4. The device or holder shall be designed so that it will 
return to the upright position after being tilted to an 
angle of 45 degrees from vertical. 



308,3.1 Opem-iniame cooking devices. Charcoal burners 
and other open- flame cooking devices shall not be operated 



K Devices that self-extinguish if tipped 
over and do not spill fuel or wax at the rate of 
more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per 
minute) if tipped over. 

5. The flame shall be enclosed except where openings 
on the side are not more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) di- 
ameter or where openings are on the top and the dis- 
tance to the top is such that a piece of tissue paper 
placed on the top will not ignite in 10 seconds. 

6. Chimneys shall be made of noncombustible materi- 
als and securely attached to the open-flame device. 

ExceptioEs A chimney is not required to be at- 
tached to any open-flame device that will self-ex- 
tinguish if the device is tipped over. 

Fuel canisters shall be safely sealed for storage. 

Storage and handling of combustible hquids shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 34. 

Shades, where used, shall be made of 
noncombustible materials and securely attached to 
the open-flame device holder or chimney. 

Candelabras with flame-lighted candles shall be se- 
curely fastened in place to prevent overturning, and 
shall be located away from occupants using the area 



7 



9. 



10 



2003 BMTERWATIlOiMAL FJRE CODE® 



27 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



and away from possible contact with drapes, cur- 
tains or other combustibles. 

308.3.3 Location near combustibles. Open flames such as 
from candles, lanterns, kerosene heaters, and gas-fired heat- 
ers shall not be located on or near decorative material or 
similar combustible materials. 

308.3.4 Aisles and exits. Candles shall be prohibited in ar- 
eas where occupants stand, or in an aisle or exit. 

308.3.5 Religious ceremonies. When, in the opinion of the 
fire code official, adequate safeguards have been taken, par- 
ticipants in rehgious ceremonies are allowed to carry 
hand-held candles. Hand-held candles shall not be passed 
from one person to another while lighted. 

308.3.6 Theatrical performances. Where approved, 
open-flame devices used in conjunction with theatrical per- 
formances are allowed to be used when adequate safety pre- 
cautions have been taken in accordance with NFPA 160. 

308.3.7 Group A occupancies. Open-flame devices shall 
not be used in a Group A occupancy. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Open-flame devices are allowed to be used in the 
following situations, provided approved precau- 
tions are taken to prevent ignition of a combustible 
material or injury to occupants: 

1.1. Where necessary for ceremonial or reli- 
gious purposes in accordance with Section 
308.3.5. 

1 .2. On stages and platforms as a necessary part 
of a performance in accordance with Sec- 
tion 308.3.6. 

1.3. Where candles on tables are securely sup- 
ported on substantial noncombustible 
bases and the candle flames are protected. 

2. Heat-producing equipment complying with Chap- 
ter 6 and the International Mechanical Code. 

3. Gas lights are allowed to be used provided ade- 
quate precautions satisfactory to the fire code offi- 
cial are taken to prevent ignition of combustible 
materials. 

308.4 Torches for removing paint. Persons utilizing a torch or 
other flame-producing device for removing paint from a struc- 
ture shall provide a minimum of one portable fire extinguisher 
complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 4-A rating, 
two portable fire extinguishers, each with a minimum 2-A rat- 
ing, or a water hose connected to the water supply on the pre- 
mises where such burning is done. The person doing the 
burning shall remain on the premises 1 hour after the torch or 
flame-producing device is utilized. 

308.4.1 Permit. A permit in accordance with Section 105.6 
shall be secured from the fire code official prior to the utili- 
zation of a torch or flame-producing device to remove paint 
from a structure. 

308.5 Open-flame devices. Torches and other devices, ma- 
chines or processes liable to start or cause fire shall not be oper- 
ated or used in or upon hazardous fire areas, except by a permit 



in accordance with Section 105.6 secured from the fire code of- 
ficial. 

Exception: Use within inhabited premises or designated 
campsites which are a minimum of 30 feet (9144 mm) from 
grass-, grain-, brush- or forest-covered areas. 

308.5.1 Signals and markers. Flame-employing devices, 
such as lanterns or kerosene road flares, shall not be oper- 
ated or used as a signal or marker in or upon hazardous fire 
areas. 

Exception: The proper use of fusees at the scenes of 
emergencies or as required by standard railroad operat- 
ing procedures. 

308.5.2 Portable fueled open-flame devices. Portable 
open-flame devices fueled by flammable or combustible 
gases or liquids shall be enclosed or installed in such a man- 
ner as to prevent the flame from contacting combustible ma- 
terial. 

Exceptions: 

1. LP-gas-fueled devices used for sweating pipe 
joints or removing paint in accordance with Chap- 
ter 38. 

2. Cutting and welding operations in accordance with 
Chapter 26. 

3. Torches or flame-producing devices in accordance 
with Section 308.4. 

4. Candles and open-flame decorative devices in ac- 
cordance with Section 308.3. 

308,6 Flaming food and beverage preparation. The prepara- 
tion of flaming foods or beverages in places of assembly and 
drinking or dining establishments shall be in accordance with 
Section 308.6. 

308.6.1 Dispensing. Flammable or combustible liquids 
used in the preparation of flaming foods or beverages shall 
be dispensed from one of the following: 

1. A 1-ounce (29.6 ml) container; or 

2. A container not exceeding 1 -quart (946.5 ml) capacity 
with a controlled pouring device that will limit the 
flow to a 1-ounce (29.6 ml) serving. 

308.6.2 Containers not in use. Containers shall be secured 
to prevent spillage when not in use. 



L6.3 Serving of flaming food. The serving of flaming 
foods or beverages shall be done in a safe manner and shall 
not create high flames. The pouring, ladling or spooning of 
liquids is restricted to a maximum height of 8 inches (203 
mm) above the receiving receptacle. 

308.6.4 Location. Flaming foods or beverages shall be pre- 
pared only in the immediate vicinity of the table being ser- 
viced. They shall not be transported or carried while 
burning. 



.6.5 Fire protection. The person preparing the flaming 
foods or beverages shall have a wet cloth towel immediately 
available for use in smothering the flames in the event of an 
emergency. 



28 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAISMST FIRE 



POWERED INDUSTi 

.1 GeneraL Powered industrial trucks shall be operated and 
maintained in accordance with this section. 



cliargerso Battery chargers shall be of an ap- 
proved type. Combustible storage shall be kept a minimum of 3 
feet (915 mm) from battery chargers. Battery charging shall not 
be conducted in areas accessible to the pubhc. 



n. Ventilation shall be provided in an approved 
manner in battery-charging areas to prevent a dangerous accu- 
mulation of flammable gases. 



A Fire extnegeislhers. Battery-charging areas shall be pro- 
vided with a fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 hav- 
ing a minimum 4-A:20-B:C rating within 20 feet (6096 mm) of 
the battery charger. 



sgo Powered industrial trucks using hquid fuel or 
LP-gas shall be refueled outside of buildings or in areas specifi- 
cally approved for that purpose and in accordance with Chapter 
34 or 38. 



Bairs, Repairs to fuel systems, electrical systems and 
repairs utilizing open flame or welding shall be done in ap- 
proved locations outside of buildings or in areas specifically 
approved for that purpose. 



SECTIOW310 
SMQKMQ 

SlO.l GemeraL The smoking or carrying of a lighted pipe, ci- 
gar, cigarette or any other type of smoking paraphernalia or ma- 
terial is prohibited in the areas indicated in this section. 



areas. Smoking shall be prohibited where 
D conditions are such as to make smoking a hazard, and in spaces 
where flammable or combustible materials are stored or han- 
dled. 



"No SmoMing" sigms. The fire code official is authorized 
to order the posdng of "No Smoking" signs in a conspicuous lo- 
cation in each structure or location in which smoking is prohib- 
ited. The content, lettering, size, color and location of required 
"No Smoking" signs shall be approved. 



I. A posted "No Smoking" 
sign shall not be obscured, removed, defaced, mutilated or de- 
stroyed. 

Sl^oS Compliaece with "No Smoking" siges. Smoking shall 
not be permitted nor shall a person smoke, throw or deposit any 
lighted or smoldering substance in any place where "No 
Smoking" signs are posted. 

310.6 Ash trays. Where smoking is permitted, suitable 
noncombustible ash trays or match receivers shall be provided 
on each table and at other appropriate locations. 



.7 BerEimg objects. Lighted matches, cigarettes, cigars or 
other burning object shall not be discarded in such a manner 
I that could cause ignition of other combustible material. 



ns. When the fire 
code official determines that hazardous environmental condi- 
tions necessitate controlled use of smoking materials, the igni- 



tion or use of such materials in mountainous, brush-covered or 
forest-covered areas or other designated areas is prohibited ex- 
cept in approved designated smoking areas. 



»■ 



General. Temporarily unoccupied buildings, structures, 
premises or portions thereof, including tenant spaces, shall be 
safeguarded and maintained in accordance with this section. 

311.1.1 Abamdomed premises. Buildings, structures and 
premises for which an owner cannot be identified or located 
by dispatch of a certificate of mailing to the last known or 
registered address, which persistently or repeatedly become 
unprotected or unsecured, which have been occupied by un- 
authorized persons or for illegal purposes, or which present 
a danger of structural collapse or fire spread to adjacent 
properties shall be considered abandoned, declared unsafe 
and abated by demolition or rehabilitation in accordance 
with the International Property Maintenance Code and the 
International Building Code. 

311.1.2 Tenant spaces. Storage and lease plans required by 
this code shall be revised and updated to reflect temporary 
or partial vacancies. 

311.2 Safeguarding vacant premises. Temporarily unoccu- 
pied buildings, structures, premises or portions thereof shall be 
secured and protected in accordance with this section. 

311.2.1 Security. Exterior openings and interior openings 
accessible to other tenants or unauthorized persons shall be 
boarded, locked, blocked or otherwise protected to prevent 
entry by unauthorized individuals. 

311.2.2 Fire protection. Fire alarm, sprinkler and 
standpipe systems shall be maintained in an operable condi- 
tion at all times. 



1 . When the premises have been cleared of all com- 
bustible materials and debris and, in the opinion of 
the fire code official, the type of construction, fire 
separation distance and security of the premises do 
not create a fire hazard. 

2. Where buildings will not be heated and fire protec- 
tion systems will be exposed to freezing tempera- 
tures, fire alarm and sprinkler systems are 
permitted to be placed out of service and 
standpipes are permitted to be maintained as dry 
systems (without an automatic water supply) pro- 
vided the building has no contents or storage, and 
windows, doors and other openings are secured to 
prohibit entry by unauthorized persons. 

311.2.3 Fire separation. Fire-resistance-rated partitions, 
fire barriers, and fire walls separating vacant tenant spaces 
from the remainder of the building shall be maintained. 
Openings, joints, and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated 
assembhes shall be protected in accordance with Chapter 7. 

Memoval of comlbustibles. Persons owning, or in charge 
or control of, a vacant building or portion thereof, shall remove 
therefrom all accumulations of combustible materials, flam- 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



29 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



mable or combustible waste or rubbish and shall securely lock 
or otherwise secure doors, windows and other openings to pre- 
vent entry by unauthorized persons. The premises shall be 
maintained clear of waste or hazardous materials. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Buildings or portions of buildings undergoing addi- 
tions, alterations, repairs, or change of occupancy in 
accordance with the International Building Code, 
where waste is controlled and removed as required by 
Section 304. 

2. Seasonally occupied buildings. 

311.4 Removal of hazardous materials. Persons owning or 
having charge or control of a vacant building containing haz- 
ardous materials regulated by Chapter 27 shall comply with the 
facility closure requirements of Section 2701.6. 



SECTION 312 
VEHICLE IMPACT PROTECTION 

312.1 General. Vehicle impact protection required by this 
code shall be provided by posts that comply with Section 312.2 
or by other approved physical barriers that comply with Sec- 
tion 312.3. 

312.2 Posts. Guard posts shall comply with all of the following 
requirements: 

1. Constructed of steel not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
diameter and concrete filled. 

2 . Spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) between posts on 
center. 

3. Set not less than 3 feet (914 mm) deep in a concrete foot- 
ing of not less than a 15-inch (381 mm) diameter. 

4. Set with the top of the posts not less than 3 feet (914 mm) 
above ground. 

5. Located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the protected 
object. 

312.3 Other barriers. Physical barriers shall be a minimum of 
36 inches (914 mm) in height and shall resist a force of 12,000 
pounds (53 375 N) applied 36 inches (914 mm) above the adja- 
cent ground surface. 



SECTION 313 
FUELED EQUIPMENT 

313.1 Fueled equipment. Fueled equipment, including but not 
limited to motorcycles, mopeds, lawn-care equipment and por- 
table cooking equipment, shall not be stored, operated or re- 
paired within a building. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Buildings or rooms constructed for such use in accor- 
dance with the International Building Code. 

2. Where allowed by Section 314. 

313.1.1 Removal. The fire code official is authorized to re- 
quire removal of fueled equipment from locations where the 
presence of such equipment is determined by the fire code 
official to be hazardous. 



313.2 Group R occupancies. Vehicles powered by flammable| 
liquids. Class II combustible hquids, or compressed flammable 
gases shall not be stored within the living space of Group R 
buildings. 



SECTION 314 
INDOOR DISPLAYS 

314.1 General. Indoor displays constructed within any occu- 
pancy shall comply with Sections 314.2 through 314.4. 

314.2 Fixtures and displays. Fixtures and displays of goods 
for sale to the public shall be arranged so as to maintain free, 
immediate and unobstructed access to exits as required by 
Chapter 10. 

314.3 Highly combustible goods. The display of highly com- 
busdble goods, including but not limited to fireworks, flamma- 
ble or combustible liquids, liquefied flammable gases, 
oxidizing materials, pyroxylin plastics and agricultural goods, 
in main exit access aisles, corridors, covered malls, or within 5 
feet (1524 mm) of entrances to exits and exterior exit doors is 
prohibited when a fire involving such goods v/ould rapidly pre- 
vent or obstruct egress. 

314.4 Vehicles. Liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles, boats or other 
motorcraft shall not be located indoors except as follows: 

1. Batteries are disconnected. 

2. Fuel in fuel tanks does not exceed one-quarter tank or 5 
gallons (19 L) (whichever is least). 

3. Fuel tanks and fill openings are closed and sealed to pre- 
vent tampering. 

4. Vehicles, boats or other motorcraft equipment are not fu- 
eled or defueled within the building. 



SECTION 315 

MISCELLANEOUS COMBUSTIBLE 

MATERIALS STORAGE 

315.1 General. Storage, use and handling of miscellaneous 
combustible materials shall be in accordance with this section. 
A permit shall be obtained in accordance with Section 105.6. 

315.2 Storage in buildings. Storage of combustible materials 
in buildings shall be orderly. Storage shall be separated from 
heaters or heating devices by distance or shielding so that igni- 
tion cannot occur. 

315.2.1 Ceiling clearance. Storage shall be maintained 2 
feet (610 mm) or more below the ceiling in nonsprinklered 
areas of buildings or a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) be- 
low sprinkler head deflectors in sprinklered areas of build- 
ings. 

315.2.2 Means of egress. Combustible materials shall not 
be stored in exits or exit enclosures. 

315.2.3 Equipment rooms. Combustible material shall not 
be stored in boiler rooms, mechanical rooms or electrical 
equipment rooms. 

315.2.4 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, 
under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of com- 
bustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as 



30 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST F8RE 



c^ 



required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 
Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-clos- 
ing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood 
core not less than 1.75 inches (44.5 mm) in thickness. Stor- 
age shall not be placed on exposed joists. 

Exceptnoess 

1 . Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler 
systems. 

2. Group R-3 and Group U occupancies. 

315.3 OmteMe storage. Outside storage of combustible mate- 
rials shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a property 
line. 



1 . The separation distance is allowed to be reduced to 3 
feet (914 mm) for storage not exceeding 6 feet (1829 
mm) in height. 

2. The separation distance is allowed to be reduced when 
the fire code official determines that no hazard to the 
adjoining property exists. 

315o3ol Storage bemeattlTi overtneadl projectioms iFroimii 
buIMmgSo Combustible materials stored or displayed out- 
side of buildings that are protected by automatic sprinklers 
shall not be stored or displayed under nonsprinklered eaves, 
canopies or other projections or overhangs. 

315.3o2 HeiglhiL Storage in the open shall not exceed 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in height. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



31 



32 2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 4 



;ypl 



GENERAL 

LI Scope. Reporting of emergencies, coordination with 
emergency response forces, emergency plans, and procedures 
for managing or responding to emergencies shall comply with 
the provisions of this section. 



• 



ni: Firms that have approved on-premises 
fire-fighting organizations and that are in compliance with 
approved procedures for fire reporting. 

)vaL Where required by this code, fire safety plans, 
emergency procedures, and employee training programs shall 
be approved by the fire code official. 

401.3 Emergemcy forces nnotifflcatioE, In the event an un- 
wanted fire occurs on a property, the owner or occupant shall 
immediately report such condition to the fire department. 
Building employees and tenants shall implement the appropri- 
ate emergency plans and procedures. No person shall, by verbal 
or written directive, require any delay in the reporting of a fire 
to the fire department. 

401.3,1 Making false report. It shall be unlawful for a per- 
son to give, signal, or transmit a false alarm. 



as. Upon activation of a fire alarm 
signal, employees or staff shall immediately notify the fire 
department. 

401.3.3 Emergenncy evaciEatnoini drills. Nothing in this sec- 
tion shall prohibit the sounding of a fire alarm signal for the 
carrying out of an emergency evacuation drill in accordance 
with the provisions of Section 405. 

ipartmemt operations. It shall 
be unlawful to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, conspire 
to interfere with, obstruct or restrict the mobiUty of or block the 
path of travel of a fire department emergency vehicle in any 
way, or to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, conspire to 
interfere with, obstruct or hamper any fire department opera- 
tion. 



Any security device or system that 
emits any medium that could obscure a means of egress in any 
building, structure or premise shall be prohibited. 



402,1 DeSmntioE, The following word and term shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meaning shown herein. 

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. An exercise per- 
formed to train staff and occupants and to evaluate their effi- 
ciency and effectiveness in carrying out emergency evacuation 
procedures. 



SECTION 403 
PUBLIC ASSEMBLAGES AND EVENTS 

5.1 General. When, in the opinion of the fire code official, it 
is essential for public safety in a place of assembly or any other 
place where people congregate, because of the number of per- 
sons, or the nature of the performance, exhibition, display, con- 
test or activity, the owner, agent or lessee shall provide one or 
more fire watch personnel, as required and approved, to remain 
on duty during the fimes such places are open to the pubhc, or 
when such activity is being conducted. The fire watch person- 
nel shall keep diligent watch for fires, obstructions to means of 
egress and other hazards during the time such place is open to 
the public or such activity is being conducted and take prompt 
measures for remediation of hazards, extinguishment of fires 
that occur and assist in the evacuation of the public from the 
structures. 



.1.1 Public safety plan. In other than Group A or E oc- 
cupancies, where the fire code official determines that an in- 
door or outdoor gathering of persons has an adverse impact 
on public safety through diminished access to buildings, 
structures, fire hydrants and fire apparatus access roads or 
where such gatherings adversely affect public safety ser- 
vices of any kind, the fire code official shall have the author- 
ity to order the development of, or prescribe a plan for, the 
provision of an approved level of pubhc safety. 

403,1.2 Contents. The public safety plan, where required 
by Section 403.1.1, shall address such items as emergency 
vehicle ingress and egress, fire protection, emergency medi- 
cal services, public assembly areas and the directing of both 
attendees and vehicles (including the parking of vehicles), 
vendor and food concession distribution, and the need for 
the presence of law enforcement, and fire and emergency 
medical services personnel at the event. 



FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLANS 

1.1 General. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall comply 
with the requirements of this section. 

404.2 Where required. An approved fire safety and evacua- 
tion plan shall be prepared and maintained for the following oc- 
cupancies and buildings. 

1. Group A, other than Group A occupancies used exclu- 
sively for purposes of reUgious worship that have an oc- 
cupant load less than 2,000. 

2. Group E. 

3. Group H. 

4. Group I. 

5. Group R-1. 

6. Group R-4. 



2003 BNTERMAUONAL FIRE CODE® 



33 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



10. 
11. 



High-rise buildings. 

Group M buildings having an occupant load of 500 or 
more persons or more than 100 persons above or below 
the lowest level of exit discharge. 

Covered malls exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) 
in aggregate floor area. 

Underground buildings. 

Buildings with an atrium and having an occupancy in 
Group A, E or M. 



404.3 Contents. Fire safety and evacuation plan contents shall 
be in accordance with Sections 404.3.1 and 404.3.2. 

404.3.1 Fire evacuation plans. Fire evacuation plans shall 
include the following: 

1 . Emergency egress or escape routes and whether evac- 
uation of the building is to be complete or, where ap- 
proved, by selected floors or areas only. 

2. Procedures for employees who must remain to oper- 
ate critical equipment before evacuating. 

3. Procedures for accounting for employees and occu- 
pants after evacuation has been completed. 

4. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for rescue or emergency medical aid. 

5. The preferred and any alternative means of notifying 
occupants of a fire or emergency. 

6. The preferred and any alternative means of reporting 
fires and other emergencies to the fire department or 
designated emergency response organization. 

7. Identification and assignment of personnel who can 
be contacted for further information or explanation of 
duties under the plan. 

8. A description of the emergency voice/alarm commu- 
nication system alert tone and preprogrammed voice 
messages, where provided. 

404.3.2 Fire safety plans. Fire safety plans shall include the 
following: 

1 . The procedure for reporting a fire or other emergency. 

2. The life safety strategy and procedures for notifying, 
relocating, or evacuating occupants. 

3. Site plans indicating the following: 

3.1. The occupancy assembly point. 

3.2. The locadons of fire hydrants. 

3.3. The normal routes of fire department vehicle 
access. 

4. Floor plans identifying the locations of the following: 

4.1. Exits. 

4.2. Primary evacuation routes. 

4.3. Secondary evacuation routes. 

4.4. Accessible egress routes. 

4.5. Areas of refuge. 



4.6. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4.7. Portable fire extinguishers. 

4.8. Occupant-use hose stations. 

4.9. Fire alarm annunciators and controls. 

5. A list of major fire hazards associated with the normal 
use and occupancy of the premises, including mainte- 
nance and housekeeping procedures. 

6. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for maintenance of systems and equipment in- 
stalled to prevent or control fires. 

7. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for maintenance, housekeeping and controlling 
fuel hazard sources. 

404.4 Maintenance. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be 
reviewed or updated annually or as necessitated by changes in 
staff assignments, occupancy, or the physical arrangement of 
the building. 

404.5 Availability. Fire safety and evacuadon plans shall be 
available in the workplace for reference and review by employ- 
ees, and copies shall be furnished to the fire code official for re- 
view upon request. 



SECTION 405 
EIVIERGENCY EVACUATIOM DRILLS 

405.1 General. Emergency evacuation drills complying with 
the provisions of this section shall be conducted in the occupan- 
cies listed in Section 404.2 or when required by the fire code of- 
ficial. Drills shall be designed in cooperation with the local 
authorities. 

405.2 Frequency. Required emergency evacuation drills shall 
be held at the intervals specified in Table 405.2 or more fre- 
quently where necessary to familiarize all occupants with the 
drill procedure. 

TABLE 405.2 

FIRE AND EVACUATION DRILL 

FREQUENCY AND PARTICIPATION 



GROUP OR 
OCCUPANCY 


FREQUENCY 


PARTICIPATION 


Group A 


Quarterly 


Employees 


Group E 


Monthly^ 


All occupants 


Group I 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees'' 


Group R-1 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees 


Group R-4 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees'' 



a. The frequency shall be allowed to be modified in accordance with Section 
408.3.2. 

b. Fire and evacuation drills in residential care assisted living facilities shall in- 
clude complete evacuation of the premises in accordance with Section 
408.10.5. Where occupants receive habilitation or rehabilitation training, 
fire prevention and fire safety practices shall be included as part of the train- 
ing program. 

405.3 Leadership. Responsibility for the planning and con- 
duct of drills shall be assigned to competent persons designated 
to exercise leadership. 



34 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



EMERGENCY PLAMMDNG AND PREPAREDNESS 



4©S.4 Time. Drills shall be held at unexpected times and under 
varying conditions to simulate the unusual conditions that oc- 
cur in case of fire. 



go Records shall be maintained of re- 
quired emergency evacuation drills and include the following 
information: 

1. Identity of the person conducting the drill. 

2. Date and time of the drill. 

3. Notification method used. 

4. Staff members on duty and participating. 

5. Number of occupants evacuated. 

6. Special conditions simulated. 

7. Problems encountered. 

8. Weather conditions when occupants were evacuated. 

9. Time required to accomphsh complete evacuation. 

405.6 NotificatioMo Where required by the fire code official, 
prior notification of emergency evacuation drills shall be given 
to the fire code official. 

405.7 leitlatlono Where a fire alarm system is provided, emer- 
gency evacuation drills shall be initiated by activating the fire 
alarm system. 

405.8 Accoemtabllity. As building occupants arrive at the as- 
sembly point, efforts shall be made to determine if all occu- 
pants have been successfully evacuated or have been accounted 
for. 

405.9 Recall and reemtry. An electrically or mechanically op- 
erated signal used to recall occupants after an evacuation shall 
be separate and distinct from the signal used to initiate the evac- 
uation. The recall signal initiation means shall be manually op- 
erated and under the control of the person in charge of the 
premises or the official in charge of the incident. No one shall 
reenter the premises until authorized to do so by the official in 
charge. 



^iS 



406.1 Generalo Employees in the occupancies Hsted in Section 

404.2 shall be trained in the fire emergency procedures de- 
scribed in their fire evacuation and fire safety plans. Training 
shall be based on these plans and as described in Section 404.3. 

406.2 Frequency. Employees shall receive training in the con- 
tents of fire safety and evacuation plans and their duties as part 
of new employee orientation and at least annually thereafter. 
Records shall be kept and made available to the fire code offi- 
cial upon request. 

406.3 Employee training program. Employees shall be 
trained in fire prevention, evacuation and fire safety in accor- 
dance with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.3. 

406,3,1 Fire prevention training. Employees shall be ap- 
prised of the fire hazards of the materials and processes to 
which they are exposed. Each employee shall be instructed 
in the proper procedures for preventing fires in the conduct 
of their assigned duties. 



406.3,2 Evaceatlon training. Employees shall be familiar- 
ized with the fire alarm and evacuation signals, their as- 
signed duties in the event of an alarm or emergency, 
evacuation routes, areas of refuge, exterior assembly areas, 
and procedures for evacuation. 



Employees assigned 
fire-fighting duties shall be trained to know the locations 
and proper use of portable fire extinguishers or other manual 
fire-fighting equipment and the protective clothing or 
equipment required for its safe and proper use. 



The provisions of Sections 407.2 through 
407.7 shall be applicable where hazardous materials subject to 
permits under Section 2701.5 are located on the premises or 
where required by the fire code official. 



is. Material Safety Data 
Sheets (MSDS) for all hazardous materials shall be readily 
available on the premises. 

407.3 Identification, Individual containers of hazardous mate- 
rials, cartons or packages shall be marked or labeled in accor- 
dance with applicable federal regulations. Buildings, rooms 
and spaces containing hazardous materials shall be identified 
by hazard warning signs in accordance with Section 2703.5. 

407.4 Training. Persons responsible for the operation of areas 
in which hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, handled or 
used shall be familiar with the chemical nature of the materials 
and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary in the event of 
a fire, leak or spill. Responsible persons shall be designated and 
trained to be liaison personnel for the Fire Department. These 
persons shall aid the Fire Department in preplanning emer- 
gency responses and identification of the locations where haz- 
ardous materials are located, and shall have access to Material 
Safety Data Sheets and be knowledgeable in the site emergency 
response procedures. 

407.5 Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement, Where re- 
quired by the fire code official, each application for a permit 
shall include a Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement 
(HMIS) in accordance with Section 2701.5.2. 

407.6 Hazardous Materials Management Plan. Where re- 
quired by the fire code official, each application for a permit 
shall include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan 
(HMMP) in accordance with Section 2701.5.1. The fire code 
official is authorized to accept a similar plan required by other 
regulations. 



.7 Facility closure plans. The permit holder or applicant 
shall submit to the fire code official a facility closure plan in ac- 
cordance with Section 2701.6.3 to terminate storage, dispens- 
ing, handling or use of hazardous materials. 



2003 8NTERNAT10NAL FBRE CODE® 



35 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



SECTION 408 
USE AND OCCUPANCY-RELATED REQUIREMENTS 

408.1 General. In addition to the other requirements of this 
chapter, the provisions of this section are apphcable to specific 
occupancies hsted herein. 



1.2 Group A occupancies. Group A occupancies shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Sections 408.2.1 and 408.2.2 and 
Sections 401 through 406. 

408.2.1 Seating plan. The fire safety and evacuation plans 
for assembly occupancies shall include the information re- 
quired by Section 404.3 and a detailed seating plan, occu- 
pant load, and occupant load limit. Deviations from the 
approved plans shall be allowed provided the occupant load 
limit for the occupancy is not exceeded and the aisles and 
exit accessways remain unobstructed. 

408.2.2 Announcements. In theaters, motion picture the- 
aters, auditoriums and similar assembly occupancies in 
Group A used for noncontinuous programs, an audible an- 
nouncement shall be made not more than 1 minutes prior to 
the start of each program to notify the occupants of the loca- 
tion of the exits to be used in the event of a fire or other emer- 
gency. 

Exception: In motion picture theaters, the announce- 
ment is allowed to be projected upon the screen in a man- 
ner approved by the fire code official. 

408.3 Group E occupancies. Group E occupancies shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Sections 408.3.1 through 408.3.4 
and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.3.1 First emergency evacuation drill. The first emer- 
gency evacuation drill of each school year shall be con- 
ducted within 10 days of the beginning of classes. 

408.3.2 Emergency evacuation drill deferral. In severe 
climates, the fire code official shall have the authority to 
modify the emergency evacuation drill frequency specified 
in Section 405.2. 

408.3.3 Time of day. Emergency evacuation drills shall be 
conducted at different hours of the day or evening, during 
the changing of classes, when the school is at assembly, dur- 
ing the recess or gymnastic periods, or during other times to 
avoid distinction between drills and actual fires. 

408.3.4 Assembly points. Outdoor assembly areas shall be 
designated and shall be located a safe distance from the 
building being evacuated so as to avoid interference with 
fire department operations. The assembly areas shall be ar- 
ranged to keep each class separate to provide accountability 
of all individuals. 

408.4 Group H-5 occupancies. Group H-5 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.4.1 through 
408.4.4 and Sections 401 through 407. 



HPM supply piping, emergency telephone locations and lo- 
cations of exits. 

408.4.2 Plan updating. The plans and diagrams required by 
Section 408.4.1 shall be maintained up to date and the fire 
code official and fire department shall be informed of all 
major changes. 

408.4.3 Emergency response team. Responsible persons 
shall be designated the on-site emergency response team 
and trained to be haison personnel for the fire department. 
These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning 
emergency responses, identifying locations where HPM is 
stored, handled and used, and be familiar with the chemical 
nature of such material. An adequate number of personnel 
for each work shift shall be designated. 

408.4.4 Emergency drills. Emergency drills of the on-site 
emergency response team shall be conducted on a regular 
basis but not less than once every three months. Records of 
drills conducted shall be maintained. 



.5 Group 1=1 occupancies. Group I-l occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.5.1 through 
408.5.5 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.5.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety 
and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include 
special staff actions including fire protection procedures 
necessary for residents and shall be amended or revised 
upon admission of any resident with unusual needs. 

408.5.2 Staff training. Employees shall be periodically in- 
structed and kept informed of their duties and responsibili- 
ties under the plan. Such instruction shall be reviewed by the 
staff at least every two months. A copy of the plan shall be 
readily available at all times within the facility. 

408.5.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting 
in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions 
to take in the event of a fire. The training shall include ac- 
tions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where 
the resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, 
training in fire prevention and actions to take in the event of a 
fire shall be a part of the rehabilitation training program. 
Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire 
to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them 
to do so without additional personal risk. 

408.5.4 Drill frequency. Emergency evacuation drills shall 
be conducted at least six times per year, two times per year 
on each shift. Twelve drills shall be conducted in the first 
year of operation. Drills are not required to comply with the 
time requirements of Section 405.4. 



J.4.1 Plans and diagrams. In addition to the require- 
ments of Section 404 and Section 407.6, plans and diagrams 
shall be maintained in approved locations indicating the ap- 
proximate plan for each area, the amount and type of HPM 
stored, handled and used, locations of shutoff valves for 



L5.5 Resident participation. Emergency evacuation 
drills shall involve the actual evacuation of all residents to a 
selected assembly point. 

408.6 Group 1-2 occupancies. Group 1-2 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.6. 1 and 408.6.2 
and Sections 401 through 406. Drills are not required to comply 
with the time requirements of Section 405.4. 



36 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



lEKGEl 



, During emergency evac- 
uation drills, the movement of patients to safe areas or to the 
exterior of the building is not required. 

408.6o2 Coded alarm sIgnaL When emergency evacuation 
drills are conducted after visiting hours or when patients or 
residents are expected to be asleep, a coded announcement 
is allowed instead of audible alarms. 

4®8.7 Group 1=3 occepaiides. Group 1-3 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.7.1 through 
408.7.4 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.7.1 Employee traimng. Employees shall be instructed 
in the proper use of portable fire extinguishers and other 
manual fire suppression equipment. Training of new staff 
shall be provided promptly upon entrance on duty. Re- 
fresher training shall be provided at least annually. 

408.7.2 Stoffimg. Group 1-3 occupancies shall be provided 
with 24-hour staffing. Staff shall be within three floors or 
300 feet (91 440 mm) horizontal distance of the access door 
of each resident housing area. In Use Conditions 3, 4 and 5, 
as defined in Chapter 2, the arrangement shall be such that 
the staff involved can start release of locks necessary for 
emergency evacuation or rescue and initiate other necessary 
emergency actions within 2 minutes of an alarm. 

Exception; Staff shall not be required to be within three 
floors or 300 feet (9144 mm) in areas in which all locks 
are unlocked remotely and automatically in accordance 
with Section 408.4 of the International Building Code. 



. Provisions shall be made for residents 
in Use Conditions 3, 4 and 5, as defined in Chapter 2, to 
readily notify staff of an emergency. 

408.7.4 Keys. Keys necessary for unlocking doors installed 
in a means of egress shall be individually identifiable by 
both touch and sight. 



["1 occaipaecles. Group R-1 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.8.1 through 
408.8.3 and Sections 401 through 406. 



iagrams. A diagram depicting two 
evacuation routes shall be posted on or immediately adja- 
cent to every required egress door from each hotel, motel or 
dormitory guestroom. 

408.8.2 Emergency duties. Upon discovery of a fire or sus- 
pected fire, hotel, motel and dormitory employees shall per- 
form the following duties: 

1. Activate the fire alarm system, where provided. 

2. Notify the public fire department. 

3. Take other action as previously instructed. 

408.8.3 Fire safety and evacoatloe instrinctions. Informa- 
tion shall be provided in the fire safety and evacuation plan 
required by Section 404 to allow guests to decide whether to 
evacuate to the outside, evacuate to an area of refuge, remain 
in place, or any combination of the three. 

408,9 Group R=2 occupancies. Group R-2 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.9.1 through 
408.9.3 and Sections 401 through 406. 



408.9.1 Emergency guide. A fire emergency guide shall be 
provided which describes the location, function and use of 
fire protection equipment and appliances accessible to resi- 
dents, including fire alarm systems, smoke alarms, and por- 
table fire extinguishers. The guide shall also include an 
emergency evacuation plan for each dwelling unit. 

408.9.2 Malmtemaaice. Emergency guides shall be reviewed 
and approved in accordance with Section 401.2. 

408.9.3 Dlstributnom. A copy of the emergency guide shall 
be given to each tenant prior to initial occupancy. 



-4 occupancies. Group R-4 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.10.1 through 
408.10.5 and Sections 401 through 406. 



Ian. The fire safety 
and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include 
special staff actions, including fire protection procedures 
necessary for residents, and shall be amended or revised 
upon admission of a resident with unusual needs. 



Ing. Employees shall be periodically 
instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsibil- 
ities under the plan. Such instruction shall be reviewed by 
the staff at least every two months. A copy of the plan shall 
be readily available at all times within the facility. 

408.10,3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting 
in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions 
to take in the event of a fire. The training shall include ac- 
tions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where 
the resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, 
training in fire prevention and actions to take in the event of 
a fire shall be a part of the rehabilitation training program. 
Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire 
to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them 
to do so without additional personal risk. 



frequency. Emergency evacuation drills 
shall be conducted at least six times per year, two times per 
year on each shift. Twelve drills shall be conducted in the 
first year of operation. Drills are not required to comply with 
the time requirements of Section 405.4. 

408.10,5 Resident participation. Emergency evacuation 
drills shall involve the actual evacuation of all residents to a 
selected assembly point and shall provide residents with ex- 
perience in exiting through all required exits. All required 
exits shall be used during emergency evacuation drills. 

Exception: Actual exiting from windows shall not be re- 
quired. Opening the window and signaling for help shall 
be an acceptable alternative. 

408,11 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings shall 
comply with the provisions of Sections 408.11.1 through 
408.11.3. 

408,11.1 Lease plan. A lease plan shall be prepared for each 
covered mall building. The plan shall include the following 
information in addition to that required by Section 404.3.2: 

1 . Each occupancy, including identification of tenant. 

2. Exits from each tenant space. 



2003 INTERNATIOMAL FiRE CODE® 



37 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



3. Fire protection features, including the following: 

3.1. Fire department connections. 

3.2. Fire command center. 

3.3. Smoke management system controls. 

3.4. Elevators and elevator controls. 

3.5. Hose valves outlets. 

3.6. Sprinkler and standpipe control valves. 

3.7. Automatic fire-extinguishing system areas. 

3.8. Automatic fire detector zones. 

3.9. Fire barriers. 

408.11.1.1 Approval. The lease plan shall be submitted 
to the fire code official for approval, and shall be main- 
tained on site for immediate reference by responding fire 
service personnel. 

408.11.1.2 Revisions. The lease plans shall be revised 
annually or as often as necessary to keep them current. 
Modifications or changes in tenants or occupancies shall 
not be made without prior approval of the fire code offi- 
cial and building official. 

408.11.2 Tenant identification. Each occupied tenant 
space provided with a secondary exit to the exterior or exit 
corridor shall be provided with tenant identification by busi- 
ness name and/or address. Letters and numbers shall be 
posted on the corridor side of the door, be plainly legible and 
shall contrast with their background. 

Exception: Tenant identification is not required for an- 
chor stores. 

408.11.3 Maintenance. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be: 

1 . Kept free from the storage of any materials. 

2 . Separated from the remainder of the building by parti- 
dons of at least 0.5-inch-thick (12.7 mm) gypsum 
board or an approved equivalent to the underside of 
the ceiling of the adjoining tenant spaces. 

3. Without doors or other access openings other than one 
door that shall be kept key locked in the closed posi- 
tion except during that time when opened for inspec- 
tion. 

4. Kept free from combustible waste and be 
broom-swept clean. 



38 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



50101 Scop£o Fire service features for buildings, structures and 
premises shall comply with this chapter. 

50102 Permits. A permit shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tions 105.6 and 105.7. 

5013 Coestrectlon documents. Construction documents for 
proposed fire apparatus access, location of fire lanes and con- 
struction documents and hydraulic calculations for fire hydrant 
systems shall be submitted to the fire department for review and 
approval prior to construction. 

S01.4 Timing off Installatioini. When fire apparatus access 
roads or a water supply for fire protection is required to be in- 
stalled, such protection shall be installed and made serviceable 
prior to and during the time of construction except when ap- 
proved alternative methods of protection are provided. Tempo- 
rary street signs shall be installed at each street intersection 
when construction of new roadways allows passage by vehicles 
in accordance with Section 505.2. 



502.1 Definitioes. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. A road that provides 
fire apparatus access from a fire station to a facihty, building or 
portion thereof. This is a general term inclusive of all other 
terms such as fire lane, public street, private street, parking lot 
lane and access roadway. 

FIRE COMMAND CENTER, The principal attended or un- 
attended location where the status of the detection, alarm com- 
munications and control systems is displayed, and from which 
the system(s) can be manually controlled. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. A limited issue key 
of special or controlled design to be carried by fire department 
officials in command which will open key boxes on specified 
properties. 

FIRE LANE, A road or other passageway developed to allow 
the passage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not necessarily in- 
tended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus. 

KEY BOX. A secure, tamperproof device with a lock operable 
only by a fire department master key, and containing building 
entry keys and other keys that may be required for access in an 
emergency. 



FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS 

503.1 Where required. Fire apparatus access roads shall be 
provided and maintained in accordance with Sections 503.1.1 
through 503.1.3. 

503.1.1 Buildings aed facilities. Approved fire apparatus 
access roads shall be provided for every facility, building or 
portion of a building hereafter constructed or moved into or 
within the jurisdiction. The fire apparatus access road shall 
comply with the requirements of this section and shall ex- 
tend to within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of all portions of the fa- 
cihty and all portions of the exterior walls of the first story of 
the building as measured by an approved route around the 
exterior of the building or facility. 

Exception: The fire code official is authorized to in- 
crease the dimension of 150 feet (45 720 mm) where: 

1 . The building is equipped throughout with an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system installed in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 
903.3.1.3. 

2. Fire apparatus access roads cannot be installed be- 
cause of location on property, topography, water- 
ways, nonnegotiable grades or other similar 
conditions, and an approved alternative means of 
fire protection is provided. 

3 . There are not more than two Group R-3 or Group U 
occupancies. 

503.1.2 Additional access. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require more than one fire apparatus access road 
based on the potential for impairment of a single road by ve- 
hicle congestion, condition of terrain, climatic conditions or 
other factors that could limit access. 

503.1.3 High=piled storage. Fire department vehicle access 
to buildings used for high-piled combustible storage shall 
comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 23. 

503.2 Specifications, Fire apparatus access roads shall be in- 
stalled and arranged in accordance with Sections 503.2.1 
through 503.2.7. 

503.2.1 Dimensions. Fire apparatus access roads shall have 
an unobstructed width of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm), 
except for approved security gates in accordance with Sec- 
tion 503.6, and an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less 
than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm). 

503.2.2 Authority. The fire code official shall have the au- 
thority to require an increase in the minimum access widths 
where they are inadequate for fire or rescue operations. 

503.2.3 Surface. Fire apparatus access roads shall be de- 
signed and maintained to support the imposed loads of fire 
apparatus and shall be surfaced so as to provide all-weather 
driving capabilities. 



2003 JNTERNATSONAL FIRE CODE® 



39 



HRE SERVICE FEATURES 



503.2.4 IXirning radius. The required turning radius of a 
fire apparatus access road shall be determined by the fire 
code oflicial. 

503.2.5 Dead ends. Dead-end fire apparatus access roads in 
excess of 150 feet (45 720 mm) in length shall be provided 
with an approved area for turning around fire apparatus. 

503.2.6 Bridges aed elevated surfaces. Where a bridge or 
an elevated surface is part of a fire apparatus access road, the 
bridge shall be constructed and maintained in accordance 
with AASHTO Standard Specification for Highway 
Bridges. Bridges and elevated surfaces shall be designed for 
a live load sufficient to carry the imposed loads of fire appa- 
ratus. Vehicle load limits shall be posted at both entrances to 
bridges when required by the fire code official. Where ele- 
vated surfaces designed for emergency vehicle use are adja- 
cent to surfaces which are not designed for such use, 
approved barriers, approved signs or both shall be installed 
and maintained when required by the fire code official. 

503.2.7 Grade. The grade of the fire apparatus access road 
shall be within the limits estabhshed by the fire code official 
based on the fire department's apparatus. 

503.3 Marking. Where required by the fire code official, ap- 
proved signs or other approved notices shall be provided for 
fire apparatus access roads to identify such roads or prohibit the 
obstruction thereof. Signs or notices shall be maintained in a 
clean and legible condition at all times and be replaced or re- 
paired when necessary to provide adequate visibility. 

503.4 Obstruction of fire apparatus access roads. Fire appa- 
ratus access roads shall not be obstructed in any manner, in- 
cluding the parking of vehicles. The minimum widths and 
clearances established in Section 503.2.1 shall be maintained 
at all times. 

503.5 Required gates or barricades. The fire code official is 
authorized to require the installation and maintenance of gates 
or other approved barricades across fire apparatus access roads, 
trails or other accessways, not including public streets, alleys 
or highways. 

503.5.1 Secured gates and barricades. When required, 
gates and barricades shall be secured in an approved man- 
ner. Roads, trails and other accessways that have been 
closed and obstructed in the manner prescribed by Section 
503 .5 shall not be trespassed on or used unless authorized by 
the owner and the fire code official. 

Exception: The restriction on use shall not apply to pub- 
lic officers acting within the scope of duty. 

503.6 Security gates. The installafion of security gates across 
a fire apparatus access road shall be approved by the fire chief. 
Where security gates are installed, they shall have an approved 
means of emergency operation. The security gates and the 
emergency operation shall be maintained operational at all 
times. 



SECTION 504 
ACCESS TO BUILDING OPENINGS AND ROOFS 

504.1 Required access. Exterior doors and openings required 
by this code or the International Building Code shall be main- 



tained readily accessible for emergency access by the fire de- 
partment. An approved access walkway leading from fire appa- 
ratus access roads to exterior openings shall be provided when 
required by the fire code official. 

504.2 Maintenance of exterior doors and openings. Exterior 
doors and their function shall not be eliminated without prior 
approval. Exterior doors that have been rendered nonfunctional 
and that retain a functional door exterior appeju"ance shall have 
a sign affixed to the exterior side of the door with the words 
THIS DOOR BLOCKED. The sign shall consist of letters hav- 
ing a principal stroke of not less than 0.75 inch (19. 1 mm) wide 
and at least 6 inches (152 mm) high on a contrasting back- 
ground. Required fire department access doors shall not be ob- 
structed or eUminated. Exit and exit access doors shall comply 
with Chapter 10. Access doors for high-piled combustible stor- 
age shall comply with Section 2306.6.1. 

504.3 Stairway access to roof. New buildings four or more 
stories in height, except those with a roof slope greater than 
four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3 percent slope), 
shall be provided with a stairway to the roof. Stairway access to | 
the roof shall be in accordance with Section 1009.12. Such I 
stairway shall be marked at street and floor levels with a sign in- 
dicating that the stairway continues to the roof. Where roofs are 
used for roof gardens or for other purposes, stairways shall be 
provided as required for such occupancy classification. 



SECTION 505 
PREMISES IDENTIFICATION 

505.1 Address numbers. New and existing buildings shall 
have approved address numbers, building numbers or approved 
building identification placed in a position that is plainly legi- 
ble and visible from the street or road fronting the property. 
These numbers shall contrast with their background. Address 
numbers shall be Arabic numerals or alphabet letters. Numbers 
shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) high with a minimum 
stroke width of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 

505.2 Street or road signs. Streets and roads shall be identified 
with approved signs. Temporary signs shall be installed at each 
street intersection when construction of new roadways allows 
passage by vehicles. Signs shall be of an approved size, weather 
resistant and be maintained until replaced by permanent signs. 



SECTION 506 
KEY BOXES 

506.1 Where required. Where access to or within a structure 
or an area is restricted because of secured openings or where 
immediate access is necessary for life-saving or fire-fighting 
purposes, the fire code official is authorized to require a key 
box to be installed in an approved location. The key box shall | 
be of an approved type and shall contain keys to gain necessary 
access as required by the fire code official. 

506.1.1 Locks. An approved lock shall be installed on gates 
or similar barriers when required by the fire code official. 

506.2 Key box maintenance. The operator of the building 
shall immediately notify the fire code official and provide the 



40 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



FBRE SERVICE FEATURES 



new key when a lock is changed or rekeyed. The key to such 
lock shall be secured in the key box. 



HAZARDS TO FIRE FiGHTERI 



S07«l Trapdoors to toe closed. Trapdoors and scuttle covers, 
other than those that are within a dwelling unit or automatically 
operated, shall be kept closed at all times except when in use. 

S07.2 Sliaftway marklmgs. Vertical shafts shall be identified 
as required by this section. 



5 shaftwaySo Outside openings 
accessible to the fire department and which open directly on 
a hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or 
more floors in a building shall be plainly marked with the 
word SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches (152 mm) 
high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be 
placed so as to be readily discernible from the outside of the 
building. 



fSc Door or window 
openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the 
building shall be plainly marked with the word 
SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches (152 mm) high 
on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed 
so as to be readily discernible. 



ni Marking shall not be required on shaftway 
openings which are readily discernible as openings onto 
a shaftway by the construction or arrangement. 

507.3 Pitfalls. The intentional design or alteration of buildings 
to disable, injure, maim or kill intruders is prohibited. No per- 
son shall install and use firearms, sharp or pointed objects, ra- 
zor wire, explosives, flammable or combustible liquid 
containers, or dispensers containing highly toxic, toxic, irritant 
or other hazardous materials in a manner which may passively 
or actively disable, injure, maim or kill a fire fighter who forc- 
ibly enters a building for the purpose of controlling or extin- 
guishing a fire, rescuing trapped occupants or rendering other 
emergency assistance. 



FiRE PROTECTION WATER SUPPLIES 

508.1 Mequslred water supply. An approved water supply ca- 
pable of supplying the required fire flow for fire protection 
shall be provided to premises upon which facilities, buildings 
or portions of buildings are hereafter constructed or moved into 
or within the jurisdiction. 



A water supply shall consist of 
reservoirs, pressure tanks, elevated tanks, water mains or other 
fixed systems capable of providing the required fire flow. 



service mains. Private fire service 
mains and appurtenances shall be installed in accordance 
with NFPA 24. 

508.2.2 Water tanks. Water tanks for private fire protection 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 22. 



508.3 Fire flow. Fire flow requirements for buildings or por- 
tions of buildings and facilities shall be determined by an ap- 
proved method. 

508.4 Water supply test. The fire code official shall be nofified 
prior to the water supply test. Water supply tests shall be wit- 
nessed by the fire code official or approved documentadon of 
the test shall be provided to the fire code official prior to final 
approval of the water supply system. 

508.5 Fire hydrant systems. Fire hydrant systems shall com- 
ply with Sections 508.5.1 through 508.5.6. 

508.5.1 Wliere required. Where a portion of the facility or 
building hereafter constructed or moved into or within the 
jurisdiction is more than 400 feet (122 m) from a hydrant on 
a fire apparatus access road, as measured by an approved 
route around the exterior of the facility or building, on-site 
fire hydrants and mains shall be provided where required by 
the fire code official. 



1. For Group R-3 and Group U occupancies, the dis- 
tance requirement shall be 600 feet (183 m). 

2. For buildings equipped throughout with an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system installed in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the 
distance requirement shall be 600 feet (183 m). 



Fire hy- 
drant systems shall be subject to periodic tests as required 
by the fire code official. Fire hydrant systems shall be main- 
tained in an operative condition at all times and shall be re- 
paired where defective. Additions, repairs, alterations and 
servicing shall comply with approved standards. 

508.5.3 Private ffire service maims and water tanks. Pri- 
vate fire service mains and water tanks shall be periodically 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 
25 at the following intervals: 

1. Private fire hydrants (all types): Inspection annually 
and after each operation; flow test and maintenance 
annually. 

2. Fire service main piping: Inspection of exposed, an- 
nually; flow test every 5 years. 

3. Fire service main piping strainers: Inspection and 
maintenance after each use. 

508.5.4 Obstruction. Posts, fences, vehicles, growth, trash, 
storage and other materials or objects shall not be placed or 
kept near fire hydrants, fire department inlet connections or 
fire protection system control valves in a manner that would 
prevent such equipment or fire hydrants from being imme- 
diately discernible. The fire department shall not be deterred 
or hindered from gaining immediate access to fire protec- 
tion equipment or fire hydrants. 

508.5.5 Clear space aroend hydrants. A 3-foot (914 mm) 
clear space shall be maintained around the circumference of 
fire hydrants except as otherwise required or approved. 



protection. Where fire hydrants are sub- 
ject to impact by a motor vehicle, guard posts or other ap- 
proved means shall comply with Section 312. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FBRE CODE® 



41 



FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 



SECTION 509 
FIRE COMMAND CENTER 

509.1 Features. Where required by other sections of this code 
and in all buildings classified as high-rise buildings by the In- 
ternational Building Code, a fire command center for fire de- 
partment operations shall be provided. The location and 
accessibility of the fire command center shall be approved by 
the fire department. The fire command center shall be sepa- 
rated from the remainder of the building by not less than a 1- 
hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier. The room shall be a mini- 
mum of 96 square feet (9 m^) with a minimum dimension of 8 
feet (2438 mm). A layout of the fire command center and all 
features required by this section to be contained therein shall be 
submitted for approval prior to installation. The fire command 
center shall comply with NFPA 72 and shall contain the follow- 
ing features: 

1. The emergency voice/alarm communication system 
unit. 

2. The fire department communications system. 

3. Fire-detection and alarm system annunciator system. 

4. Annunciator visually indicating the location of the ele- 
vators and whether they are operational. 

5. Status indicators and controls for air-handling systems. 

6. The fire-fighter's control panel required by Section 
909. 16 for smoke control systems installed in the build- 
ing. 

7. Controls for unlocking stairway doors simultaneously. 

8. Sprinkler valve and water-flow detector display panels. 

9. Emergency and standby power status indicators. 

10. A telephone for fire department use with controlled ac- 
cess to the public telephone system. 

1 1 . Fire pump status indicators. 

12. Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor 
plan and detaihng the building core, means of egress, 
fire protection systems, fire-fighting equipment and 
fire department access. 

13. Work table. 

14. Generator supervision devices, manual start and trans- 
fer features. 

15. Pubhc address system, where specifically required by 
other sections of this code. 



SECTION 510 
FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS TO EQUIPMENT 

510.1 Identification. Fire protection equipment shall be iden- 
tified in an approved manner. Rooms containing controls for 
air-conditioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves, or other 
fire detection, suppression or control elements shall be identi- 
fied for the use of the fire department. Approved signs required 
to identify fire protection equipment and equipment location, 
shall be constructed of durable materials, permanently in- 
stalled and readily visible. 



42 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



SECTION 601 
GEMERAL 

ol Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the 
installation, operation and maintenance of fuel-fired appli- 
ances and heating systems, emergency and standby power sys- 
tems, electrical systems and equipment, mechanical 
refrigeration systems, elevator recall, stationary lead-acid bat- 
tery systems and commercial kitchen hoods. 

601o2 Permits. Permits shall be obtained for refrigeration sys- 
tems and battery systems as set forth in Section 105.6. 



6©2.1 Defimlttons. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

BATTERY, LEAD ACID. A group of electrochemical cells 
interconnected to supply a nominal voltage of DC power to a 
suitably connected electrical load. The number of cells con- 
nected in series determines the nominal voltage rating of the 
battery. The size of the cells determines the discharge capacity 
of the entire battery. 

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. A sys- 
tem which consists of three interconnected subsystems: 

1 . A lead-acid battery. 

2. A battery charger. 

3. A collection of rectifiers, inverters, converters, and asso- 
ciated electrical equipment as required for a particular 
application. 

[M] COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES, Appli- 
ances used in a commercial food service establishment for 
heating or cooking food and which produce grease vapors, 
steam, fumes, smoke or odors that are required to be removed 
through a local exhaust ventilation system. Such appliances in- 
clude deep fat fryers; upright broilers; griddles; broilers; 
steam -jacketed kettles; hot- top ranges; under-fired broilers 
(charbroilers); ovens; barbecues; rotisseries; and similar appli- 
ances. For the purpose of this definition, a food service estab- 
lishment shall include any building or a portion thereof used for 
the preparation and serving of food. 



An air-intake device used to capture by entrap- 
ment, impingement, adhesion or similar means, grease and 
similar contaminants before they enter a duct system. 

Type lo A kitchen hood for collecting and removing grease 
vapors and smoke. 

REFRIGERANT. The fluid used for heat transfer in a refriger- 
ating system; the refrigerant absorbs heat and transfers it at a 
higher temperature and a higher pressure, usually with a 
change of state. 



REFRIGERATION SYSTEM. A combination of intercon- 
nected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed re- 
frigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the 
purpose of extracting heat. 



A lead-acid battery consisting of sealed cells furnished with a 
valve that opens to vent the battery whenever the internal pres- 
sure of the battery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set 
amount. In VRLA batteries, the hquid electrolyte in the cells is 
immobilized in an absorptive glass mat (AGM cells or batter- 
ies) or by the addition of a gelling agent (gel cells or gelled bat- 
teries). 

VENTED (FLOODED) LEAD=ACID BATTERY. A 
lead-acid battery consisting of cells that have electrodes im- 
mersed in liquid electrolyte. Flooded lead-acid batteries have a 
provision for the user to add water to the cell and are equipped 
with a flame-arresting vent which permits the escape of hydro- 
gen and oxygen gas from the cell in a diffused manner such that 
a spark, or other ignition source, outside the cell will not ignite 
the gases inside the cell. 



FUEL=FiRED APPLIANCES 

603.1 InstallatSon, The installation of nonportable fuel gas ap- 
pliances and systems shall comply the International Fuel Gas 
Code. The installation of all other fuel-fired appliances, other 
than internal combustion engines, oil lamps and portable de- 
vices such as blow torches, melting pots and weed burners, 
shall comply with this section and the International Mechani- 
cal Code. 



603.1.1 Manufacturer's mstrectioms. The installation 
shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's in- 
structions and applicable federal, state, and local rules and 
regulations. Where it becomes necessary to change, modify, 
or alter a manufacturer's instructions in any way, written ap- 
proval shall first be obtained from the manufacturer. 

603.1.2 Approval. The design, construction and installa- 
tion of fuel-fired appliances shall be in accordance with the 
International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechan- 
ical Code. 



emt. Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment used in connection with oil-burning 
equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance 
with Section 605 and the ICC Electrical Code. 



il. The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall 
be that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by 
the burner manufacturer. Oil containing gasoline shall not 
be used. Waste crankcase oil shall be an acceptable fuel in 
Group F, M and S occupancies, when utilized in equipment 
listed for use with waste oil and when such equipment is in- 



2003 ShSTERIMATIOWAL FBRE CODE® 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



Stalled in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions 
and the terms of its listing. 

603.1.5 Access. The installation shall be readily accessible 
for cleaning hot surfaces; removing burners; replacing mo- 
tors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft regula- 
tors, and other working parts; and for adjusting, cleaning 
and lubricating parts. 

603.1.6 Testing, diagrams and instructions. After instal- 
lation of the oil-burning equipment, operation and combus- 
tion performance tests shall be conducted to determine that 
the burner is in proper operating condition and that all acces- 
sory equipment, controls, and safety devices function prop- 
erly. 

603.1.6.1 Diagrams. Contractors installing industrial 
oil-burning systems shall furnish not less than two copies 
of diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling 
valves, one copy of which shall be posted at the oil-burn- 
ing equipment and another at an approved location that 
will be accessible in case of emergency. 

603.1.6.2 Instructions. After completing the installa- 
tion, the installer shall instruct the owner or operator in 
the proper operation of the equipment. The installer shall 
also furnish the owner or operator with the name and 
telephone number of persons to contact for technical in- 
formation or assistance and routine or emergency ser- 
vices. 

603.1.7 Clearances. Working clearances between oil-fired 
appliances and electrical panelboards and equipment shall 
be in accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. Clearances 
between oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks shall be in 
accordance with NFPA 3 1 . 

[B, M, FG] 603.2 Chimneys. Masonry chimneys shall be con- 
structed in accordance with the International Building Code. 
Factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. Metal chimneys shall be 
constructed and installed in accordance with NFPA 211. 

603.3 Fuel oil storage systems. Fuel oil storage systems shall 
be installed in accordance with this code. Fuel oil piping sys- 
tems shall be installed in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code. 

603.3.1 Maximum outside fuel oil storage above ground. 
Where connected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maximum 
amount of fuel oil storage allowed outside above ground 
without additional protection shall be 660 gallons (2498 L). 
The storage of fuel oil above ground in quantities exceeding 
660 gallons (2498 L) shall comply with NFPA 31. 

603.3.2 Maximum inside fuel oil storage. Where con- 
nected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maximum amount of 
fuel oil storage allowed inside any building shall be 660 gal- 
lons (2498 L). Where the amount of fuel oil stored inside a 
building exceeds 660 gallons (2498 L), the storage area 
shall be in compliance with the International Building 
Code. 



603.3.3 Underground storage of fuel oil. The storage of 
fuel oil in underground storage tanks shall comply with 
NFPA 31. 



SA Portable unvented heaters. Portable unvented 
fuel-fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupancies 
in Groups A, E, I, R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4. 

Exception: Listed and approved unvented fuel-fired heaters 
in one- and two-family dwellings. 

603.4.1 Prohibited locations. Unvented fuel-fired heating 
equipment shall not be located in, or obtain combustion air 
from, any of the following rooms or spaces: sleeping rooms, 
bathrooms, toilet rooms or storage closets. 

603.5 Heating appliances. Heating appliances shall be listed 
and shall comply with this section. 

603.5.1 Guard against contact. The heating element or 
combustion chamber shall be permanently guarded so as to 
prevent accidental contact by persons or material. 

603.5.2 Heating appliance installation. Heating appU- 
ances shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions, the International Building Code, the 
International Mechanical Code, the International Fuel Gas 
Code and the ICC Electrical Code. 

603.6 Chimneys and appliances. Chimneys, incinerators, 
smokestacks or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot 
gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, fireboxes or boil- 
ers to which such devices are connected, shall be maintained so 
as not to create a fire hazard. 

603.6.1 Masonry chimneys. Masonry chimneys that, upon 
inspection, are found to be without a flue liner and that have 
open mortar joints which will permit smoke or gases to be 
discharged into the building, or which are cracked as to be 
dangerous, shall be repaired or relined with a listed chimney 
liner system installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions or a flue lining system installed in 
accordance with the requirements of the International 
Building Code and appropriate for the intended class of 
chimney service. 

603.6.2 Metal chimneys. Metal chimneys which are cor- 
roded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced. 

603.6.3 Decorative shrouds. Decorative stirouds installed 
at the termination of factory-built chimneys shall be re- 
moved except where such shrouds are listed and labeled for 
use with the specific factory-built chimney system and are 
installed in accordance with the chimney manufacturer's in- 
stallation instructions. 

603.6.4 Factory-built chimneys. Existing factory-built 
chimneys that are damaged, corroded or improperly sup- 
ported shall be repaired or replaced. 

603.6.5 Connectors. Existing chimney and vent connectors 
that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall be 
repaired or replaced. 

603.7 Discontinuing operation of unsafe heating appli- 
ances. The fire code official is authorized to order that mea- 
sures be taken to prevent the operation of any exisfing stove. 



44 



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BUILD8NG SERVICES AMD SYSTEMS 



oven, furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heat-producing 
device or appliance found to be defective or in violation of code 
requirements for existing appliances after giving notice to this 
effect to any person, owner, firm or agent or operator in charge 
of the same. The fire code official is authorized to take mea- 
sures to prevent the operation of any device or appliance with- 
out notice when inspection shows the existence of an 
immediate fire hazard or when imperiling human life. The de- 
fective device shall remain withdrawn from service until all 
necessary repairs or alterations have been made. 

603.7ol Umaethorlzed operatloim. It shall be a violation of 
this code for any person, user, firm or agent to continue the 
utilization of any device or appliance (the operation of 
which has been discontinued or ordered discontinued in ac- 
cordance with Section 603.7), unless written authority to re- 
sume operation is given by the fire code official. Removing 
or breaking the means by which operation of the device is 
prevented shall be a violation of this code. 



4 



Commercial, industrial and residen- 
tial-type incinerators and chimneys shall be constructed in ac- 
cordance with the International Building Code, the 
International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical 
Code. 

603.8.1 Residemtial mclnerators. Residential incinerators 
shall be of an approved type. 

603.8.2 Spark arrester. Incinerators shall be equipped with 
an effective means for arresting sparks. 

603.8.3 Mestrktioes. Where the fire code official deter- 
mines that burning in incinerators located within 500 feet 
(152 m) of mountainous, brush or grass-covered areas will 
create an undue fire hazard because of atmospheric condi- 
tions, such burning shall be prohibited. 

603.8.4 Time of beraimg. Burning shall take place only dur- 
ing approved hours. 

603.8.5 Dtscontineaece. The fire code official is authorized 
to require incinerator use to be discontinued immediately if 
the fire code official determines that smoke emissions are 
offensive to occupants of surrounding property or if the use 
of incinerators is determined by the fire code official to con- 
stitute a hazardous condition. 



L9 Gas meters. Above-ground gas meters, regulators and 
piping subject to damage shall be protected by a barrier com- 
plying with Section 3 12 or otherwise protected in an approved 
manner. 



liVIERGENCY AMD STANDBY POWER SYSTI 



Emergency and standby power systems 
shall be installed in accordance with the ICC Electrical Code, 
NFPA 110 and NFPA 111. Existing installations shall be main- 
tained in accordance with the original approval. 

604.1.1 Stationary generators. Stationary emergency and 
standby power generators required by this code shall be 
listed in accordance with UL 2200. 



1.2 Where required. Emergency and standby power sys- 
tems shall be provided where required by Sections 604.2.1 
through 604.2.18. 

604.2.1 Group A occupamdes. Emergency power shall be 
provided for emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tems in Group A occupancies in accordance with Section 
907.2.1.2. 



.2.2 Smoke control systems. Standby power shall be 
provided for smoke control systems in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909.11. 



,2.3 Exit signs. Emergency power shall be provided for 
exit signs in accordance with Section 1011.5.3 



IS of egress lUummatiou, Emergency power 
shall be provided for means of egress illumination in accor- 
dance with Section 1006.3. 

604.2.5 Accessible means of egress elevators or platform 
lifts. Standby power shall be provided for elevators or plat- 
form lifts that are part of an accessible means of egress in ac- 
cordance with Section 1007.4 or 1007.5, respectively. 

604.2.6 Horkontal sliding doors. Standby power shall be 
provided for horizontal shding doors in accordance with 
Section 1008.1.3.3. 



,7 Semiconductor fabrication facilities. Emergency 
power shall be provided for semiconductor fabrication facil- 
ities in accordance with Section 1803.15. 



1,2,8 Membrane structures. Emergency power shall be 
provided for exit signs in temporary tents and membrane 
structures in accordance with Section 2403.12.6.1. Standby 
power shall be provided for auxiliary inflation systems in 
permanent membrane structures in accordance with the In- 
ternational Building Code. 

604.2.9 Hazardous materials. Emergency or standby 
power shall be provided in occupancies with hazardous ma- 
terials in accordance with Sections 2704.7 and 2705.1.5. 



,10 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Emergency 
power shall be provided for occupancies with highly toxic 
or toxic materials in accordance with Sections 3704.2.2.8 
and 3704.3.2.6. 

604.2.11 Organic peroxides. Standby power shall be pro- 
vided for occupancies with organic peroxides in accordance 
with Section 3904.1.11. 

604.2.12 Pyrophork materials. Emergency power shall be 
provided for occupancies with silane gas in accordance with 
Sections 4106.2.3 and 4106.4.3. 



igs. Covered mall buildings 
exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) shall be provided 
with standby power systems which are capable of operating 
the emergency voice/alarm communication. 



,14 Hngh-rlse buildings. Standby power, light and 
emergency systems in high-rise buildings shall comply with 
the requirements of Sections 604.2.14.1 through 
604.2.14.3. 



2003 SNTERIMATIOS^AL RRE CODE® 



45 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



604.2.14.1 Standby power. A standby power system 
shall be provided. Where the standby system is a genera- 
tor set inside a building, the system shall be located in a 
separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire-resistance-rated 
fire barrier assemblies. System supervision with manual 
start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire 
command center. 

604.2.14.1.1 Fuel supply. An on-premises fuel sup- 
ply, sufficient for not less than 2-hour full-demand op- 
eration of the system, shall be provided. 

Exception: Where the system is supplied with 
pipeline natural gas and is approved. 

604.2.14.1.2 Capacity. The standby system shall 
have a capacity and rating that supplies all equipment 
required to be operational at the same time. The gen- 
erating capacity is not required to be sized to operate 
all of the connected electrical equipment simulta- 
neously. 

604.2.14.1.3 Connected facilities. Power and light- 
ing facilities for the fire command center and eleva- 
tors specified in Sections 403.8 and 403.9 of the 
International Building Code, as applicable, and elec- 
trically powered fire pumps required to maintain pres- 
sure, shall be transferable to the standby source. 
Standby power shall be provided for at least one ele- 
vator to serve all floors and be transferable to any ele- 
vator. 

604.2.14.2 Separate circuits and fixtures. Separate 
lighting circuits and fixtures shall be required to provide 
sufficient hght with an intensity of not less than 1 
foot-candle (11 lux) measured at floor level in all means 
of egress corridors, stairways, smokeproof enclosures, 
elevator cars and lobbies, and other areas which are 
clearly a part of the escape route. 

604.2.14.2.1 Other circuits. Circuits supplying 
lighting for the fire command center and mechanical 
equipment rooms shall be transferable to the standby 
source. 

604.2.14.3 Emergency systems. Exit signs, exit illumi- 
nation as required by Chapter 10, and elevator car light- 
ing are classified as emergency systems and shall operate 
within 10 seconds of failure of the normal power supply 
and shall be capable of being transferred to the standby 
source. 

Exception: Exit sign, exit and means of egress illumi- 
nation are permitted to be powered by a standby 
source in buildings of Group F and S occupancies. 

604.2.15 Underground buildings. Emergency and standby 
power systems in underground buildings covered in Chapter 
4 of the International Building Code shall comply with Sec- 
tions 604.2.15.1 and 604.2.15.2. 

604.2.15.1 Standby pov»^er. A standby power system 
complying with the ICC Electrical Code shall be pro- 
vided for standby power loads as specified in Section 
604.2.15.1.1. 



[B] 604.2.15.1.1 Standby power loads. The follow- 
ing loads are classified as standby power loads: 

1 . Smoke control system. 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equip- 
ment for smokeproof enclosures. 

3. Fire pumps. 

4. Standby power shall be provided for elevators 
in accordance with Section 3003 of ihe Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

[B] 604.2.15.1,2 Pickup time. The standby power 
system shall pick up its connected loads within 60 sec- 
onds of failure of the normal power supply. 

604.2.15.2 Emergency power. An emergency power 
system complying with the ICC Electrical Code shall be I 
provided for emergency power loads as specified in Sec- I 
tion 604.2.15.2.1. ■ 

604.2.15.2.1 Emergency power loads. The follow- | 
ing loads are classified as emergency power loads: 

1. Emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tems. 

2. Fire alarm systems. 

3. Automatic fire detection systems. 

4. Elevator car lighting. 

5. Means of egress lighting and exit sign illumina- 
tion as required by Chapter 10. 

604.2.16 Group 1-3 occupancies. Power-operated shding 
doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors in Group 
1-3 occupancies shall be operable by a manual release mech- 
anism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote 
mechanical operating release shall be provided. 

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities 
where provisions for remote locking and unlocking of 
occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not re- 
quired as set forth in the International Building Code. 

604.2.17 Airport traffic control towers. A standby power 
system shall be provided in airport traffic control towers 
more than 65 feet (19812 mm) in height. Power shall be pro- 
vided to the following equipment: 

1 . Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and 
lighfing. 

2. Elevator operating equipment. 

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems. 

604.2.18 Elevators. In buildings and structures where 
standby power is required or furnished to operate an eleva- 
tor, the operation shall be in accordance with Sections 
604.2.18.1 through 604.2.18.4. 

604.2.18.1 Manual transfer. Standby power shall be 
manually transferable to all elevators in each bank. 

604.2.18.2 Gee elevator. Where only one elevator is in- 
stalled, the elevator shall automatically transfer to standby 
power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power. 



46 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



60402.18.3 Two or more elevators. Where two or more 
elevators are controlled by a common operating system, 
all elevators shall automatically transfer to standby 
power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power 
where the standby power source is of sufficient capacity 
to operate all elevators at the same time. Where the 
standby power source is not of sufficient capacity to op- 
erate all elevators at the same time, all elevators shall 
transfer to standby power in sequence, return to the des- 
ignated landing and disconnect from the standby power 
source. After all elevators have been returned to the des- 
ignated level, at least one elevator shall remain operable 
from the standby power source. 

604.2018.4 Veetieg. Where standby power is connected 
to elevators, the machine room ventilation or air condi- 
tioning shall be connected to the standby power source. 

13 Mainteeaoce. Emergency and standby power systems 
shall be maintained such that the system is capable of supplying 
service within the time specified for the type and duration re- 
quired. 

604.3.1 Schedule. Inspection, testing and maintenance of 
emergency and standby power systems shall be in accor- 
dance with an approved schedule established upon comple- 
tion and approval of the system installation. 

604.3.2 Written record. Written records of the inspection, 
testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power 
systems shall include the date of service, name of the servic- 
ing technician, a summary of conditions noted and a de- 
tailed description of any conditions requiring correction and 
what corrective action was taken. Such records shall be kept 
on the premises served by the emergency or standby power 
system and be available for inspection by the fire code offi- 
cial. 

604.3.3 Switch maintenance. Emergency and standby 
power system transfer switches shall be included in the in- 
spection, testing and maintenance schedule required by Sec- 
tion 604.3.1. Transfer switches shall be maintained free 
from accumulated dust and dirt. Inspection shall include ex- 
amination of the transfer switch contacts for evidence of de- 
terioration. When evidence of contact deterioration is 
detected, the contacts shall be replaced in accordance with 
the transfer switch manufacturer's instructions. 

604.4 Operational inspection and testing. Emergency power 
systems, including all appurtenant components shall be in- 
spected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 110 
andNFPAlll. 

Exception: Where the emergency power system is used for 
standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be re- 
corded and shall be allowed to be substituted for scheduled 
testing of the generator set, provided that appropriate re- 
cords are maintained. 

604.4.1 Transfer switch test. The test of the transfer switch 
shall consist of electrically operating the transfer switch 
from the normal position to the alternate position and then 
return to the normal position. 



Supervision off maintenance and testing. Routine 
maintenance, inspection and operational testing shall be over- 
seen by a properly instructed individual. 



ELECTRICAL EQUiPiViENT, WIRING AND HAZARDS 

605.1 Abatement of electrical hazards. Identified electrical 
hazards shall be abated. Identified hazardous electrical condi- 
tions in permanent wiring shall be brought to the attention of 
the code official responsible for enforcement of the ICC Elec- 
trical Code. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances and other 
equipment that is modified or damaged and constitutes an elec- 
trical shock or fire hazard shall not be used. 

605.2 Illumination. Illumination shall be provided for service 
equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical 
panelboards. 

605.3 Working space and clearance. A working space of not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in 
depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in 
front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical ser- 
vice equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 mm), the working 
space shall not be less than the width of the equipment. No stor- 
age of any materials shall be located within the designated 
working space. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where other dimensions are required or allowed by 
the ICC Electrical Code. 

2. Access openings into attics or under-floor areas 
which provide a minimum clear opening of 22 inches 
(559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm). 

605.3.1 Labeling. Doors into electrical control panel rooms 
shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible sign stat- 
ing ELECTRICAL ROOM or similar approved wording. 
The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch 
circuit originating on a switchboard or panelboard shall be 
legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose unless 
such purpose is clearly evident. 

605.4 Multiplug adapters. Multiplug adaptors, such as cube 
adaptors, unfused plug strips or any other device not complying 
with the ICC Electrical Code shall be prohibited. 

605.4.1 Power tap design. Relocatable power taps shall be 
of the polarized or grounded type, equipped with 
overcurrent protection, and shall be listed. 

605.4.2 Power supply. Relocatable power taps shall be di- 
rectly connected to a permanently installed receptacle. 

605.4.3 Installation, Relocatable power tap cords shall not 
extend through walls, ceilings, floors, under doors or floor 
coverings, or be subject to environmental or physical dam- 
age. 

605.5 Extension cords. Extension cords and flexible cords 
shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring. Extension cords 
and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures, extended 
through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or floor cover- 



2003 INTERNATIONAL F!RE CODE® 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



ings, nor shall such cords be subject to environmental damage 
or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used only with 
portable appliances. 

605.5.1 Power supply. Extension cords shall be plugged di- 
rectly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multiplug 
adapter and, except for approved multiplug extension cords, 
shall serve only one portable appliance. 

605.5.2 Ampacity. The ampacity of the extension cords 
shall not be less than the rated capacity of the portable appli- 
ance supplied by the cord. 

605.5.3 Maintenamce. Extension cords shall be maintained 
in good condition without splices, deterioration or damage. 

605.5.4 Grounding. Extension cords shall be grounded 
when serving grounded portable appliances. 

605.6 Unapproved conditions. Open junction boxes and 
open-wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approved covers shall 
be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes. 

605.7 Appliances. Electrical appliances and fixtures shall be 
tested and listed in published reports of inspected electrical 
equipment by an approved agency and installed in accordance 
with all instructions included as part of such listing. 

605.8 Electrical motors. Electrical motors shall be maintained 
free from excessive accumulations of oil, dirt, waste and debris. 

605.9 Temporary wiring. Temporary wiring for electrical 
power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to 
exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the ap- 
plicable provisions of the ICC Electrical Code. 

Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and 
lighting installations is allowed during periods of construc- 
tion, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, struc- 
tures, equipment or similar activities. 

605.9.1 Attachment to structures. Temporary wiring at- 
tached to a structure shall be attached in an approved man- 
ner. 



SECTION 606 
MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION 

[M] 606.1 Scope. Refrigeration systems shall be installed in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 

[M] 606.2 Refrigerants. The use and purity of new, recovered, 
and reclaimed refrigerants shall be in accordance with the In- 
ternational Mechanical Code. 

[M] 606.3 Refrigerant classification. Refrigerants shall be 
classified in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. 

[M] 606.4 Change in refrigerant type. A change in the type of 
refrigerant in a refrigeration system shall be in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. 

606.5 Access. Refrigeration systems having a refrigerant cir- 
cuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group Al or 
30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be acces- 
sible to the fire department at all times as required by the fire 
code official. 



J.6 Testing of equipment. Refrigeration equipment and 
systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 
pounds (100 kg) of Group A 1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other 
group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accor- 
dance with Section 606.6.1. A written record of required test- 
ing shall be maintained on the premises. Tests of emergency 
devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted 
by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration systems. 

606.6.1 Periodic testing. The following emiergency devices 
or systems shall be periodically tested in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instrucdons and as required by the fire 
code official. 

1. Treatment and flaring systems. 

2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation 
of emergency refrigeration control boxes. 

3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate 
emergency ventilation systems. 

4. Detection and alarm systems. 

606.7 Emergency signs. Refrigeration units or systems having 
a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) 
of Group A 1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refriger- 
ant shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts, 
and labels in accordance with NFPA 704. Hazard signs shall be 
in accordance with the International Mechanical Code for the 
classification of refrigerants listed therein. 

606.8 Refrigerant detector. Machinery rooms shall contain a 
refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The de- 
tector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall be 
located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concen- 
trate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the 
corresponding TLV-TWA values shown in the International 
Mechanical Code for the refrigerant classificafion. Detectors 
and alarms shall be placed in approved locations. 

Exception: Detectors are not required for ammonia systems 
where the machinery room complies with Section 1 106.3 of 
the International Mechanical Code. 

606.9 Remote controls. Remote control of the mechanical 
equipment and appliances located in the machinery room shall 
be provided at an approved location immediately outside the 
machinery room and adjacent to its principal entrance. 

606.9.1 Refrigeration system. A clearly identified switch 
of the break-glass type shall provide off-only control of 
electrically energized equipment and appliances in the ma- 
chinery room, other than refrigerant leak detectors and ma- 
chinery room ventilation. 

606.9.2 Ventilation system. A clearly identified switch of 
the break-glass type shall provide on-only control of the ma- 
chinery room ventilation fans. 

606.9.3 Emergency control box. Emergency control boxes 
shall be provided for refrigeration systems required to be 
equipped with a treatment system, flaring system or ammo- 
nia diffusion system. 

606.9,3,1 Location. Emergency control boxes shall be 
located outside of the building at an approved accessible 
location. All portions of the emergency control box shall 
be 6 feet (1829 mm) or less above the adjoining grade. 



48 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



BUILDDNG SERVICES AMD SYSTEMS 



.9o3.2 ConstrMctlono Emergency control boxes shall 
be of iron or steel not less than 0.055 inch (1.4 mm) in 
thickness and provided with a hinged cover and lock. 

606,.9o33 Operational procedure. Valves and switches 
shall be identified in an approved manner as to the se- 
quential procedure to be followed in the event of an emer- 
gency. 

606,93,4 Ideiitlicatloiio Emergency control boxes shall 
be provided with a permanent label on the outside cover 
reading: FIRE DEPARTMENT USE ONLY— REFRIG- 
ERANT CONTROL BOX, and including the name of the 
refrigerant in the system. Hazard identification in accor- 
dance with NFPA 704 shall be posted inside and outside 
of the control box. 



^^o93o§ IfistractloMSo Written instructions and infor- 
mation shall be provided and located in the emergency 
control box designating the following information: 

1 . Instructions for suspending operation of the sys- 
tem in the event of an emergency. 

2. The name, address and emergency telephone num- 
bers to obtain emergency service. 

3. The location and operation of emergency dis- 
charge systems. 

.0 Storage, ese amd fiaEdllng, Flammable and combusti- 
ble materials shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrig- 
eration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more 
than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A 1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of 
any other group refrigerant. Storage, use or handling of extra 
refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as required by Chapters 
27, 30, 32 and 34. 



1 



m This provision shall not apply to spare parts, 
tools, and incidental materials necessary for the safe and 
proper operation and maintenance of the system. 

606,11 Termmatiom of relief devices. Pressure relief devices, 
fusible plugs and purge systems for refrigeration systems con- 
taining more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, toxic or 
highly toxic refrigerants shall be provided with an approved 
discharge system as required by Sections 606.11.1, 606.11.2 
and 606.1 1.3. Discharge piping and devices connected to the 
discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture member shall have 
provisions to prevent plugging the pipe in the event of the fus- 
ible plug or rupture member functions. 

606.11,1 Flammable reffrigeramts. Systems containing 
flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater 
than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere only through an approved treatment system in accor- 
dance with Section 606.11.4 or a flaring system in 
accordance with Section 606.11.5. Systems containing 
flammable refrigerants having a density less than the den- 
sity of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere provided that the point of discharge is located outside 
of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the 
adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) 
from any window, ventilation opening or exit. 



606.11.2 Toxic and highly toxic refrngeramls. Systems 
containing toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall discharge 
vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment 
system in accordance with Section 606. 1 1 .4 or a flaring sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 606.1 1.5. 

606.11.3 Ammomia refrigeraet. Systems containing am- 
monia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere 
through an approved treatment system in accordance with 
Section 606.11.4, a flaring system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 606.11.5, or through an approved ammonia diffusion 
system in accordance with Section 606. 1 1 .6, or by other ap- 
proved means. 



1, Ammonia/water absorption systems containing 
less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of ammonia and for 
which the ammonia circuit is located entirely out- 
doors. 

2. When the fire code official determines, on review 
of an engineering analysis prepared in accordance 
with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or environ- 
mental hazard would not result from discharging 
ammonia directly to the atmosphere. 

606,11.4 Treatmemt systems. Treatment systems shall be 
designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration of 
the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH 
at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 37. 



1,5 Flaring systems. Flaring systems for incineration 
of flammable refrigerants shall be designed to incinerate the 
entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration 
shall not pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration 
shall be automatic upon initiation of discharge, shall be de- 
signed to prevent blowback, and shall not expose structures 
or materials to threat of fire. Standby fuel, such as LP gas, 
and standby power shall have the capacity to operate for one 
and one-half the required time for complete incineration of 
refrigerant in the system. 

606.11.6 Ammomia diffusiom systems. Ammonia diffusion 
systems shall include a tank containing 1 gallon of water for 
each pound of ammonia (4 L of water for each 1 kg of am- 
monia) that will be released in 1 hour from the largest relief 
device connected to the discharge pipe. The water shall be 
prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from the pres- 
sure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the bottom of 
the tank, but no lower than 33 feet (10 058 mm) below the 
maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the volume of 
water and ammonia without overflowing. 

606,12 Discharge locatiom for refrigeratiom machfmery 
room vemtilatioii. Exhaust from mechanical ventilation sys- 
tems serving refrigeration machinery rooms capable of ex- 
ceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of the IDLH shall 
be equipped with approved treatment systems to reduce the dis- 
charge concentrations of flammable, toxic or highly toxic re- 
frigerants to those values or lower. 



2003 INTERMATDONAL FIRE CODE® 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



606.13 Notification of refrigerant discharges. The fire code 
official shall be notified immediately when a discharge be- 
comes reportable under state, federal or local regulations in ac- 
cordance with Section 2703.3.1. 

606.14 Records. A written record shall be kept of refrigerant 
quantities brought into and removed from the premises. Such 
records shall be available to the fire code official. 

606.15 Electrical equipment. Where refrigerants of Groups 
A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the International Mechanical 
Code, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall conform 
to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification re- 
quirements of the ICC Electrical Code. 

Exception: Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided 
with ventilation in accordance with Section 1106.3 of the 
International Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 607 
ELEVATOR RECALL AND MAINTE 

607.1 Required. Existing elevators with a travel distance of 25 
feet (7620 mm) or more above or below the main floor or other 
level of a building and intended to serve the needs of emer- 
gency personnel for fire-fighting or rescue purposes shall be 
provided with emergency operation in accordance with ASME 
A 17.3. New elevators shall be provided with Phase I emer- 
gency recall operation and Phase II emergency in-car operation 
in accordance with ASME A17.1. 

[B] 607.2 Emergency signs. An approved pictorial sign of a 
standardized design shall be posted adjacent to each elevator 
call station on all floors instructing occupants to use the exit 
stairways and not to use the elevators in case of fire. The sign 
shall read: IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVA- 
TOR. USE EXIT STAIRS. The emergency sign shall not be re- 
quired for elevators that are part of an accessible means of 
egress complying with Section 1007.4. 

607.3 Elevator keys. Keys for the elevator car doors and 
fire-fighter service keys shall be kept in an approved location 
for immediate use by the fire department. 



SECTION 608 
STATIONARY LEAD-ACID BATTERY SYSTEMS 

608.1 Scope. Stationary lead-acid battery systems using 
vented (flooded) lead-acid batteries having an electrolyte ca- 
pacity of more than 50 gallons ( 1 89 L) used for facility standby 
power, emergency power, or uninterrupted power supphes 
(UPS) shall comply with this section. Valve-regulated 
lead-acid batteries are not subject to the requirements of this 
section, but shall comply with Section 609. 

608.2 Safety venting. Batteries shall be provided with safety 
venting caps. 

608.3 Room design and construction. Enclosure of stationary 
lead-acid system rooms shall comply with the International 
Building Code. The battery systems are permitted to be in the 
same room with the equipment they support. 

608.4 Spill control and neutralization. An approved method 
and materials for the control and neutralization of a spill of 



electrolyte shall be provided. The method and materials shall 
be capable of controlling and neutralizing a spill from the larg- 
est lead-acid battery to a pH between 7.0 and 9.0. 

608.5 Ventilation, Ventilation shall be provided in accordance 
with the International Mechanical Code and the following: 

1. The ventilation system shall be designed to limit the 
maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1 .0 percent of 
the total volume of the room; or 

2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not 
less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (1 
cfm/ft^) [(0.005 lmV(s • m^)] of floor area of the room. 

608.6 Signs, Doors into rooms or buildings containing station- 
ary lead-acid battery systems shall be provided with approved 
signs. The signs shall state that the room contains lead-acid bat- 
tery systems, that the battery room contains energized electri- 
cal circuits, and that the battery electrolyte solutions are 
corrosive liquids. 

608.7 Seismic protection. The battery systems shall be seismi- 
cally braced in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 

608.8 Smoke detection. An approved automatic smoke detec- 
tion system shall be installed in battery rooms in accordance 
with Section 907.2.23. 



SECTION 609 

VALVE-REGULATED LEAD-ACID (VRLA) 
BATTERY SYSTEMS 

609.1 Scope, Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery sys- 
tems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons 
(189 L) used for facility standby power, emergency power or 
uninterrupted power supplies (UPS) shall comply with this sec- 
tion. 

609.2 Safety vents. VRLA batteries shall be equipped with 
self-resealing flame-arresting safety vents. 

609.3 Thermal runavyay. VRLA battery systems shall be pro- 
vided with a listed device or other approved method to pre- 
clude, detect and control thermal runaway. 

609.4 Room design and construction. Enclosure of VRLA 
battery system rooms shall comply with the International 
Building Code. The battery systems are permitted to be in the 
same room with the equipment they support. When VRLA bat- 
tery systems are installed in a separate equipment room acces- 
sible only to authorized personnel, they shall be allowed to be 
installed on an open rack for ease of maintenance. When a 
VRLA battery system is situated in an occupied work center, it 
shall be housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure 
to prevent access by unauthorized personnel. 

609.5 Neutralization. An approved manual method and mate- 
rials for the neutralization of a release of electrolyte shall be 
provided. The method and materials shall be capable of con- 
trolling and neutralizing a release of 3 percent of the capacity of 
the largest VRLA cell or block in the room to a pH between 7.0 
and 9.0. 

609.6 Room ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided to limit 
the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the to- 



• 



r 



50 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



BU1LD8NG SERVICES hUD SYSTEMS 



« 






tal volume of the room during the worst-case event of simulta- 
neous "boost" charging of all batteries in the room. Where 
calculations are not provided to substantiate the ventilation 
rate, continuous ventilation at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot 
per minute per square foot (1 ftVmin/ft^) [(0.0051 mV(s • m^)] 
of floor area of the room shall be provided. The ventilation shall 
be either mechanically or naturally induced. 

609.7 Cabinet vemtllatiom. Where VRLA batteries are in- 
stalled inside a cabinet, the cabinet shall be vented. The cabinet 
ventilation shall limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen 
to 1 percent of the total volume of the cabinet during the 
worst-case event of simultaneous "boost" charging of all bat- 
teries in the cabinet. Where calculations are not provided to 
substantiate the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation at a rate 
of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (1 
ftVmin/ft^) [0.005 1 mV(s • m^)] of floor area covered by the cab- 
inet shall be provided. The ventilation shall be either mechani- 
cally or naturally induced. The room in which the cabinet is 
installed shall also be ventilated as required in Section 609.6. 

<509.8 SignSo Doors into electrical equipment rooms containing 
I VRLA battery systems shall be provided with approved signs. 
The signs shall state that the room contains lead-acid battery 
systems and contains energized electrical circuits. Where 
VRLA batteries are contained in cabinets in occupied work 
centers, the cabinet enclosures shall be located within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of the equipment that they support. The cabinets 
shall have exterior labels that identify the manufacturer and 
model number of the system and electrical rating (voltage and 
current) of the contained battery system. Within the cabinet 
there shall be signs that indicate the relevant electrical, chemi- 
cal and fire hazards. 



h9 Seismic protectlom. The battery systems shall be seismi- 
cally braced in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 



^ 



ol© Smoke detection. An approved automatic smoke de- 
tection system shall be installed in rooms containing VRLA 
battery systems in accordance with Section 907.2.23. 



SECTION ©1© 
COiiyERCIAL KITCHEN HOODS 

[M] 610.1 General. Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall 
comply with the requirements of the International Mechanical 
Code. 

[M] 610.2 Where required. A Type I hood shall be installed at 
or above all commercial cooking appliances and domestic 
cooking appUances used for commercial purposes that produce 
grease vapors. 



2003 BNTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 51 



52 2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



2. For doors designed to be kept normally closed: FIRE 
DOOR— KEEP CLOSED. 



701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify the re- 
quirements for and the maintenance of fire-resistance-rated 
construction and requirements for enclosing floor openings 
and shafts in existing buildings. New construction shall comply 
with the International Building Code. 



SECTIOM 702 
DEFIMITIONS 

702,1 Terms defined In Chapter 2. Words and terms used in 
this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as defined therein. 



F!RE=RESfSTANCE"RATED CONSTRUCTION 

.1 Malmtenance, The required fire-resistance rating of 
fire-resistance-rated construction (including walls, fire stops, 
shaft enclosures, partitions and floors) shall be maintained. 
Such elements shall be properly repaired, restored or replaced 
when damaged, altered, breached or penetrated. Openings 
made therein for the passage of pipes, electrical conduit, wires, 
ducts, air transfer openings, and holes made for any reason 
shall be protected with approved methods capable of resisting 
the passage of smoke and fire. Openings through fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies shall be protected by self-closing or au- 
tomatic-closing doors of approved construction meeting the 
fire protection requirements for the assembly. 



draftstopping. Required 
fireblocking and draftstopping in combustible concealed 
spaces shall be maintained to provide continuity and integ- 
rity of the construction. 

703ol.2 Smoke barriers. Required smoke barrier partitions 
shall be maintained to prevent the passage of smoke and all 
openings protected with approved smoke barrier doors or 
leakage-rated (smoke) dampers. 

703.2 Opening protectlves. Opening protectives shall be 
maintained in an operative condition in accordance with NFPA 
80. Fire doors and smoke barrier doors shall not be blocked or 
obstructed or otherwise made inoperable. Fusible links shall be 
replaced promptly whenever fused or damaged. Fire door as- 
sembHes shall not be modified. 

703.2.1 Signs. Where required by the fire code official, a 
sign shall be permanently displayed on or near each fire 
door in letters not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high to read as 
follows: 

1. For doors designed to be kept normally open: FIRE 
DOOR— DO NOT BLOCK. 



is and closers. Hold-open de- 
vices and automatic door closers, where provided, shall be 
maintained. During the period that such device is out of ser- 
vice for repairs, the door it operates shall remain in the 
closed position. 

703,2,3 Door operation. Swinging fire doors shall close 
from the full-open position and latch automatically. The 
door closer shall exert enough force to close and latch the 
door from any partially open position. 

703.3 Ceilings, The hanging and displaying of salable goods 
and other decorative materials from acoustical ceiling systems 
that are part of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceil- 
ing assembly, shall be prohibited. 

703.4 Testing. Horizontal and vertical shding and rolling fire 
doors shall be inspected and tested annually to confirm proper 
operation and full closure. A written record shall be maintained 
and be available to the fire code official. 



704.1 Enclosure, Interior vertical shafts, including but not lim- 
ited to stairways, elevator hoistways, service and utihty shafts, 
that connect two or more stories of a building shall be enclosed 
or protected as specified in Table 704. 1 . When openings are re- 
quired to be protected, openings into such shafts shall be main- 
tained self-closing or automafic-closing by smoke detection. 
Existing fusible-link-type automatic door-closing devices are 
permitted if the fusible Unk rating does not exceed 135 °F 
(57°C). 



2003 BNTERiSIATIONAL FBRE CODE® 



53 



FBRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 704.1 
VERTICAL OPENJNG PROTECTION REQUIRED 



OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 


CONDITIONS 


PROTECTION REQUIRED 


Group I 


Vertical openings connecting two or more stories 


1 -hour protection 


All, other than Group I 


Vertical openings connecting two stories 


No protection required^'^ 


All, other than Group I 


Vertical openings connecting three to five stories 


1-hour protection or automatic sprinklers 
throughout''''' 


All, other than Group I 


Vertical openings connecting more than five stories 


1 -hour protection^'' 


All 


Mezzanines open to the floor below 


No protection required^-'' 


All, other than Group I 


Atriums and covered mall buildings 


1-hour protection or automatic sprinklers 
throughout 


All, other than Groups B and M 


Escalator openings connecting four or less stories in a 
sprinklered building. Openings must be protected by a draft 
curtain and closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with 
NFPA 13 


No protection required 


Group B and M 


Escalator openings in a sprinklered building protected by a 
draft curtain and closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with 
NFPA 13 


No protection required 



a. Vertical opening protection is not required for Group R-3 occupancies. 

b. Vertical opening protection is not required for open parking garages and ramps. 



54 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



ING! 



801.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern furni- 
ture and furnishings, interior finishes, interior trim, decorative 
materials and decorative vegetation in buildings. Sections 803, 
804 and 805 shall be applicable to new and existing buildings. 
Section 806 shall be applicable to existing buildings. 



ter 2. Words and terms used in 
this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as defined therein. 



The provisions of Sections 
803.1.1 through 803.1.3 shall be applicable to all occupancies 
covered by Sections 803.2 through 803.7. 

803,1.1 Explosive and IsigMy flammable materials. Fur- 
nishings or decorations of an explosive or highly flammable 
character shall not be used. 



igs. Fire-retardant coatings 
shall be maintained so as to retain the effectiveness of the 
treatment under service conditions encountered in actual 
use. 

803.1.3 Otostructioes. Furnishings or other objects shall 
not be placed to obstruct exits, access thereto, egress there- 
from or visibility thereof. 

§03.2 Group A. The requirements in Sections 803.2.1 and 
803.2.2 shall apply to occupancies in Group A. 

803.2.1 Foam plastics. Exposed foam plastic materials and 
unprotected materials containing foam plastic used for dec- 
orative purposes or stage scenery or exhibit booths shall 
have a maximum heat release rate of 100 kilowatts (kW) 
when tested in accordance with UL 1975. 



1 . Individual foam plastic items or items containing 
foam plastic where the foam plastic does not ex- 
ceed 1 pound (0.45 kg) in weight. 

2. Cellular or foam plastic shall be allowed for trim not 
in excess of 10 percent of the wall or ceiling area, 
provided it is not less than 20 pounds per cubic foot 
(320 kg per cubic meter) in density, is limited to 0.5 
inch (12.7 mm) in thickness and 4 inches (102 mm) 
in width, and complies with the requirements for 
Class B interior wall and ceiling finish, except that 
the smoke-developed index shall not be limited. 



803,2,2 Motion pictmre screens. The screens upon which 
motion pictures are projected shall be either flame resistant, 
as demonstrated by complying with NFPA 701, or shall 
comply with the requirements for a Class B interior finish. 

803.3 Group E, The requirements in Secdons 803.3.1 and 
803.3.2 shall apply to occupancies in Group E. 

803.3,1 Storage m corridors and lobbies. Clothing and 
personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and lobbies. 



1. Corridors protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1. 

2. Corridors protected by an approved smoke detec- 
tion system installed in accordance with Section 
907. 

3 . Storage in metal lockers provided the minimum re- 
quired egress width is maintained. 

803,3.2 Artwork. Artwork and teaching materials shall be 
limited on the walls of corridors to not more than 20 percent 
of the wall area. 



' care facilities. The requirements in Sec- 
tions 803.4.1 and 803.4.2 shall apply to day care facilities clas- 
sified in Group 1-4. 

803,4,1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing and 
personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and lobbies. 



1. Corridors protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1. 

2. Corridors protected by an approved smoke detec- 
tion system installed in accordance with Section 
907. 

3. Storage in metal lockers provided the minimum re- 
quired egress width is maintained. 

803.4.2 Artwork, Artwork and teaching materials shall be 
limited on walls of corridors to not more than 20 percent of 
the wall area. 

803.5 Group 1=2, mirsieg homes and hospitals. The require- 
ments in Sections 803.5.1 through 803.5.3 shall apply to nurs- 
ing homes and hospitals classified in Group 1-2. 

803,5,1 Upholstered fMrniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by ciga- 
rettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with 
NFPA 261 and shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 
inches (38 mm) 



1. Upholstered furniture belonging to the patient in 
sleeping rooms of nursing homes (Group 1-2), pro- 



2003 SNTERNATIOMAL FIRE CODE® 



55 



INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



vided that a smoke detector is installed in such 
rooms. Battery-powered, single-station smoke 
alarms shall be permitted. 

2. Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected 
by an approved automatic sprinkler system in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

803.5.2 Upholstered furniture heat release rate. Newly 
introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited rates of 
heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 
or NFPA 266. 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 250 kW. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 5 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 40 megajoules (MJ). 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

803.5.3 Mattresses, heat-release rate. Newly introduced 
mattresses in Group 1-2 occupancies shall have limited rates 
of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 
1590 or NFPA 267. 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the mattress shall not 
exceed 250 kW. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the mattress during the 
first 5 minutes of the test shall not exceed 40 MJ. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

803.5.4 IdentiOcation. Upholstered furniture shall bear the 
label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with 
the requirements of Sections 803.5.1 and 803.5.2. 

803.6 Group I-l, board and care facilities. The requirements 
in Sections 803.6.1 through 803.6.3 shall apply to board and 
care facilities classified in Group I-l. 

803.6.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements for Class I when 
tested in accordance with NFPA 260. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. 

803.6.2 Mattresses. New mattresses shall have a char 
length not exceeding 2 inches (5 1 mm) where tested in ac- 
cordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system. 



803.6.3 Mattresses, heat-release rate. Newly introduced 
mattresses in Group I-l occupancies shall have limited rates 
of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 
1590 or NFPA 267. 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the mattress shall not 
exceed 250 kW. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. 

2. The total energy released by the mattress during the 
first 5 minutes of the test shall not exceed 40 MJ. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. 

803.7 Group 1-3, detention and correction facilities. The re- 
quirements in Secfions 803.7.1 through 803.7.6 shall apply to 
detention and correcrion facilities classified in Group 1-3. 

803.7.1 Upholstered furniture ciassiOcation. Newly in- 
troduced upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements 
for Class I where tested in accordance with NFPA 260. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

803.7.2 Upholstered furniture heat release rate. Newly 
introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited rates of 
heat release, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered 
furniture item shall not exceed 250 kW. 

Exceptions: 

1 . In Use Condition I, II and III occupancies, as 
defined in the International Building Code, 
upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces 
protected by approved smoke detectors that 
initiate, without delay, an alarm that is audi- 
ble in that room or space. 

2. Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces 
protected by an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 5 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 40 MJ. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

803.7.3 Mattresses, char length. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have a char length not exceeding 2 inches (5 1 
mm) when tested in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 
1632. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

803.7.4 Mattresses, heat release rate. Newly introduced 
mattresses in detention and correctional occupancies shall 



56 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



8NTERB0R FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHSNGS 



have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 1590 or NFPA 267, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the mattress shall not 
exceed 250 kW. 



n; Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the mattress during the 
first 5 minutes of the test shall not exceed 40 mJ. 



ni: Mattresses in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

803.7o5 Wastebaskets, Wastebaskets and other waste con- 
tainers shall be of noncombustible or other approved materi- 
als. 



803,7<,6 Wastebasket lids. Waste containers with a capacity 
of more than 20 gallons (76 L) shall be provided with a lid of 
noncombustible or other approved material. 



804.2 ObstrMction off means of egress. The required width of 
any portion of a means of egress shall not be obstructed by dec- 
orative vegetation. 

804.3 Open flame. Candles and open flames shall not be used 
on or near decorative vegetation. Natural cut trees shall be kept 
a distance from heat vents and any open flame or heat-produc- 
ing devices at least equal to the height of the tree. 

804.3.1 Electrical fixtares and wnrieg. The use of unhsted 
electrical wiring and lighting on decorative vegetation shall 
be prohibited. 

804.4 Artificial vegetation. Artificial decorative vegetation 
shall be flame resistant or flame retardant. Such flame 
retardance shall be documented and certified by the manufac- 
turer in an approved manner. 

804.4.1 Electrical fixtures and wiring. The use of unlisted 
electrical wiring and lighting on decorative vegetation shall 
be prohibited. The use of electrical wiring and Ughting on 
metal artificial trees shall be prohibited. 



804.1 Natural cut trees. Natural cut trees, where permitted by 
this section, shall have the trunk bottoms cut off at least 0.5 inch 
(12.7 mm) above the original cut and shall be placed in a sup- 
port device complying with Section 804.1.2. 

804.1.1 Restricted occupancies. Natural cut trees shall be 
prohibited in Group A, E, I-l, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, M, R-1, R-2 and 
R-4 occupancies. 



1 . Trees located in areas protected by an approved au- 
tomatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 shall not be 
prohibited in Groups A, E, M, R-1 and R-2. 

2. Trees shall be allowed within dwelling units in 
Group R-2 occupancies. 

804.1.2 Support devices. The support device that holds the 
tree in an upright position shall be of a type that is stable and 
that meets all of the following criteria: 

1 . The device shall hold the tree securely and be of ade- 
quate size to avoid tipping over of the tree. 

2. The device shall be capable of containing a minimum 
2-day supply of water. 

3. The water level, when full, shall cover the tree stem at 
least 2 inches (5 1 mm). The water level shall be main- 
tained above the fresh cut and checked at least once 
daily. 

804.1.3 Dryness. The tree shall be removed from the build- 
ing whenever the needles or leaves fall off readily when a 
tree branch is shaken or if the needles are brittle and break 
when bent between the thumb and index finger. The tree 
shall be checked daily for dryness. 



80S.1 General. In occupancies of Groups A, E, I and R-1 and 
dormitories in Group R-2, curtains, draperies, hangings and 
other decorative materials suspended from walls or ceiUngs 
shall be flame resistant in accordance with Section 805.2 and 
NFPA 701 or be noncombustible. 

In Groups I-l and 1-2, combustible decorations shall be 
flame retardant unless the decorations, such as photographs 
and paintings, are of such limited quantities that a hazard of fire 
development or spread is not present. In Group 1-3, combusti- 
ble decorations are prohibited. 



istible materials. The permissible 
amount of noncombustible decorative material shall not be 
limited. 



805,1,2 Flame-resistant materials. The permissible 
amount of flame-resistant decorative materials shall not ex- 
ceed 10 percent of the aggregate area of walls and ceilings. 



ion: In auditoriums of Group A, the permissible 
amount of flame-resistant decorative material shall not ex- 
ceed 50 percent of the aggregate area of walls and ceiling 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903 .3 . 1.1, and where the material is installed in accordance 
with Section 803.4 of the International Building Code. 

805.2 Acceptance criteria and reports. Where required to be 
flame resistant, decorative materials shall be tested by an ap- 
proved agency and pass Test 1 or 2, as described in NFPA 701, 
or such materials shall be noncombustible. Reports of test re- 
sults shall be prepared in accordance with NFPA 701 and fur- 
nished to the fire code official upon request. 

805.3 Foam plastic. Foam plastic used as interior trim shall 
comply with Sections 805.3.1 through 805.3.4. 



2003 DNTERNATIIONAL FIRE CODE® 



57 



INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



805.3.1 Density. The minimum density of the interior trim 
shall be 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m^). 

805.3.2 Thickness. The maximum thickness of the interior 
trim shall be 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and the maximum width 
shall be 8 inches (203 mm). 

805.3.3 Area limitation. The interior trim shall not consti- 
tute more than 10 percent of the aggregate wall and ceiling 
area of a room or space. 

805.3.4 Flame spread. The flame spread rating shall not ex- 
ceed 75 where tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. The 
smoke-developed index shall not be hmited. 

805.4 Pyroxylin plastic. Imitation leather or other material, 
consisting of or coated with a pyroxylin or similarly hazardous 
base, shall not be used in Group A occupancies. 

805.5 Trim. Material used as interior trim shall have a mini- 
mum Class C flame spread index and smoke-developed index. 
Combustible trim, excluding handrails and guardrails, shall not 
exceed 10 percent of the aggregate wall or ceiling area in which 
it is located. 



SECTION 806 
INTERIOR FINISH AND DECORATIVE MATERIALS 

806.1 General. The provisions of this section shall limit the al- 
lowable flame spread and smoke development of interior fin- 
ishes and decorative materials in existing buildings based on 
location and occupancy classification. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Materials having a thickness less than 0.036 inch (0.9 
mm) applied directly to the surface of walls and ceil- 
ings. 

2. Exposed portions of structural members complying 
with the requirements of buildings of Type IV con- 
struction in accordance with the International Build- 
ing Code shall not be subject to interior finish 
requirements. 

806.1.1 Requirements based on occupancy. Interior finish 
and decorative materials shall be restricted by combustibil- 
ity and flame resistance according to occupancy group in 
accordance with Table 806.3. 

806.1.2 Foam plastics. Cellular or foam plastics shall not 
be used as interior finish or trim. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Cellular or foam plastic materials shall be permit- 
ted on the basis of fire tests that substantiate their 
combustibility characteristics for the use intended 
under actual fire conditions. 

2. Cellular or foam plastic shall be permitted for trim 
not in excess of 10 percent of the wall or ceiling 
area, provided such trim is not less than 20 pounds 
per cubic foot (320 kg/m^) in density, is limited to 
0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness and 8 inches (203 
mm) in width, and complies with the requirements 
for Class A or B interior wall and ceiling finish ex- 
cept that the smoke rating shall not be limited. 



806.1.3 Obstruction of means of egress. No decorations or 
other objects shall be placed to obstruct exits, access thereto, 
egress therefrom, or visibility thereof. 

806.2 Wall and ceiling finish. Interior wall and ceiling finishes 
shall be classified in accordance with Section 803 of the Inter- | 
national Building Code. Such interior finishes shall be grouped 
in the following classes in accordance with their flame spread 
and smoke-developed index. 

Class A: Flame spread index 0-25 

Smoke-developed index 0-450 

Class B: Flame spread index 26-75 

Smoke-developed index 0-450 

Class C: Flame spread index 76-200 

Smoke-developed index 0-450 

Exception: Materials, other than textiles, tested in accor- I 
dance with Section 806.2.1. I 

806.2.1 Interior wall or ceiling finishes other than tex- 
tiles. Interior wall or ceiling finishes, other than textiles, 
shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with NFPA 
286. Finishes tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall 
comply with Section 806.2.1.1. 

806,2.1.1 Acceptance criteria. During the 40 kW expo- 
sure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 1 . During 
the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply 
with Item 2. During the entire test, the interior finish shall 
comply with Item 3. 

1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not 
spread to the ceiling. 

2. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish 
shall comply with the following: 

2.1. Flame shall not spread to the outer extrem- 
ity of the sample on any v/all or ceiling. 

2.2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall 
not occur. 

3. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 
286 test shall not exceed 1,000 m^. 

806.2.2 Stability. Interior finish materials regulated by this 
chapter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a man- 
ner that such materials will not readily become detached 
when subjected to a room temperature of 200°F (93 °C) for 
not less than 30 minutes. 

806.2.3 Textiles. Textile wall coverings shall have a Class A 
flame spread rating when tested in accordance with ASTM 
E 84 and be protected by approved automatic sprinklers in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 or 
the covering shall meet the criteria of Section 806.2.3.1 or 
806.2.3.2 when tested in accordance with NFPA 265 using 
the product-mounting system, including adhesive, of actual 
use. 

806.2.3.1 Method A. When using method A, flame shall 
not spread to the ceiling during a 40 kW exposure. Dur- 
ing the 150 kW exposure, all of the following criteria 
shall be met: 



58 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



BNTER80R FiMSSH, DECORATDVE IWATERIALS AND FUR^S!SHINGS 



1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the 
sample on the 8-foot by 12-foot (2438 mm by 3657 
mm) wall. 

2. The specimen shall not bum to the outer extremity 
of the 2-foot- wide (610 mm) samples mounted 
vertically in the comer of the room. 

3. Buming droplets that are judged by the fire code 
official to be capable of igniting the textile wall 
covering or that persist in buming for 30 seconds or 
more shall not be formed and dropped to the floor. 

4 . Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265 , shall not occur. 

5. The maximum instantaneous net peak rate of heat 
release shall not exceed 300 kW. 

806.2.3.2 Method B. When using method B, flame shall 
not spread to the ceiling during the 40 kW exposure. Dur- 
ing the 150 kW exposure, all of the following criteria 
shall be met: 

1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the 
sample on the 8-foot by 12-foot (2438 mm by 3657 
mm) wall. 

2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not occur. 

806.2.4 Trim aed mcldental finisli. Interior wall and ceil- 
ing finish not in excess of 10 percent of the aggregate wall 
and ceiling areas of any room or space shall be permitted to 
be Class C materials. 

806.2.5 Expanded vimyl wall coverimgs. Expanded vinyl 
wall coverings shall comply with the requirements for tex- 
tile wall and ceiling materials and their use shall comply 
with Section 806.2.2. 



m Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings 
complying with Section 806.2.1 shall not be required to 
comply with Sections 806.2 and 806.3. 

806.2.6 Flre=retardaet coatings. The required flame 
spread or smoke-developed classification of surfaces shall 
be permitted to be achieved by application of approved 
fire-retardant coatings, paints or solutions to surfaces hav- 
ing a flame spread rating exceeding that permitted. Such ap- 
plications shall comply with NFPA 703 and the required 
fire-retardant properties shall be maintained or renewed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

806.3 Wall and ceiling finish reqeiremeets. Interior wall and 
ceiling finish shall have a flame spread index not greater than 
that specified in Table 806.3 for the group and location desig- 
nated. Interior wall and ceiUng finish materials, other than tex- 
tiles, tested in accordance with NFPA 286 and meeting the 
acceptance criteria of Section 806.2.1.1, shall be permitted to 
be used where a Class A classification in accordance with 
ASTM E84 is required. 



2003 8NTERMATB0NAL PURE CODE® 59 



INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



TABLE 806.3 
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH REQUIREMENTS BY OCCUPANCY" 



GROUP 


SPRINKLERED"" 


NONSPRINKLERED 


Vertical exits and 
exit passageways^' "^ 


Exit access 

corridors and otiier 

exitways 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces'^ 


Vertical exits and 
exit passageways^' *' 


Exit access 

corridors and other 

exitways 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces'^ 


A-l'&A-2 


B 


B 


C 


A 


A'' 


B« 


A-3f-'A-4,A-5 


B 


B 


C 


A 


A'' 


C 


B, E, M, R-1, R-4 


B 


C 


C 


A 


B 


C 


F 


C 


C 


C 


B 


C 


C 


H 


B 


B 


cs 


A 


A 


B 


I-l 


B 


C 


c 


A 


B 


B 


1-2 


B 


B 


Bh,i 


A 


A 


B 


1-3 


A 


AJ 


C 


A 


A 


B 


1-4 


B 


B 


gh.i 


A 


A 


B 


R-2 


C 


C 


c 


B 


B 


C 


R-3 


C 


C 


c 


C 


C 


C 


S 


C 


C 


c 


B 


B 


C 


U 


No Restrictions 


No Restrictions 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 

a. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted for wainscotting or paneling of not more than 1 ,000 square feet of applied surface area in the grade lobby where 
applied directly to a noncombustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombustible base and fireblocked as required by Section 803.3 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

b. In vertical exits of buildings less than three stories in height of other than Group 1-3, Class B interior finish for unsprinklered buildings and Class C for sprinklered 
buildings shall be permitted. 

c. Requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces shall be based upon spaces enclosed by partitions. Where a fire-resistance rating is required for structural elements, 
the enclosing partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions that do not comply with this shall be considered as enclosing spa(;es and the rooms or 
spaces on both sides shall be considered as one. In determining the applicable requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces, the specific occupancy thereof shall 
be the governing factor regardless of the group classification of the building or structure. 

d. Lobby areas in Group A-1, A-2 and A-3 occupancies shall not be less than Class B. 

e. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 300 persons or less. 

f. For churches and places or worship, wood used for ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling, or chancel furnishing shall be permitted. 

g. Class B required where building exceeds two stories. 

h. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in administrafive spaces. 

i. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in rooms with a capacity of four persons or less. 

j. Class B materials shall be permitted as wainscoting extending not more than 48 inches above the finished floor in exit access corridors, 
k. Finish materials as provided for in other sections of this code. 
1. Motion picture screens shall comply with Section 803.2.2. 

m. Applies when the vertical exits, exit passageways, exit access corridors or exitways, or rooms and spaces are protected by a sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 



60 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



.1 Scopeo The provisions of this chapter shall specify where 
fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the de- 
sign, installation, inspection, operation, testing and mainte- 
nance of all fire protection systems. 

901,2 CoestructtoE doaimemteo The fire code official shall 
have the authority to require construction documents and cal- 
culations for all fire protection systems and to require permits 
be issued for the installation, rehabilitation or modification of 
any fire protection system. Construction documents for fire 
protection systems shall be submitted for review and approval 
prior to system installation. 

901,2ol Statememt of compliamce. Before requesting final 
approval of the installation, where required by the fire code 
official, the installing contractor shall furnish a written 
statement to the fire code official that the subject fire protec- 
fion system has been installed in accordance with approved 
plans and has been tested in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's specifications and the appropriate installation stan- 
dard. Any deviations from the design standards shall be 
noted and copies of the approvals for such deviations shall 
be attached to the written statement. 

9®1,3 PermntSo Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 
105.6 and 105.7. 



[.4 lestallatioeo Fire protection systems shall be maintained 
in accordance with the original installation standards for that 
system. Required systems shall be extended, altered, or aug- 
mented as necessary to maintain and continue protection when- 
ever the building is altered, remodeled or added to. Alterations 
to fire protection systems shall be done in accordance with ap- 
plicable standards. 

901.4„1 Required fire protection systems. Fire protection 
systems required by this code or the International Building 
Code shall be installed, repaired, operated, tested and main- 
tained in accordance with this code. 



IS, Any fire 

protection system or portion thereof not required by this 
code or the International Building Code shall be allowed to 
be furnished for partial or complete protection provided 
such installed system meets the requirements of this code 
and the International Building Code. 



US, In occupan- 
cies of a hazardous nature, where special hazards exist in ad- 
dition to the normal hazards of the occupancy, or where the 
fire code official determines that access for fire apparatus is 
unduly difficult, the fire code official shall have the author- 
ity to require additional safeguards. Such safeguards in- 
clude, but shall not be hmited to, the following: automatic 
fire detection systems, fire alarm systems, automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable 



or fixed extinguishers. Fire protection equipment required 
under this section shall be installed in accordance with this 
code and the applicable referenced standards. 

901.4.4 Appearamce of equlpmemt. Any device that has the 
physical appearance of life safety or fire protection equip- 
ment but that does not perform that life safety or fire protec- 
tion function, shall be prohibited. 



estlmg. Fire detection and 
alarm systems, fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrant sys- 
tems, fire standpipe systems, fire pump systems, private fire 
service mains and all other fire protection systems and appurte- 
nances thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained 
in the installation standards and as approved by the fire code of- 
ficial. The fire code official shall be notified before any re- 
quired acceptance testing. 



.5.1 Occupancy. It shall be unlawful to occupy any por- 
tion of a building or structure until the required fire detec- 
tion, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and 
approved. 



901,6 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire detection, 
alarm and extinguishing systems shall be maintained in an op- 
erative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or repaired 
where defective. Nonrequired fire protection systems and 
equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or re- 
moved. 

901,6,1 Standards, Fire protection systems shall be in- 
spected, tested and maintained in accordance with the refer- 
enced standards listed in Table 901.6.1. 



TABLE 901 .6.11 
HRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS 



SYSTEWJ 


STANDARD 


Portable fire extinguishers 


NFPA 10 


Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system 


NFPA 12 


Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systems 


NFPA 12A 


Dry-chemical extinguishing systems 


NFPA 17 


Wet-chemical extinguishing systems 


NFPA 17A 


Water-based fire protection systems 


NFPA 25 


Fire alarm systems 


NFPA 72 


Water-mist systems 


NFPA 750 


Clean-agent extinguishing systems 


NFPA 2001 



901,6.2 Records. Records of all system inspections, tests, 
and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall 
be maintained on the premises for a minimum of 3 years and 
made available to the fire code official upon request. 

Systems out of service. Where a required fire protection 
system is out of service, the fire department and the fire code 



2003 8NTERNATB0NAL FIRE CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEfWS 



official shall be notified immediately and, where required by 
the fire code official, the building shall either be evacuated or 
an approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left 
unprotected by the shut down until the fire protection system 
has been returned to service. 

Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with at least 
one approved means for notification of the fire department and 
their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the pro- 
tected premises and keep watch for fires. 

901.7.1 Impairment coordinator. The building owner 
shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the 
requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific 
designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment co- 
ordinator. 

901.7.2 Tag required. A tag shall be used to indicate that a 
system, or portion thereof, has been removed from service. 

901.7.3 Placement of tag. The tag shall be posted at each 
fire department connection, system control valve, fire alarm 
control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command cen- 
ter, indicating which system, or part thereof, has been re- 
moved from service. The fire code official shall specify 
where the tag is to be placed. 

901.7.4 Preplanned impairment programs. Preplanned 
impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordi- 
nator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual 
shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following 
procedures have been implemented: 

1. The extent and expected duration of the impairment 
have been determined. 

2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected 
and the increased risks determined. 

3. Recommendations have been submitted to manage- 
ment or building owner/manager. 

4. The fire department has been notified. 

5. The insurance carrier, the alarm company, building 
owner/manager, and other authorities having jurisdic- 
tion have been notified. 

6. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been 
notified. 

7. A tag impairment system has been implemented. 

8. Necessary tools and materials have been assembled 
on the impairment site. 

901.7.5 Emergency impairments. When unplanned im- 
pairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be 
taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The impair- 
ment coordinator shall implement the steps outlined in Sec- 
tion 901.7.4. 

901.7.6 Restoring systems to service. When impaired 
equipment is restored to normal working order, the impair- 
ment coordinator shall verify that all of the following proce- 
dures have been implemented: 

1 . Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted 
to verify that affected systems are operafional. 

2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is re- 
stored. 



3. The fire department has been advised that protection 
is restored. 

4. The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm 
company, and other involved parties have been ad- 
vised that protection is restored. 

5. The impairment tag has been removed. 

901.8 Removal of or tampering with equipment. It shall be 
unlawful for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise 
disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire 
suppression system, or other fire appliance required by this 
code except for the purpose of extinguishing fire, training pur- 
poses, recharging or making necessary repairs, or when ap- 
proved by the fire code official. 

901.8,1 Removal of or tampering with appurtenances. 
Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, 
tags or seals which have been installed by or at the direction 
of the fire code official shall not be removed, unlocked, de- 
stroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandalized in any man- 
ner. 



SECTION 902 • 
DEFINITIONS 

902.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 



; NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm sys- 
tem component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light, or text dis- 
play that provides audible, tactile, or visible outputs, or any 
combination thereof. 

ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requir- 
ing immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire. 

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of auto- 
matic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted 
alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a 
minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a 
given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be 
accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal. 

ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator 
lamps, alphanumeric displays, or other equivalent means in 
which each indication provides status information about a cir- 
cuit, condition or location. 

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A no- 
tification apphance that alerts by the sense of hearing. 

AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, is a de- 
vice or system providing an emergency function without the 
necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a 
predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise, or 
combustion products. 

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An 
approved system of devices and equipment which automati- 
cally detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguish- 
ing agent onto or in the area of a fire. 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A sprinkler system, 
for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of under- 
ground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire 



62 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODEd 






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FIRE PROTECTtON SYSTEMS 



protection engineering standards. The system includes a suit- 
able water supply. The portion of the system above the ground 
is a network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping 
installed in a structure or area, generally overhead, and to 
which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pat- 
tern. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and dis- 
charges water over the fire area. 

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL, The root mean 
square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 
24-hour period. 

CAEBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM, A sys- 
tem supplying carbon dioxide (CO2) from a pressurized vessel 
through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a man- 
ual- or automatic-actuating mechanism. 

CLEAN AGENT, Electrically nonconducting, volatile, or gas- 
eous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon evap- 
oration. 

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION, A designated 
location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continu- 
ous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and 
facilities are provided for notification of the fire department or 
other emergency services. 

DELUGE SYSTEM, A sprinkler system employing open 
sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water sup- 
ply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detec- 
tion system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. When 
this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and dis- 
charges from all sprinklers attached thereto. 



HEAT, A fire detector that senses heat pro- 
duced by burning substances. Heat is the energy produced by 
combustion that causes substances to rise in temperature. 

DRY=CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT, A powder 
composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, 
potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate, po- 
tassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added 
particulate material supplemented by special treatment to pro- 
vide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption 
(caking) and the proper flow capabilities. 

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM, A system to provide in- 
dication and warning of emergency situations involving haz- 
ardous materials. 

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS, 
Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and 
distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation 
signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of a 
building. 



FIRE ALARM 
box." 



MANUAL, See "Manual fire alarm 



FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT, A system component that 
receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm devices 
and is capable of supplying power to detection devices and 
transponder(s) of off-premises transmitter(s). The control unit 
is capable of providing a transfer of power to the notification 
appliances and transfer of condition to relays of devices. 

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL, A signal iniriated by a fire 
alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, auto- 



matic fire detector, water-flow switch, or other device whose 
activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature. 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combina- 
tion system consisting of components and circuits arranged to 
monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory 
signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriate re- 
sponse to those signals. 

FIRE AREA, The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded 
by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls, or fire-resis- 
tance-rated horizontal assemblies of a building. 

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC, A device designed to 
detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action. 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM, Approved devices, equip- 
ment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a 
fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or 
manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination thereof. 

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS, Building and fire control 
functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for 
occupants or to control the spread of the harmful effects of fire. 

FOAM=EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM, A special system dis- 
charging a foam made from concentrates, either mechanically 
or chemically, over the area to be protected. 

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM, A 
fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an ele- 
ment from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bro- 
mine and iodine. 

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR, The person responsible 
for the maintenance of a particular fire protection system. 

INITIATING DEVICE, A system component that originates 
transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke 
detector, manual fire alarm box, or supervisory switch. 

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX, A manually operated device 
used to initiate an alarm signal. 

MULTIPLE=STATION ALARM DEVICE, Two or more 
single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected such 
that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarm 
device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire 
alarm box. 

MULTIPLE=STATION SMOSCE ALARM, Two or more 
single- station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection 
such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. 

NUISANCE ALARM, An alarm caused by mechanical fail- 
ure, malfunction, improper installation, or lack of proper main- 
tenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be 
determined. 



^So Drawings ("as builts") that docu- 
ment the location of all devices, appliances, wiring, sequences, 
wiring methods, and connections of the components of a fire 
alarm system as installed. 

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incor- 
porating the detector, the control equipment, and the 
alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power sup- 
ply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation. 



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[B] SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people 
sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, 
eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. 
Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are 
not sleeping units. 

SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm re- 
sponsive to smoke and not connected to a system. 

SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or 
invisible particles of combustion. 

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OE Standpipe classes 
are as follows: 

Class I system. A system providing 2.5-inch (64 mm) hose 
connections to supply water for use by fire departments and 
those trained in handUng heavy fire streams. 

Class II system. A system providing 1 .5-inch (38 mm) hose 
stations to supply water for use primarily by the building oc- 
cupants or by the fire department during initial response. 

Class III system. A system providing 1.5-inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants 
and 2.5-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger 
volume of water for use by fire departments and those 
trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows: 

Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled 
with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a de- 
vice, such as a dry pipe valve, to admit water into the system 
piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. The 
water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system shall be 
capable of supplying the system demand. 

Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water 
supply that is capable of supplying the system demand auto- 
matically. 

Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a 
permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry 
standpipe systems require water from a fire department 
pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire de- 
partment connection in order to supply the system demand. 

Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water 
supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the sys- 
tem but which does not have a water supply capable of deliv- 
ering the system demand attached to the system. Manual 
wet standpipe systems require water from a fire department 
pumper (or the hke) to be pumped into the system in order to 
supply the system demand. 

Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is arranged 
through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, to admit 
water into the system piping upon activation of a remote con- 
trol device located at a hose connection. A remote control ac- 
tivation device shall be provided at each hose connection. The 
water supply for a semiautomatic dry standpipe system shall 
be capable of supplying the system demand. 

SUPERVISING STATION. A facihty that receives signals 
and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to respond 
to these signals. 



SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to monitor 
performance of guard tours and the operative condition of fixed 
suppression systems or other systems for the protection of life 
and property. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need of ac- 
tion in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the fire 
suppression systems or equipment, or the maintenance features 
of related systems. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An ini 

tiating device such as a valve supervisory switch, water level 
indicator, or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler 
system whose change of state signals an off-normal condition 
and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life safety 
system; or a need for action in connection with guard tours, fire 
suppression systems or equipment, or maintenance features of 
related systems. 

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the 
area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m^). 

TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm sys- 
tem or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or com- 
ponent. 

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A no- 
tification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight. 

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A solu 
tion of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, potas- 
sium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, 
forming an extinguishing agent. 

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a part of 
a system that can transmit and receive signals without the aid of 
wire. 

ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone 
can define an area from which a signal can be received, an area 
to which a signal can be sent, or an area in which a form of con- 
trol can be executed. 



SECTION 903 
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

903.1 General. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with 
this section. 

903.1.1 Alternative protection. Alternative automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 
shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection 
where recognized by the applicable standard and approved 
by the fire code official. 

903.2 Where required. Approved automatic sprinkler systems 
in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the loca- 
tions described in this section. 

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications build- 
ings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, 
associated electrical power distribution equipment, batter- 
ies and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are 
equipped throughout with an automatic fire alarm system 
and are separated from the remainder of the building by a 
wall with a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour and a 



64 



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floor/ceiling assembly with a fire-resistance rating of not 
less than 2 hours. 

903.2.1 Group A. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as 
Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group 
A-1, A-2, A-3, and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be provided throughout the floor area 
where the Group A- 1 , A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, 
and in all floors between the Group A occupancy and the 
level of exit discharge. For Group A-5 occupancies, the au- 
tomatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces in- 
dicated in Section 903.2.1.5. 



1.2.1,1 Group A=l. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-1 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1 . The fire area exceeds 1 2,000 square feet (1115 m^); 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge; or 

4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex. 

903.2olo2 Group A=2, An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1 . The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464.5 m^); 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; 
or 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

903.2.1.3 Group A=3. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1 . The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m^); 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; 
or 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

Exception; Areas used exclusively as participant 
sports areas where the main floor area is located at the 
same level as the level of exit discharge of the main 
entrance and exit. 

903.2.1.4 Group A-4, An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where one 
of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (11 15 m^); 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more; 
or 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

Exception; Areas used exclusively as participant 
sports areas where the main floor area is located at the 
same level as the level of exit discharge of the main 
entrance and exit. 



boxes, and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 
square feet (93 m^). 

903.2.2 Group E, An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided for Group E occupancies as follows: 

1 . Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 20,000 
square feet (1858 m^) in area. 

2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings 
below the level of exit discharge. 

Exception; An automatic sprinkler system is not 
required in any fire area or area below the level of 
exit discharge where every classroom throughout 
the building has at least one exterior exit door at 
ground level. 

903.2.3 Group F=l. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 
occupancy where one of the following conditions exist: 

1. Where a Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square 
feet (1115 m2); 

2. Where a Group F- 1 fire area is located more than three 
stories above grade; or 

3. Where the combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas 
on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 
24,000 square feet (2230 m2). 

903.2.3.1 Woodworking operations. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group 
F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking op- 
erations in excess of 2,500 square feet in area (232 m^) 
which generate finely divided combustible waste or 
which use finely divided combustible materials. 

903.2.4 Group H. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 
903.2.4.1 through 903.2.4.3. 

903.2.4.1 General. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be installed in Group H occupancies. 



.2,4.2 Group H=5 occupancies. An automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be installed throughout buildings con- 
taining Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the 
sprinkler system shall not be less than that required under 
the International Building Code for the occupancy haz- 
ard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.4.2. 

Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists 
of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maxi- 
mum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 1 3 . 

TABLE 903.2.4.2 
GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA 



L2.1,5 Group A-5, An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided in concession stands, retail areas, press 



LOCATION 


OCCUPANCY HAZARD 
CLASSIFICATION 


Fabrication areas 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Service corridors 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Storage rooms without dispensing 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Storage rooms with dispensing 


Extra Hazard Group 2 


Corridors 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



903.2.4.3 Pyroxylin plastics. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided in buildings, or portions 
thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics 
are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities ex- 
ceeding 100 pounds (45 kg). 

903.2.5 Group I.' An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3 shall be 
allowed in Group I-l facilities. 

903.2.6 Group M. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occu- 
pancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. Where a Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square 
feet (1115 m2); 

2. Where a Group M fire area is located more than three 
stories above grade; or 

3 . Where the combined area of all Group M fire areas on 
all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m^). 

903.2.6.1 High-piled storage. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided as required in Chapter 23 in all 
buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in 
high-piled or rack storage arrays. 

903.2.7 Group R. An automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided through- 
out all buildings with a Group R fire area. 

903.2.8 Group S-1. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 
occupancy where one of the following conditions exist: 

1. Where a Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square 
feet (1115 m2); 

2. Where a Group S- 1 fire area is located more than three 
stories above grade; or 

3. Where the combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas 
on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 
24,000 square feet (2230 m^). 

903.2.8.1 Repair garages. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided throughout all buildings used as re- 
pair garages in accordance with the International 
Building Code, as follows: 

1. Buildings two or more stories in height, including 
basements, with a fire area containing a repair ga- 
rage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m^). 

2. One-story buildings with a fire area containing a 
repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2). 

3. Buildings with a repair garage servicing vehicles 
parked in the basement. 

903.2.8.2 Bulk storage of tires. Buildings and structures 
where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 cu- 
bic feet (566 m^) shall be equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 



903.2.9 Group S-2. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings classified as an enclosed 
parking garage in accordance with the International Build- 
ing Code or where located beneath other groups. 

Exception? Enclosed parking garages located beneath 
Group R-3 occupancies. 

903.2,9.1 Commercial parking garages. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings 
used for storage of commercial trucks or buses where the 
fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m^). 

903.2.10 AH occupancies except Groups R-3 and U. An 

automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in the locations 
set forth in Sections 903.2.10.1 through 903.2.10.1.3. 

Exception: Group R-3 and Group U. 

903.2.10.1 Stories and basements without openings. 

An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in every 
story or basement of all buildings where the floor area ex- 
ceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m^) and where there is not 
provided at least one of the following types of exterior 
wall openings: 

1 . Openings below grade that lead directly to ground 
level by an exterior stairway complying with 
Section 1009 or an outside ramp complying with 
Section 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 
linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of ex- 
terior wall in the story on at least one side. 

2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground 
level totaUng at least 20 square feet (1.86 m^) in 
each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction 
thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one 
side. 

903.2.10.1.1 Opening dimensions and access. 

Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less 
than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be ac- 
cessible to the fire department from the exterior and 
shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or 
rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior. 

903.2.10.1.2 Openings on one side only. Where 
openings in a story are provided on only one side and 
the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 
860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system or openings as specified above shall 
be provided on at least two sides of the story. 

903.2.10.1.3 Basements. Where any portion of a 
basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
from openings required by Section 903.2.10.1, the 
basement shall be equipped throughout with an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system. 

903.2.10.2 Rubbish and linen chutes. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and 
linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes extending 
through three or more floors shall have additional sprin- 
kler heads installed within such chutes at alternate floors. 
Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for servicing. 



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903,2ol03 BeiMings more than S5 feet m lieigliito An 
automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout 
buildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 30 
or more that is located 55 feet ( 1 6 764 mm) or more above 
the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. 



TABLE 903.2.13— contsoued 
ADOmONAL REQUSRED FlRE-EXTINGUISHlNG SYSTEMS 



1. Airport control towers. 

2. Open parking structures. 

3. Occupancies in Group F-2. 

903.2.11 DersEg coestructSom, Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems required during construction, alteration and demoli- 
tion operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 
1413. 

903.2.12 Other hazards. Automatic sprinkler protection 
shall be provided for the hazards indicated in Sections 
903.2.12.1 and 903.2.12.2. 



,12.1 Ducts coMveymg hazardous exhaasts. 
Where required by the International Mechanical Code, 
automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts convey- 
ing hazardous exhaust, flammable or combustible mate- 
rials. 



a: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional 
diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm). 

903.2.12.2 Commercial cooking operations. An auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed in a commercial 
kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an automatic 
sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904. 

903.2.13 Other required seppressiom systems. In addition 
to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indi- 
cated in Table 903.2. 1 3 also require the installation of a sup- 
pression system for certain buildings and areas. 

TABLE 903.2.13 
5EQUBRED FSRE-EXTBhSGUBSHING SYSTEMS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


1024.6.2.3 


Smoke-protected seating 


1208.2 


Dry cleaning plants 


1208.3 


Dry cleaning machines 


1504.1 


Spray finishing in Group A, E, I or R 


1504.6 


Spray booths and rooms 


1505.1 


Dip-tank rooms 


1505.6.1 


Dip tanks 


1505.8.4 


Hardening and tempering tanks 


1803.10 


HPM facilities 


1803.10.1.1 


HPM work station exhaust 


1803.10.2 


HPM gas cabinets 


1803.10.3 


HPM corridors 


1803.10.4 


HPM exhaust 


1803.10.4.1 


HPM noncombustible ducts 


1803.10.4.2 


HPM combustible ducts 



1907.3 


Lumber production conveyor enclosures 


1908.7 


Recycling facility conveyor enclosures 


2106.1 


Class A and B ovens 


2106.2 


Class C and D ovens 


Table 2306.2 


Storage fire protection 


2306.4 


Storage 


2703.8.4.1 


Gas rooms 


2703.8.5.3 


Exhausted enclosures 


2704.5 


Indoor storage of hazardous materials 


2705.1.8 


Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials 


2804.4.1 


Aerosol warehouses 


2904.5 


Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet of loose 
combustible fibers 


3306.5.2.1 


Storage of smokeless propellant 


3306.5.2.3 


Storage of small arms primers 


3404.3.7.5.1 


Flammable and combustible liquid storage 
rooms 


3404.3.8.4 


Flammable and combustible liquid storage 
warehouses 


3405.3.7.3 


Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 
or H-3 areas 


3704.1.2 


Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas 


3704.1.3 


Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic 

gas 


3704.2.2.6 


Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas 


3704.3.3 


Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas- 


4106.2.2 


Exhausted enclosures or gas cabinets for silane 
gas 


4204.1.1 


Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets 


4204.1.3 


Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults 


4204.2 


Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing 


International 
Building Code 


Sprinkler requirements as set forth in Section 
903.2.13 of the International Building Code 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.023 ml 

903.3 Installation requirements. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 903.3.1 through 903.3.7. 



(continued) 



.3.1 Standards. Sprinkler systems shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1.1, 
903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 

903.3.1.1 NFFA 13 sprinkler systems. Where the provi- 
sions of this code require that a building or portion 
thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers 
shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 
13 except as provided in Section 903.3.1.1.1. 

903,3.1.1.1 Exempt locations. Automatic sprinklers 
shall not be required in the following rooms or areas 



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where such rooms or areas are protected with an ap- 
proved automatic fire detection system in accordance 
with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or in- 
visible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not 
be omitted from any room merely because it is damp, 
of fire-resistance rated construction or contains elec- 
trical equipment. 

1. Any room where the application of water, or 
flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire 
hazard. 

2. Any room or space where sprinklers are consid- 
ered undesirable because of the nature of the 
contents, when approved by the fire code offi- 
cial. 

3. Generator and transformer rooms separated 
from the remainder of the building by walls and 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having 
a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. 

4. In rooms or areas that are of noncombustible 
construction with wholly noncombustible con- 
tents. 

9033.1.2 NFPA 13R sprinkler systems. Where al- 
lowed in buildings of Group R, up to and including four 
stories in height, automatic sprinkler systems shall be in- 
stalled throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R. 

903.3.1.2.1 Balconies. Sprinkler protection shall be 
provided for exterior balconies and ground floor pa- 
tios of dweUing units where the building is of Type V 
construction. Sidewall sprinklers that are used to pro- 
tect such areas shall be permitted to be located such 
that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 
inches (152 mm) below the structural members, and a 
maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the 
deck of the exterior balconies that are constructed of 
open wood joist construction. 

903.3.1.3 NFPA 13D sprinkler systems. Where al- 
lowed, automatic sprinkler systems installed in one- and 
two-family dwellings shall be installed throughout in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 13D. 

903.3.2 Quick-response and residential sprinklers. 
Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this 
code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers 
shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1 and their listings: 

1 . Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment 
containing patient sleeping units in Group 1-2 in ac- 
cordance with the International Building Code. 

2. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R and I-l 
occupancies. 

3. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13. 

903.3.3 Obstructed locations. Automatic sprinklers shall 
be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay 
activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Auto- 
matic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered ki- 
osks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipment that 



exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3 -foot 
(914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic 
sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers. 



tion: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods 
protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance 
with Section 904. 

903.3.4 Actuation. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in 
this code. 

903.3.5 Water supplies. Water supphes for automatic 
sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the 
standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water 
supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the International 
Plumbing Code. 



.3.5.1 Domestic services. Where the domestic ser- 
vice provides the water supply for the automatic sprin- 
kler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this 
section. 



L3.5.1.1 Limited area sprinkler systems. 
Limited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 
sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to 
be connected to the domestic service where a wet au- 
tomatic standpipe is not available. Limited area sprin- 
kler systems connected to domestic water supplies 
shall comply with each of the following requirements: 

1. Valves shall not be installed between the do- 
mestic water riser control valve and the sprin- 
klers. 

Exception: An approved indicating control 
valve supervised in the open position in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.4. 

2. The domestic service shall be capable of sup- 
plying the simultaneous domestic demand and 
the sprinkler demand required to be hydrauli- 
cally calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13R or 
NFPA 13D. 

903.3.5.1.2 Residential combination services. A 
single combination water supply shall be permitted 
provided that the domestic demand is added to the 
sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R. 

903.3.5,2 Secondary water supply. A secondary on-site 
water supply equal to the hydraulically calculated sprin- 
kler demand, including the hose stream requirement, 
shall be provided for high-rise buildings in Seismic De- 
sign Category C, D, E or F as determined by the Interna- 
tional Building Code. The secondary water supply shall 
have a duration not less than 30 minutes as determined by 
the occupancy hazard classification in accordance with 
NFPA 13. 

Exception: Existing buildings. 

903.3.6 Hose threads. Fire hose threads used in connection 
with automatic sprinkler systems shall be approved and 
shall be compatible with fire department hose threads. 



P 



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.7 Fnre department coemectioiniSo The location of fire 
department connections shall be approved by the fire code 
official. 



903o4 Sprinkler system momitornmg andl alarmSo All valves 
controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, 
pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pres- 
sures, and water-flow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be 
electrically supervised. 



1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and 
two-family dweUings. 

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprin- 
klers. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance 
with NFPA 1 3R where a common supply main is used 
to supply both domestic water and the automatic 
sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the 
automatic sprinkler system is not provided. 

4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked 
in the open position. 

5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint 
spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump en- 
gines that are sealed or locked in the open position. 

7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and 
deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 



1, 



9fO)3o4.1 Signals. Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals 
shall be distinctly different and shall be automatical lly 
transmitted to an approved central station, remote supervis- 
ing station or proprietary supervising station as defined in 
NFPA 72 or, when approved by the fire code official, shall 
sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location. 

Exceptions: 

Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes 
provided by the municipality or public utility are 
not required to be monitored. 

Backflow prevention device test valves, located in 
limited area sprinkler system supply piping, shall 
be locked in the open position. In occupancies re- 
quired to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the 
backflow preventer valves shall be electrically su- 
pervised by a tamper switch installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated. 



aSo Approved audible devices shall be con- 
nected to every automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler 
water-flow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow 
equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest or- 
ifice size installed in the system. Alarm devices shall be pro- 
vided on the exterior of the building in an approved location. 
Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm 
system. 



valves. Approved supervised indi- 
cating control valves shall be provided at the point of con- 
nection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings. 



Testing and maintenance. Sprinkler systems shall be 
tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901. 



igs. The provisions of this section are in- 
tended to provide a reasonable degree of safety in existing 
structures not complying with the minimum requirements of 
the International Building Code by requiring installation of an 
automatic fire-extinguishing system. 

903,6.1 Pyroxylin plastics. All structures occupied for the 
manufacture or storage of articles of cellulose nitrate 
(pyroxylin) plastic shall be equipped with an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system. Vaults located within 
buildings for the storage of raw pyroxylin shall be protected 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system capable of dis- 
charging 1.66 gallons per minute per square foot (68 
L/min/m^) over the area of the vault. 



General, Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other 
than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section and the applicable referenced standards. 

904.2 Where required. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler 
systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code offi- 
cial. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be consid- 
ered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions 
permitted by other requirements of this code. 

904.2,1 Commercial hood and dnct systems. Each re- 
quired commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system 
required by Section 610 to have a Type I hood shall be pro- 
tected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem installed in accordance with this code. 



Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
shall be installed in accordance with this section. 

904,3.1 Electrical vyiring. Electrical wiring shall be in ac- 
cordance with the ICC Electrical Code. 



Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual 
means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.1 1.1. 



fig. Automatic equipment inter- 
locks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, 
window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents, 
and other features necessary for proper operation of the 
fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by 
the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard. 



warning signs. Where alarms are re- 
quired to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and 
warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent 
discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing 



2003 liSiTERiSIATIOMAL FIRE CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to 
ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a 
separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants 
once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in 
accordance with Section 907.10.2. 

904.3.5 Monitoring. Where a building fire alarm system is 
installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be 
monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance 
with NFPA 72. 

904.4 Inspection and testing. Automatic fire-extinguishing 
systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the 
provisions of this section prior to acceptance. 

904.4.1 Inspection. Prior to conducting final acceptance 
tests, the following items shall be inspected: 

1 . Hazard specification for consistency with design haz- 
ard. 

2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and man- 
ual-initiating devices. 

3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge 
orifices. 

4. Location and identification of audible and visible 
alarm devices. 

5. Identification of devices with proper designations. 

6. Operating instructions. 

904.4.2 Alarm testing. Notification appliances, connec- 
tions to fire alarm systems, and connections to approved su- 
pervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this 
section and Section 907 to verify proper operation. 

904.4.2.1 Audible and visible signals. The audibility 
and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent 
discharge or system operation, where required, shall be 
verified. 

904.4.3 Monitor testing. Connections to protected pre- 
mises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be 
tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of 
alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems. 

904.5 Wet-chemical systems. Wet-chemical extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 A and their listing. 

904.5.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 6-month intervals. Tests shall in- 
clude a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing 
devices, including manual stations and other associated 
equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed 
and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pres- 
sure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. 
The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed 
and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer. 

904.5.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed tempera- 
ture-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper 
operation of the system. 

904.6 Dry-chemical systems. Dry -chemical extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their hsting. 



904.6.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 6-month intervals. Tests shall include 
a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing de- 
vices, including manual stations and other associated equip- 
ment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, and the 
required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type 
units shall be checked for the required pressure. The car- 
tridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and re- 
placed at intervals indicated by the manufacturer. 



1.6.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed tempera- 
ture-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper 
operation of the system. 

904.7 Foam systems. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be in- 
stalled, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 1 1 , NFPA 1 1 A and NFPA 1 6 and their listing. 

904.7.1 System test. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be 
inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with NFPA 

25. 

904.8 Carbon dioxide systems. Carbon dioxide extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing. 

904.8.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 

904.8.2 High-pressure cylinders. High-pressure cylinders 
shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test shall 
be verified at 6-month intervals. Where a container shows a 
loss in original content of more than 10 percent, the cyhnder 
shall be refilled or replaced. 

904.8.3 Low-pressure containers. The liquid-level gauges 
of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week 
intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more 
than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain 
the minimum gas requirements. 

904.8.4 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be re- 
placed or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be 
tested. 

904.8.4.1 Test procedure. Hoses shall be tested at not 
less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17 238 kPa) 
for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi 
(6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems. 

904.8.5 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplemen- 
tary components, such as switches, door and window re- 
leases, interconnected valves, damper releases and 
supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 
12-month intervals to ensure that such components are in 
proper operating condition. 

904.9 Halon systems. Halogenated extinguishing systems 
shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested 
in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing. 

904.9.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 

904.9.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and 
pressure of containers shall be checked at 6-month intervals. 
Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more 



70 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



PURE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for 
temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container shall be 
refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the con- 
tainer shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container. 



,3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be re- 
placed or tested. At 5-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested. 

904,93.1 Test procedure. For Halon 1301 systems, 
hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 
kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems 
and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 
kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 
hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi 
(17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi (6206 
kPa) for low-pressure systems. 

904.9.4 Auxiliary equipment. Auxihary and supplemen- 
tary components, such as switches, door and window re- 
leases, interconnected valves, damper releases and 
supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 
12-month intervals to ensure such components are in proper 
operating condition. 



1.10 Clean-ageet systems. Clean-agent fire-extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing. 

904.10.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 

904.10.2 Contamers. The extinguishing agent quantity and 
pressure of the containers shall be checked at 6-month inter- 
vals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of 
more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted 
for temperature, of more than 10 percent, the container shall 
be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the con- 
tainer shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container. 

904.10.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be re- 
placed or tested. All hoses shall be tested at 5-year intervals. 



1.11 Commercial cooking systems. The automatic fire-ex- 
tinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of 
a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking equip- 
ment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement pro- 
tected. Preengineered automatic dry- and wet-chemical 
extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 
300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other 
types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be hsted 
and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial cook- 
ing operations. The system shall be installed in accordance 
with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's installation in- 
structions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of the follow- 
i ing types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced 
standard indicated, as follows: 

1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12. 

2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13. 

3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray sys- 
tems, NFPA 16. 

4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17. 



5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A. 

Exceptions Factory-built commercial cooking recirculat- 
ing systems that are tested in accordance with UL 197 and 
listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 
304. 1 of the International Mechanical Code. 



LI Manual system operation, A manual actuation 
device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the 
cooking area, a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maxi- 
mum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. 
The manual actuation device shall be located a minimum of 
4 feet (1219 mm) and a maximum of 5 feet ( 1 5 24 mm) above 
the floor. The manual actuation shall require a maximum 
force of 40 pounds ( 178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 
inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system. 

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be re- 
quired to be equipped with manual actuation means. 

904.11.2 System mtercoimectioo. The actuation of the fire 
extinguishing system shall automatically shut down the fuel 
or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The 
fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual. 

904.11.3 Carbon dioxide systems. When carbon dioxide 
systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ven- 
tilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically ar- 
ranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within 
vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and horizontal 
ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall be in- 
stalled at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be 
arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the 
fire-extinguishing system. When the damper is installed at 
the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately be- 
low the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguish- 
ing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect all hazards 
venting through a common duct simultaneously. 

904.11.3.1 Ventilation system. Commercial-type cook- 
ing equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide 
extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the 
ventilation system upon activation. 

904.11.4 Special provisions for automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commer- 
cial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a 
separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve 
that is identified. 

904.11.4.1 Listed sprinklers. Sprinklers used for the 
protection of fryers shall be listed for that application and 
installed in accordance with their listing. 

904.11.5 Portable fire extinguishers for commercial 
cooking equipment. Portable fire extinguishers shall be 
provided within a 30-foot (9144 mm) travel distance of 
commercial-type cooking equipment. Cooking equipment 
involving vegetable or animal oils and fats shall be protected 
by a Class K rated portable extinguisher. 

904.11.6 Operations and maintenance. Commercial 
cooking systems shall be operated and maintained in accor- 
dance with this section. 



.11.6.1 Ventilation system. The ventilation system 
in connection with hoods shall be operated at the re- 



2003 SNTERP^ATIONAL FSRE CODE® 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



quired rate of air movement, and classified grease filters 
shall be in place when equipment under a kitchen grease 
hood is used. 

904.11.6.2 Grease extractors. Where grease extractors 
are installed, they shall be operated when the commer- 
cial-type cooking equipment is used. 

904.11.6.3 Cleaning. Hoods, grease-removal devices, 
fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be cleaned at 
intervals necessary to prevent the accumulation of 
grease. Cleanings shall be recorded, and records shall 
state the extent, time and date of cleaning. Such records 
shall be maintained on the premises. 

904.11.6.4 Extinguishing system service. Automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems shall be serviced at least ev- 
ery 6 months and after activation of the system. Inspec- 
tion shall be by qualified individuals, and a certificate of 
inspection shall be forwarded to the fire code official 
upon completion. 

904.11.6.5 Fusible link and sprinkler head replace- 
ment. Fusible links and automatic sprinkler heads shall 
be replaced at least annually, and other protection de- 
vices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. 

Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be re- 
placed annually. 



SECTION 905 
STANDPIPE SYSTEMS 

905.1 General. Standpipe systems shall be provided in new 
buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire 
hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall 
be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose 
threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall 
be approved. In buildings used for high-piled combustible stor- 
age, fire protection shall be in accordance with Chapter 23. 

905.2 Installation standards. Standpipe systems shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. 

905.3 Required installations. Standpipe systems shall be in- 
stalled where required by Sections 905 .3 . 1 through 905 .3 .6 and 
in the locations indicated in Sections 905.4, 905.5 and 905.6. 
Standpipe systems are permitted to be combined with auto- 
matic sprinkler systems. 

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group 
R-3 occupancies. 

905.3.1 Building height. Class III standpipe systems shall 
be installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the 
highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above 
the lowest level of the fire department vehicle access, or 
where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 
30 feet (9 1 44 mm) below the highest level of fire department 
vehicle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 



system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages where the highest floor is located 
not more than 1 50 feet (45 720 mm) above the low- 
est level of fire department vehicle access. 

3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages that are subject to freezing tem- 
peratures, provided that the hose connections are 
located as required for Class II standpipes in accor- 
dance with Section 905.5. 

4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system. 

905.3.2 Group A. Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be 
provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an 
occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons. 

Exceptions: 

1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces. 

2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry 
standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed 
in buildings where the highest floor surface used 
for human occupancy is 75 feet (22 860 mm) or 
less above the lowest level of fire department vehi- 
cle access. 

905.3.3 Covered mall buildings. A covered mall building 
shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where 
required by Section 905.3. Covered mall buildings not re- 
quired to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 
905.3 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections con- 
nected to a system sized to deliver 250 gallons per minute 
(946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote outlet. Hose 
connections shall be provided at each of the following loca- 
tions: 

1 . Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passage- 
way or corridor. 

2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways 
opening directly on the mall. 

3. At exterior public entrances to the mall. 

905.3.4 Stages. Stages greater than 1 ,000 square feet in area 
(93 m^) shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe sys- 
tem with 1.5-inch and 2.5-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose 
connections on each side of the stage. 

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, the hose 
connections are allowed to be supplied from the auto- 
matic sprinkler system and shall have a flow rate of not 
less than that required by NFPA 14 for Class III 
standpipes. 

905.3.4,1 Hose and cabinet. The 1.5-inch (38 mm) hose 
connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 
1.5-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the 
stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an 
approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabi- 
net or on a rack. 



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2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



SYSTEMS 



905.3.5 Umdergroimd buiMlngSo Underground buildings 
shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or 
manual wet standpipe system. 

905.3.6 Helistops and heliports. Buildings with a helistop 
or heliport that are equipped with a standpipe shall extend 
the standpipe to the roof level on which the helistop or heU- 
port is located in accordance with Section 1 107.5. 

905.4 Location off Class I standpipe liose connections. Class 
I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1. In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be 
provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose 
connections shall be located at an intermediate floor level 
landing between floors, unless otherwise approved by 
the fire code official. 

2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a 
horizontal exit. 

3. In every exit passageway at the entrance from the exit 
passageway to other areas of a building. 

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior pub- 
lic entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance 
from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. 

5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 
12 units horizontal (3 3. 3 -percent slope), each standpipe 
shall be provided with a hose connection located either 
on the roof or at the highest landing of stairways with 
stair access to the roof. An additional hose connection 
shall be provided at the top of the most hydraulically re- 
mote standpipe for testing purposes. 

6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor 
or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose 
connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered 
floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a 
hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to re- 
quire that additional hose connections be provided in ap- 
proved locations. 

905.4,1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe 
systems not located within an enclosed stairway or pressur- 
ized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire resis- 
tance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the 
building in which they are located. 



located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet 
(9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of 
hose. 



m; In buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not 
located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized enclo- 
sure are not required to be enclosed within fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. 

905.4.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than one 
standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be intercon- 
nected in accordance with NFPA 14. 

905.5 Location off Class II standpipe hose connections. Class 
II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and shall be 



A-2. In Group A-1 and A-2 occu- 
pancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose con- 
nections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each 
side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the bal- 
cony, and on each tier of dressing rooms. 

905.5.2 Protection. Fire-resistance-rated protection of ris- 
ers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required. 



ss il system 1-lncli Jkose. A minimum 1-inch 
(25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in 
light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for 
this service and where approved by the fire code official. 

905.6 Location off Class III standpipe hose connections. 
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections lo- 
cated as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and 
shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 
905.5. 



905.6.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class III 
standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I 
systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1. 

905.6.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than one 
Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be inter- 
connected at the bottom. 

905,7 Cabinets. Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, 
such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire depart- 
ment valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from 
view. 

905.7.1 Cabinet equipment identification. Cabinets shall 
be identified in an approved manner by a permanently at- 
tached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high 
in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicat- 
ing the equipment contained therein. 

ions; 

1 . Doors not large enough to accommodate a written 
sign shall be marked with a permanently attached 
pictogram of the equipment contained therein. 

2. Doors that have either an approved visual identifi- 
cation clear glass panel or a complete glass door 
panel are not required to be marked. 

905.7.2 Locking cabinet doors. Cabinets shall be un- 
locked. 



1 . Visual identification panels of glass or other ap- 
proved transparent frangible material that is easily 
broken and allows access. 

2. Approved locking arrangements. 

3. Group 1-3 occupancies. 



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905.8 Dry standpipes. Dry standpipes shall not be installed. 

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance 
with NFPA 14. 

905.9 Valve supervision. Valves controlling water supphes 
shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the 
normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal 
at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a 
fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted 
to the control unit. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway 
boxes provided by the municipality or public utility 
do not require supervision. 

2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as 
provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a 
fire alarm system. 

905.10 During construction. Standpipe systems required dur- 
I ing construction and demolition operations shall be provided in 

accordance with Section 1413. 

i 905.11 Existing buildings. Existing structures with occupied 
floors located more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) above or below 
the lowest level of fire department access shall be equipped 
with standpipes installed in accordance with Section 905. The 
standpipes shall have an approved fire department connection 
with hose connections at each floor level above or below the 
lowest level of fire department access. The fire code official is 
authorized to approve the installation of manual standpipe sys- 
tems to achieve compliance with this section where the re- 
sponding fire department is capable of providing the required 
hose flow at the highest standpipe outlet. 



SECTION 906 
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

906.1 Where required. Portable fire extinguishers shall be in- 
stalled in the following locations: 

1. In all Group A, B, E, F, H, I , M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S oc- 
cupancies. 

Exception: In Group A, B and E occupancies 
equipped throughout with quick- response sprinklers, 
fire extinguishers shall be required only in spe- 
cial-hazard areas. 

2. Within 30 feet (9 1 44 mm) of commercial cooking equip- 
ment. 

3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are 
stored, used or dispensed. 

4. On each floor of structures under construction, except 
Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 
1415.1. 

5. Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906. 1 . 

6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to labora- 
tories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where re- 
quired by the fire code official. 



TABLE 906.1 
ADOmONAL REQUiRED PORTABLE FSRE EXTINGUISHERS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


303.5 


Asphalt kettles 


307.4 


Open burning 


308.4 


Open flames 


309.4 


Powered industrial trucks 


1105.2 


Aircraft towing vehicles 


1105.3 


Aircraft welding apparatus 


1105.4 


Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles 


1105.5 


Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles 


1105.6 


Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations 


1107.7 


Heliports and helistops 


1208.4 


Dry cleaning plants 


1415.1 


Buildings under construction or demolition 


1417.3 


Roofing operations 


1504.6.4 


Spray-finishing operations 


1505.5 


Dip-tank operations 


1904.2 


Lumberyards/woodworking facilities 


1908.8 


Recycling facilities 


1909.5 


Exterior lumber storage 


2003.5 


Organic-coating areas 


2106.3 


Industrial ovens 


2205.5 


Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 


2210.6.4 


Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities 


2211.6 


Repair garages 


2306.10 


Rack storage 


2404.12 


Tents, canopies and membrane structures 


2508.2 


Tire rebuilding/storage 


2604.2.6 


Welding and other hot work 


2903.6 


Combustible fibers 


3308.11 


Fireworks 


3403.2.1 


Flammable and combustible liquids, general 


3404.3.3.1 


Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids 


3404.3.7.5.2 


Liquid storage rooms for flammable and 
combustible liquids 


3405.4.9 


Solvent distillation units 


3406.2.7 


Farms and construction sites — flammable and 
combustible liquids storage 


3406.4.10.1 


Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and 
combustible liquids 


3406.5.4.5 


Commercial, industrial, governmental or 
manufacturing establishments — fuel dispensing 


3406.6.4 


Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids 


3606.5.7 


Flammable solids 


3808.2 


LP-gas 



74 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



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i.2 Gemeral reqeirememts. Fire extinguishers shall be se- 
lected, installed and maintained in accordance with this section 
andNFPAlO. 



mi The travel distance to reach an extinguisher 
shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group 
A-5 occupancies. 



For occupancies that involve pri- 
marily Class A fire hazards, the minimum sizes and distribution 
shall comply with Table 906.3(1). Fire extinguishers for occu- 
pancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with 
depths of less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be se- 
lected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2). Fire 
extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combus- 
tible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) or 
involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in 
accordance with NFPA 10. Extinguishers for Class C fire haz- 
ards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated 
Class A or Class B hazard. 

TABLE 906.3(1) 
F8RE EXTINGUBSHERS FOR CLASS A FJRE HAZARDS 





LIGHT (Low) 

HAZARD 
OCCUPANCY 


ORDONARY 
(Moderate) 

HAZARD 
OCCUPANCY 


EXTRA (High) 

HAZARD 
OCCUPANCY 


Minimum 
Rated Single 
Extinguisher 


2-A= 


2-A 


4-Aa 


Maximum 
Floor Area Per 
Unit of A 


3,000 
square feet 


1,500 
square feet 


1,000 
square feet 


Maximum 
Floor Area For 
Extinguisher'' 


11,250 
square feet 


11,250 
square feet 


11,250 
square feet 


Maximum 
Travel Distance 
to Extinguisher 


75 feet 


75 feet 


75 feet 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^ 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Two 2.5-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of 
one 4-A rated extinguisher. 

b. NFPA 10 Appendix E-3-3 provides more details concerning application of 
the maximum floor area criteria. 

c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the 
equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occu- 
pancies. 



FLAMWaABLE OR CO 
LESS 



TABLE 906.3(2) 

BUSTIBLE LIQUDDS WITH DEPTHS OF 
OR EQUAL TO 0.25-DiMCH 



TYPE OF HAZARD 


BASIC MDNDMUIVI 

EXTINGUISHER 
RATING 


MAXlWiUM TRAVEL 

DISTANCE TO 

EXTINGUISHERS 

(feet) 


Light (Low) 


5-B 
10-B 


30 
50 


Ordinary (Moderate) 


10-B 
20-B 


30 
50 


Extra (High) 


40-B 
80-B 


30 
50 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

NOTE. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative 
sizing criteria, see NFPA 10, Sections 3-3 and 3-4. 



,4 Cooking grease fires. Fire extinguishers provided for 
the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved 
type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system 
agent and in accordance with Section 904. 11. 5. 



as iiocatnoeo Extinguishers shall be located in 
conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible 
and immediately available for use. These locations shall be 
along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official deter- 
mines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement 
away from normal paths of travel. 



Fire extinguishers 
shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or ar- 
eas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, 
means shall be provided to indicate the locations of 
extinguishers. 



&.7 Hangers and brackets. Hand-held portable fire 
extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the 
hangers or brackets suppHed. Hangers or brackets shall be se- 
curely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the 
manufacturer's installadon instructions. 



.8 Cabinets. Cabinets used to house fire extinguishers shall 
not be locked. 



1 . Where fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or 
damage are provided with a means of ready access. 

2. In Group 1-3 occupancies and in mental health areas 
in Group 1-2 occupancies, access to portable fire 
extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be 
located in staff locations provided the staff has keys. 

Height above ^oor. Portable fire extinguishers having a 
gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed 
so that its top is not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. 
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight 
exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that its top is 
not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor. The clear- 
ance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held 
extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm). 



Its. Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be 
conspicuously located in a designated location. 



.1 Genera!. This section covers the application, installa- 
tion, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and 
their components in new and existing buildings and structures. 
The requirements of Section 907.2 are applicable to new build- 
ings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.3 are ap- 
plicable to existing buildings and structures. 



907.1.1 Comslractnon documents. Construction docu- 
ments for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review 
and approval prior to system installation. Construction doc- 
uments shall include, but not be limited to, all of the follow- 
ing: 

1. A floor plan which indicates the use of all rooms. D 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FJRE CODE® 



75 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. Locations of alarm-initiating and notification appli- 
ances. 

3. Alarm control and trouble signaling equipment. 

4. Annunciation. 

5. Power connection. 

6. Battery calculations. 

7. Conductor type and sizes. 

8. Voltage drop calculations. 

9. Manufacturers, model numbers and listing informa- 
tion for equipment, devices and materials. 

10. Details of ceiling height and construction. 

1 1 . The interface of fire safety control functions. 

907.1.2 Equipment. Systems and their components shall be 
listed and approved for the purpose for which they are in- 
stalled. 

907.2 Where required — new buildings and structures. An 

approved manual, automatic, or manual and automatic fire 
alarm system shall be provided in new buildings and structures 
in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.23. Where 
automatic sprinkler protection installed in accordance with 
Section 903 . 3 . 1 . 1 or 903 . 3 . 1 . 2 is provided and connected to the 
building fire alarm system, automatic heat detection required 
by this section shall not be required. 

An approved automatic fire detection system shall be installed 
in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72. De- 
vices, combinations of devices, appliances and equipment shall 
comply with Section 907.1.2. The automatic fire detectors shall 
be smoke detectors, except that an approved alternative type of 
detector shall be installed in spaces such as boiler rooms where, 
during normal operation, products of combustion are present in 
sufficient quantity to actuate a smoke detector. 

907.2.1 Group A. A manual fire alarm system shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with NFPA 72 in Group A occupan- 
cies having an occupant load of 300 or more. Portions of 
Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes shall 
be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the 
Group E occupancy. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.1.1 System initiation in Group A occupancies 
with an occupant load of 1,000 or more. Activation of 
the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant 
load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an 
emergency voice/alarm communications system in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded an- 
nouncement is allowed to be manually deactivated for 
a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole 
purpose of allowing a Uve voice announcement from 
an approved, constantly attended location. 



907.2.1.2 Emergency power. Emergency voice/alarm 
communications systems shall be provided with an ap- 
proved emergency power source. 

907.2.2 Group B. A manual fire alarm system shall be in- 
stalled in Group B occupancies having an occupant load of 
500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or be- 
low the lowest level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.3 Group E. A manual fire alarm system shall be in- 
stalled in Group E occupancies. When automatic sprinkler 
systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or 
detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm sys- 
tem. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Group E occupancies with an occupant load of less 
than 50. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group 
E occupancies where all the following apply: 

2.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke 
detectors with alarm verification. 

2.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and 
the like are protected by heat detectors or | 
other approved detection devices. 

2.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or 
vapors are protected by heat detectors or 
other approved detection devices. 

2.4. Off-premises monitoring is provided. 

2.5. The capability to activate the evacuation 
signal from a central point is provided. 

2.6. In buildings where normally occupied 
spaces are provided with a two-way com- 
munication system between such spaces 
and a constantly attended receiving station 
from where a general evacuation alarm can 
be sounded, except in locations specifi- 
cally designated by the fire code official. 

907.2.4 Group F. A manual fire alarm system shall be in- 
stalled in Group F occupancies that are two or more stories 
in height and have an occupant load of 500 or more above or 
below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.5 Group H. A manual fire alarm system shall be in- 
stalled in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used 
for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic 
smoke detection system shall be installed for highly toxic 
gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with 
Chapters 37, 39 and 40, respectively. 



76 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



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907.2.6 Group I. A manual fire alarm system and an auto- 
matic fire detection system shall be installed in Group I oc- 
cupancies. An electrically supervised, automatic smoke 
detection system shall be provided in waiting areas that are 
open to corridors. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes in patient sleeping 
areas of Group I-l and 1-2 occupancies shall not be re- 
quired at exits if located at all nurses' control stations or 
other constantly attended staff locations, provided such 
stations are visible and continuously accessible and that 
travel distances required in Section 907.4.1 are not ex- 
ceeded. 

907.2.6.1 Group 1=2. Corridors in nursing homes (both 
intermediate care and skilled nursing facilities), detoxifi- 
cation facilities and spaces open to the corridors shall be 
equipped with an automatic fire detection system. 



1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in 
smoke compartments that contain patient sleep- 
ing rooms where patient sleeping units are pro- 
vided with smoke detectors that comply with 
UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual 
display on the corridor side of each patient 
sleeping unit and shall provide an audible and 
visual alarm at the nursing station attending 
each unit. 

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in 
smoke compartments that contain patient sleep- 
ing rooms where patient sleeping unit doors are 
equipped with automatic door-closing devices 
with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides 
installed in accordance with their listing, pro- 
vided that the integral detectors perform the re- 
quired alerting function. 

907.2.6.2 Group 1-3 occupancies. Group 1-3 occupan- 
cies shall be equipped with a manual and automatic fire 
alarm system installed for alerting staff. 

907,2.6.2.1 System initiation. Actuation of an auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system, a manual fire alarm 
box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire 
alarm signal which automatically notifies staff. 
Presignal systems shall not be used. 



Manual fire 

alarm boxes are not required to be located in accor- 
dance with Section 907.4 where the fire alarm boxes 
are provided at staff-attended locations having direct 
supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes 
have been omitted. 

Manual fire alarm boxes are allowed to be locked in 
areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff mem- 
bers are present within the subject area and have keys 
readily available to operate the manual fire alarm 
boxes. 



lonss 



i 



An approved auto- 
matic smoke detection system shall be installed 
throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping 
areas and contiguous day rooms, group activity 
spaces and other common spaces normally accessible 
to residents. 

Exceptions: 

1. Other approved smoke-detection arrange- 
ments providing equivalent protection, in- 
cluding, but not limited to, placing detectors 
in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protec- 
tive guards listed for the purpose, are al- 
lowed when necessary to prevent damage or 
tampering. 

2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3. 

3 . Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping 
units with four or fewer occupants in smoke I 
compartments that are equipped throughout 
with an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem. 

907.2.7 Group M. A manual fire alarm system shall be in- 
stalled in Group M occupancies, other than covered mall 
buildings complying with Section 402 of the International 
Building Code, having an occupant load of 500 or more per- 
sons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest 
level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2,7.1 Occupant notification. During times that the 
building is occupied, in heu of the automatic activation 
of alarm notification appliances, the manual fire alarm 
system shall be allowed to activate an alarm signal at a 
constantly attended location from which evacuation in- 
structions shall be initiated over an emergency 
voice/alarm communication system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

The emergency voice/alarm communication system 
shall be allowed to be used for other announcements pro- 
vided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence over 
any other use. 

907.2.8 Group R-1, Fire alarm systems shall be installed in 
Group R-1 occupancies as required in Section 907.2.8.1 
through 907.2.8.3. 



.8,1 Manual fire alarm system, A manual fire 
alarm system shall be installed in Group R-1 occupan- ID 
cies. 



A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings not more than two stories in height 
where all individual guestrooms and contigu- i 
ous attic and crawl spaces are separated from 



2003 SNTERNATBONAL FBRE CODE® 



77 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



each other and public or common areas by at 
least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual 
guestroom has an exit directly to a public way, 
exit court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met: 

2.1. The building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3. 1.2; 

2.2. The notification appliances will acti- 
vate upon sprinkler water flow; and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is in- 
stalled at an approved location. 

907.2.8.2 Automatic fire alarm system. An automatic 
fire alarm system shall be installed throughout all inte- 
rior corridors serving guestrooms. 

Exception: An automatic fire detection system is not 
required in buildings that do not have interior corri- 
dors serving guestrooms and each guestroom has a 
means of egress door opening directly to an exterior 
exit access that leads directly to an exit. 

907.2.8.3 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be in- 
stalled as required by Section 907.2.10. In buildings that 
are not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 or 
903.3. 1 .2, the smoke alarms in guestrooms shall be con- 
nected to an emergency electrical system and shall be an- 
nunciated by guestroom at a constantly attended location 
from which the fire alarm system is capable of being 
manually activated 

907.2.9 Group R-2. A manual fire alarm system shall be in- 
stalled in Group R-2 occupancies where: 

1 . Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or 
more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge; 

2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more 
than one story below the highest level of exit dis- 
charge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit; or 

3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or 
sleeping units. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not 
more than two stories in height where all dwelling 
units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and 
crawl spaces are separated from each other and 
public or common areas by at least 1-hour fire par- 
titions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has 
an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required through- 
out the building when the following conditions are 
met: 

2.1. The building is equipped throughout with 
an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 



dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or Section 
903.3.1.2; 

2.2. The notification appliances will activate 
upon sprinkler flow; and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is in- 
stalled at an approved location. 

3. Afire alarm system is not required in buildings that 
do not have interior corridors serving dwelling 
units and are protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwell- 
ing units either have a means of egress door 
opening directly to an exterior exit access that 
leads directly to the exits or are served by 
open-ended corridors designed in accordance with 
Section 1022.6, Exception 4. 

907.2.10 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms. 

Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be 
installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and 
the household fire-waming equipment provisions of NFPA 

72. 

907.2.10.1 Where required. Single- or multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in the locations described 
in Sections 907.2.10.1.1 through 907.2.10.1.3. 

907.2.10.1.1 Group R-1. Single- or multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following 
locations in Group R-1: 

1. In sleeping areas. 

2. In every room in the path of the means of egress 
from the sleeping area to the door leading from 
the sleeping unit. 

3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including 
basements. For sleeping units with split levels 
and without an intervening door between the 
adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the 
upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower 
level provided that the lower level is less than 
one full story below the upper level. 

907.2.10.1.2 Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-l. Single- 
or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed 
and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-l re- 
gardless of occupant load at all of the following loca- 
tions: 

1 . On the ceihng or wall outside of each separate 
sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bed- 
rooms. 

2. In each room used for sleeping purposes. 

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including 
basements but not including crawl spaces and 
uninhabitable attics. In dwelhngs or dwelling 
units with split levels and without an interven- 
ing door between the adjacent levels, a smoke 
alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice 
for the adjacent lower level provided that the 



• 



78 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



m PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



E0 



lower level is less than one full story below the 
upper level. 

i«10).1.3 Group 1=1. Single- or multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in 
sleeping areas in occupancies in Group I-l . Single- or 
multiple- station smoke alarms shall not be required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an au- 
tomatic fire detection system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.6. 



,l®o2 Power sourceo In new construction, required 
smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the 
building wiring where such wiring is served from a com- 
mercial source and shall be equipped with a battery 
backup. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the bat- 
teries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a 
disconnecting switch other than as required for 
overcurrent protection. 



m Smoke alarms are not required to be 
equipped with battery backup in Group R-1 where 
they are connected to an emergency electrical system. 



Where more than one 
smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individ- 
ual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-2, R-3 or 
R-4, or within an individual sleeping unit in Group R-1, 
the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a man- 
ner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the 
alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be clearly 
audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels 
with all intervening doors closed. 



^2.10,4 Acceptance teslnmg. When the installation of 
the alarm devices is complete, each detector and inter- 
connecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices 
shall be tested in accordance with the household fire 
warning equipment provisions of NFPA 72. 

907,2oll Special amMsememt beildingSo An approved au- 
tomatic smoke detection system shall be provided in special 
amusement buildings in accordance with this section. 

Exception: In areas where ambient conditions will cause 
a smoke detection system to alarm, an approved alterna- 
tive type of automatic detector shall be installed. 

907,2.11ol Alarm. Activation of any single smoke detec- 
tor, the automatic sprinkler system or any other auto- 
matic fire detection device shall immediately sound an 
alarm at the building at a constantly attended location 
from which emergency action can be initiated, including 
the capability of manual initiation of requirements in 
Section 907.2.11.2. 



ise. The activation of two or 
more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector with 
alarm verification, the automatic sprinkler system or 
other approved fire detection device shall automatically: 

1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with 
light of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the 
walking surface level; 

2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and vi- 
sual distractions; and 



3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that 
will become apparent in an emergency. 

Such system response shall also include activation of a 
prerecorded message, clearly audible throughout the 
special amusement building, instructing patrons to pro- 
ceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunc- 
tion with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound 
which is distinctive from other sounds used during nor- 
mal operation. 

The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment 
used to accomplish the above fire safety functions shall 
be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFR4 72. 

9®7.2.11.3 Emergemcy voice/alarm communication 
system. An emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem, which is also allowed to serve as a public address 
system, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 72 
and be audible throughout the entire special amusement 
building. 

907.2.12 Hig!ii=rise braidings. Buildings with a floor used 
for human occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 860 
mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle ac- 
cess shall be provided with an automatic fire alarm system 
and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in 
accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

Exceptions; 

1 . Airport traffic control towers in accordance with 
Section 907.2.22 and Section 412 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3 of the International Building Code. 

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in ac- 
cordance with Section 303.1 of the International 
Building Code. 

4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance 
with Section 503. 1 .2 of the International Building 
Code. 

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H- 1 , H-2 or 
H-3 in accordance with Section 415 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

907.2.12.1 Automatic fflre detection. Smoke detectors 
shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke 
detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm 
system. The activation of any detector required by this 
section shall operate the emergency voice/alarm com- 
munication system. Smoke detectors shall be located as 
follows: 

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, trans- 
former, telephone equipment or similar room 
which is not provided with sprinkler protection, el- 
evator machine rooms, and in elevator lobbies. 

2. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of 
each air-conditioning system having a capacity 
greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) 
(0.94 mVs). Such detectors shall be located in a 
serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet. 



2003 5NTERMAT10MAL FIRE CODE® 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



3. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serv- 
ing two or more stories from a return air duct or 
plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group 
R- 1 and R-2 occupancies, a listed smoke detector 
is allowed to be used in each return-air riser carry- 
ing not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 mVs) and serving 
not more than 10 air-inlet openings. 

907.2.12.2 Emergency voice/alarm commiinicatioe 
system. The operation of any automatic fire detector, sprin- 
kler water-flow device or manual fire alarm box shall auto- 
matically sound an alert tone followed by voice instructions 
giving approved information and directions on a general or 
selective basis to the following terminal areas on a mini- 
mum of the alarming floor, the floor above, and the floor 
below in accordance with the building's fire safety and 
evacuation plans required by Section 404. 

1. Elevator lobbies. 

2. Corridors. 

3. Rooms and tenant spaces exceeding 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^) in area. 

4. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 oc- 
cupancies. 

5. Sleeping units in Group R-1 occupancies. 

6. Areas of refuge as defined in Section 1002. 

Exception: In Group I-l and 1-2 occupancies, the 
alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a 
general occupant notification shall be broadcast over 
the overhead page. 

907.2.12.2.1 Manual override. A manual override 
for emergency voice communication shall be pro- 
vided for all paging zones. 

907.2.12.2.2 Live voice messages. The emergency 
voice/alarm communication system shall also have 
the capability to broadcast live voice messages 
through speakers located in elevators, exit stairways, 
and throughout a selected floor or floors. 

907.2.12.2.3 Standard. The emergency voice/alarm 
communication system shall be designed and in- 
stalled in accordance with NFPA 72. 

907.2.12.3 Fire department communication system. 
An approved two-way, fire department communication 
system designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 
72 shall be provided for fire department use. It shall oper- 
ate between a fire command center complying with Sec- 
tion 509 and elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and 
standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge 
and inside enclosed exit stairways. The fire department 
communication device shall be provided at each floor 
level within the enclosed exit stairway. 

Exception: Fire department radio systems where ap- 
proved by the fire department. 

907.2.13 Atriums connecting more than tvj'o stories. A 
fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an 
atrium that connects more than two stories. The system shall 
be activated in accordance with Section 907.7. Such occu- 



pancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emer 
gency voice/alarm communication system complying wit 
the requirements of Section 907.2.12.2. 

907.2.14 High-piled combustible storage areas. An auto- 
matic fire detection system shall be installed throughout 
high-piled combustible storage areas where required by 
Section 2306.5. 

907.2.15 Delayed egress locks. Where delayed egress locks 
are installed on means of egress doors in accordance with 
Section 1008.1.8.6, an automatic smoke or heat detection 
system shall be installed as required by that section. 

907.2.16 Aerosol storage uses. Aerosol storage rooms and 
general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be 
provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where 
required by this code. 



• 



.2.17 Lumber, plywood and veneer mills. Lumber, 
plywood and veneer mills shall be provided with a manual 
fire alarm system. 

907.2.18 Underground buildings with smoke exhaust 
systems. Where a smoke exhaust system is installed in an 
underground building in accordance with the International 
Building Code, automatic fire detectors shall be provided in 
accordance with this section. 

907.2.18.1 Smoke detectors. A minimum of one smoke 
detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed 
in the following areas: 

1 . Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, tele-l 
phone equipment, elevator machine or similar 
rooms. 

2. Elevator lobbies. 

3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each 
air-conditioning system serving more than one 
story and located in a serviceable area downstream 
of the last duct inlet. 

4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving 
two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums 
of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning sys- 
tems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed 
smoke detector is allowed to be used in each re- 
turn-air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 
mVs) and serving not more than 10 air inlet open- 
ings. 



^.2.18.2 Alarm required. ActivaUon of the smoke ex- 
haust system shall activate an audible alarm at a con- 
stantly attended location. 

907.2.19 Underground buildings. Where the lowest level 
of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the 
lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be 
equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, in- 
cluding an emergency voice/alarm communication system 
installed in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 



,19.1 Public address system. Where a fire alarm 
system is not required by Section 907.2, a public address | 
system shall be provided which shall be capable of trans- 
mitting voice communications to the highest level of exit 



80 



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discharge serving the underground portions of the struc- 
ture and all levels below. 



igs. Covered mall buildings 
exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) in total floor area 
shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communi- 
cation system. An emergency voice/alarm communication 
system serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be acces- 
sible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 



,21 Mesndeiratnal aircraft hairagars. A minimum of one 
Usted smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential air- 
craft hangar as defined in the International Building Code 
and shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm 
or other sounding device to provide an alarm which will be 
audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling. 



y\iii,£.,^^ t^&Si^vn iL iLiLaittanv itimauiunui]! towsFs. An automafic fire 
detection system shall be provided in airport traffic control 
towers. 



^2.23 Battery rooms. An approved automatic smoke de- 
tection system shall be installed in areas containing station- 
ary lead-acid battery systems having a liquid capacity of 
more than 50 gallons (189 L). The detection system shall be 
supervised by an approved central, proprietary, or remote 
station service or a local alarm which will sound an audible 
signal at a constantly attended location. 



structereSo An approved manual, automatic or manual 
and automatic fire alarm system shall be installed in existing 
buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.3.1 
through 907.3.1.8. Where automatic sprinkler protection is 
provided in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 or 903.3. 1 .2 and 
connected to the building fire alarm system, automatic heat de- 
tection required by this section shall not be required. 

An approved automatic fire detection system shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 
72. Devices, combinations of devices, appliances and equip- 
ment shall be approved. The automafic fire detectors shall be 
smoke detectors, except an approved alternative type of detec- 
tor shall be installed in spaces such as boiler rooms where, dur- 
ing normal operation, products of combustion are present in 
sufficient quantity to actuate a smoke detector. 



,1 Occepamcy reqeirememts. A fire alarm system 
shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.3.1.1 
through 907.3.1.8. 



ni; Occupancies with an existing, previously ap- 
proved fire alarm system. 

907.3olol Groep E. A fire alarm system shall be installed 
in existing Group E occupancies in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.3. 



1. A building with a maximum area of 1,000 
square feet (93 m^) that contains a single class- 
room and is located no closer than 50 feet (15 
240 mm) from another building. 

2. Group E with an occupant load less than 50. 



I-lo A fire alarm system shall be in- 
stalled in existing Group I-l residential care/assisted liv- 
ing facilities. 

Exception; Where each sleeping room has a means of 
egress door opening directly to an exterior egress bal- 
cony that leads directly to the exits in accordance with 
Section 1013.5, and the building is not more than 
three stories in height. 



907.3.13 Group 1=2. A fire alarm system shall be in- 
stalled in existing Group 1-2 occupancies in accordance 
with Section 907.2.6. 

907.3.1.4 Group 1-3. A fire alarm system shall be in- 
stalled in existing Group 1-3 occupancies in accordance 
with Section 907.2.6.1. 

907.3.1.5 Group M-1 hotels and motels. A fire alarm 
system shall be installed in existing Group R- 1 hotels and 
motels more than three stories or with more than 20 
guestrooms. 

Exception: Buildings less than two stories in height 
where all guestrooms, attics and crawl spaces are sep- 
arated by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction 
and each guestroom has direct access to a public way, 
exit court or yard. 

907.3.1.6 Group M=l boarding and rooming houses. A 
fire alarm system shall be installed in existing Group R-1 
boarding and rooming houses. 

Exception: Buildings that have single-station smoke 
alarms meeting or exceeding the requirements of Sec- 
tion 907.2.10.1 and where the fire alarm system in- 
cludes at least one manual fire alarm box per floor 
arranged to initiate the alarm. 

907.3.1.7 Group M=2. A fire alarm system shall be in- 
stalled in existing Group R-2 occupancies more than 
three stories in height or with more than 16 dwelling 
units or sleeping units. 



1 . Where each living unit is separated from other 
contiguous living units by fire barriers having a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 0.75 hour, 
and where each living unit has either its own in- 
dependent exit or its own independent stairway 
or ramp discharging at grade. 

2. A separate fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings that are equipped throughout with an 
approved supervised automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3. 1.2 and having a local alarm 
to notify all occupants. 

3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings 
that do not have interior corridors serving dwell- 
ing units and are protected by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Sections 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided 
that dwelling units either have a means of egress 
door opening directly to an exterior exit access 
that leads directly to the exits or are served by 



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open-ended corridors designed in accordance 
with Section 1022.6, Exception 4. 

907.3.1.8 Group R-4. A fire alarm system shall be in- 
stalled in existing Group R-4 residential care/assisted 
living facilities. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where there are interconnected smoke alarms 
meeting the requirements of Section 907.2.10 
and there is at least one manual fire alarm box 
per floor arranged to sound continuously the 
smoke alarms. 

2. Other manually activated, continuously sound- 
ing alarms approved by the fire code official. 

907.3.2 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms. Sin- 
gle- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in 
existing Group R occupancies in accordance with Sections 
907.3.2.1 through 907.3.2.3. 

907.3.2.1 General. Existing Group R occupancies not 
already provided with single-station smoke alarms shall 
be provided with approved single-station smoke alarms. 
Installation shall be in accordance with Section 
907.2.10, except as provided in Sections 907.3.2.2 and 
907.3.2.3. 

907.3.2.2 Interconnection. Where more than one smoke 
alarm is required to be installed within an individual 
dwelling unit in Group R-2, R-3 or R-4, or within an indi- 
vidual sleeping unit in Group R-1, the smoke alarms 
shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activa- 
tion of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the indi- 
vidual unit. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all 
bedrooms over background noise levels with all inter- 
vening doors closed. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Interconnection is not required in buildings that 
are not undergoing alterations, repairs or con- 
struction of any kind. 

2. Smoke alarms in existing areas are not required 
to be interconnected where alterations or re- 
pairs do not result in the removal of interior wall 
or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, un- 
less there is an attic, crawl space or basement 
available which could provide access for inter- 
connection without the removal of interior fin- 
ishes. 

907.3.2.3 Power source. In Group R occupancies, sin- 
gle-station smoke alarms shall receive their primary 
power from the building wiring provided that such wir- 
ing is served from a commercial source and shall be 
equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms shall emit 
a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be per- 
manent and without a disconnecting switch other than as 
required for overcurrent protection. 

Exception: Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely 
battery operated: in existing buildings where no con- 
struction is taking place; in buildings that are not 
served from a commercial power source; and in exist- 



ing areas of buildings undergoing alterations or re- 
pairs that do not result in the removal of interior walls ' 
or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there 
is an attic, crawl space or basement available which 
could provide access for building wiring without the 
removal of interior finishes. 

907.4 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual fire alarm boxes shall 
be installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.1 through 
907.4.5. 

907.4.1 Location. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located 
not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to each 
exit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so 
that travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 200 
feet (60 960 mm). 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be re- 
quired in Group E occupancies where the building is 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system, the notification appliances will activate on 
sprinkler water flow and manual activation is provided 
from a normally occupied location. 

907.4.2 Height. The height of the manual fire alarm boxes 
shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum 
of 48 inches (1372 nmi) measured vertically, from the floor 
level to the activating handle or lever of the box. 

907.4.3 Color. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in color. 

907.4.4 Signs. Where fire alarm systems are not monitored 
by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign shall 
be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that 
reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS— CALL FIRE DE- 
PARTMENT. 

Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently 
provided this information on the manual fire alarm box. 

907.4.5 Protective covers. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm 
box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or 
provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from 
physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent 
or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of 
the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper 
operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local 
alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. 

907.5 Power supply. The primary and secondary power supply 
for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with 
NFPA 72. 

907.6 Wiring. Wiring shall comply with the requirements of 
the ICC Electrical Code and NFPA 72. Wireless protection sys- 
tems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall com- 
ply with the special requirements for supervision of low-power 
wireless systems in NFPA 72. 

907.7 Activation. Where an alarm notification system is re- 
quired by another section of this code, it shall be activated by: 

1 . Required automatic fire alarm system. 

2. Sprinkler water-flow devices. 

3. Required manual fire alarm boxes. 



f 



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isigmal system. Presignal systems shall not be in- 
stalled unless approved by the fire code official and the fire de- 
partment. Where a presignal system is installed, 24-hour 
personnel supervision shall be provided at a location approved 
by the fire department, in order that the alarm signal can be ac- 
tuated in the event of fire or other emergency. 

907.9 Zoiiies. Each floor shall be zoned separately and a zone 
shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m^). The length of 
any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in any direc- 
tion. 



dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with 
the capability to support visible alarm notification appli- 
ances in accordance with ICC A117.1. 



tmmi Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not ex- 
ceed the area permitted by NFPA 13. 

907.9.1 Zoming imdlkaitor paneL A zoning indicator panel 
and the associated controls shall be provided in an approved 
location. The visual zone indication shall lock in until the 
system is reset and shall not be canceled by the operation of 
an audible-alarm silencing switch. 



.2 Higlh=rnse bulMimgs. In buildings that have floors 
located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest 
level of fire department vehicle access that are occupied for 
human occupancy, a separate zone by floor shall be pro- 
vided for all of the following types of alarm-initiating de- 
vices where provided: 

1. Smoke detectors. 

2. Sprinkler water-flow devices. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection de- 
vices or suppression systems. 

Mrm EiotfficaltBoe applnamces. Alarm notification ap- 
pliances shall be provided and shall be Hsted for their purpose. 

907.10.1 Visible alarms. Visible alarm notification appli- 
ances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
907.10.1.1 through 907.10.1.4. 



1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not re- 
quired in alterations, except where an existing fire 
alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire 
alarm system is installed. 

2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be 
required in exits as defined in Section 1002.1. 

D.1.1 Pelblic aed common areas. Visible alarm 
notification appliances shall be provided in public areas 
and common areas. 



ID.1,2 Employee work areas. Where employee 
work areas have audible alarm coverage, the wiring sys- 
tem shall be designed so that visible alarm notification 
appliances can be integrated into the alarm system. 

907.10.1.3 Groups 14 amd M=l, Group I-l and R-1 
sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.10.1 .3 shall 
be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, 
activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the build- 
ing fire alarm system. 

907.10.1.4 Groep M=2. In Group R-2 occupancies re- 
quired by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all 



TABLE 907.1 0.1 .3 
VISIBLE AND AUDIBLE ALARMS 


NUMBER OF SLEEPING 
UNITS 


SLEEPING ACCOiWMODATOONS WITH 
VISIBLE AND AUDIBLE ALAREUIS 


6 to 25 


2 


26 to 50 


4 


51 to 75 


7 


76 to 100 


9 


101 to 150 


12 


151 to 200 


14 


201 to 300 


17 


301 to 400 


20 


401 to 500 


22 


501 to 1,000 


5% of total 


1,001 and over 


50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000 



IS. Audible alarm notification appli- 
ances shall be provided and sound a distinctive sound that is 
not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm. 
The audible alarm notification appliances shall provide a 
sound pressure level of 1 5 decibels (dB A) above the average 
ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound 
level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, whichever is 
greater, in every occupied space within the building. The 
minimum sound pressure levels shall be: 70 dBA in occu- 
pancies in Groups R and I-l; 90 dBA in mechanical equip- 
ment rooms; and 60 dBA in other occupancies. The 
maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notifica- 
tion appliances shall be 120 dBA at the minimum hearing 
distance from the audible appliance. Where the average am- 
bient noise is greater than 105 dBA, visible alarm notifica- 
tion appliances shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 
72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not be re- 
quired. 



m: Visible alarm notification appliances shall 
be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification appli- 
ances in critical care areas of Group 1-2 occupancies. 

907.11 Fire safety femctioms. Automafic fire detectors utihzed 
for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be con- 
nected to the building's fire alarm control panel where a fire 
alarm system is required by Secfion 907.2. Detectors shall, 
upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the 
alarm notification apphances or activate a visible and audible 
supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In build- 
ings not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the 
automatic fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical 
service and, upon actuation, perform the intended function. 
The detectors shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72. 



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907.12 Duct smoke detectors. Duct smoke detectors shall be 
connected to the building's fire alarm control panel when a fire 
alarm system is provided. Activation of a duct smoke detector 
shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a con- 
stantly attended location. Duct smoke detectors shall not be 
used as a substitute for required open area detection. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The supervisory signal at a constantly attended lo- 
cation is not required where duct smoke detectors 
activate the building's alarm notification appli- 
ances. 

2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a 
fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector 
shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an 
approved location. Smoke detector trouble condi- 
tions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an 
approved location and shall be identified as air 
duct detector trouble. 

907.13 Access. Access shall be provided to each detector for 
periodic inspection, maintenance and testing. 

907.14 Fire-extmguislimg systems. Automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems shall be connected to the building fire alarm 
system where a fire alarm system is required by another section 
of this code or is otherwise installed. 

907.15 Monitoring. Where required by this chapter or by the 
International Building Code, an approved supervising station 
in accordance with NFPA 72 shall monitor fire alarm systems. 

Exception: Supervisory service is not required for: 

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required 
by Section 907.2.10. 

2. Smoke detectors in Group 1-3 occupancies. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family 
dwellings. 

907.16 Automatic telephone-dialing devices. Automatic 
telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm 
shall not be connected to any fire department telephone number 
unless approved by the fire chief. 

907.17 Acceptance tests. Upon completion of the installation 
of the fire alarm system, alarm notification appliances and cir- 
cuits, alarm-initiating devices and circuits, supervisory-signal 
initiating devices and circuits, signaling line circuits, and pri- 
mary and secondary power supplies shall be tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

907.18 Record of completion. A record of completion in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been in- 
stalled in accordance with the approved plans and 
specifications shall be provided. 

907.19 Instroctions. Operating, testing and maintenance in- 
structions and record drawings ("as builts") and equipment 
specifications shall be provided at an approved location. 

907.20 Inspection, testing and maintenance. The mainte- 
nance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and 
fire detection systems shall be in accordance with this section 
and Chapter 7 of NFPA 72. 



907.20.1 Maintenance required. Whenever or wherever 
any device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, 
level of protection or any other feature is required for com- 
pliance with the provisions of this code, such device, equip- 
ment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protection or 
other feature shall thereafter be continuously maintained in 
accordance with applicable NFPA requirements or as di- 
rected by the fire code official. 

907.20.2 Testing. Testing shall be performed in accordance 
with the schedules in Chapter 7 of NFPA 72 or more fre- 
quently where required by the fire code official. Where au- 
tomatic testing is performed at least weekly by a remotely 
monitored fire alarm control unit specifically listed for the 
application, the manual testing frequency shall be permitted 
to be extended to annual. 



11 : Devices or equipment that are inaccessible 
for safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled 
shutdowns where approved by the fire code official, but 
not less than every 18 months. 

907.20.3 Detector sensitivity. Detector sensitivity shall be 
checked within 1 year after installation and every alternate 
year thereafter. After the second calibration test, where sen- 
sitivity tests indicate that the detector has remained within 
its listed and marked sensitivity range (or 4-percent 
obscuration light grey smoke, if not marked), the length of 
time between calibration tests shall be permitted to be ex- 
tended to a maximum of 5 years. Where the frequency is ex- 
tended, records of detector-caused nuisance alarms and 
subsequent trends of these alarms shall be maintained. In 
zones or areas where nuisance alarms show any increase 
over the previous year, calibration tests shall be performed. 



To ensure that each smoke detector is 
within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be 
tested using either a calibrated test method, the manufac- 
turer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument, listed control 
equipment arranged for the purpose, a smoke detector/con- 
trol unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at 
the control unit where its sensitivity is outside its acceptable 
sensitivity range or other calibrated sensitivity test method 
acceptable to the fire code official. Detectors found to have a 
sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range 
shall be cleaned and recahbrated or replaced. 



1 . Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permit- 
ted to be either adjusted within the listed and 
marked sensitivity range and cleaned and 
recahbrated or they shall be replaced. 

2. This requirement shall not apply to single-station 
smoke alarms. 



.20.4.1 Testing device. Detector sensitivity shall not 
be tested or measured using a device that administers an 
unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into 
the detector. 



D.S Maintenance, inspection and testing. The build- 
ing owner shall be responsible for ensuring that the fire and 
life safety systems are maintained in an operable condition 
at all times. Service personnel shall meet the qualification 



2003 SNTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTDOM SYSTEMS 



requirements of NFPA 72 for maintaining, inspecting and 
testing such systems. A written record shall be maintained 
and shall be made available to the fire code official. 



ECTiON ioe 



sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate comphance 
with these provisions. 



js. Emergency alarms for the detec- 
tion and notification of an emergency condition in Group H oc- 
cupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 27. 



[=5 occMpamcy. Emergency alarms for notifica- 
tion of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be pro- 
vided as required in Section 1803.12. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accor- 
dance with Section 1803.13. 



Bs. Where required by 
Section 3704.2.2.10, a gas detection system shall be provided 
for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed 

gases. 

908.4 OzoEie gas-geeerator roomSo A gas detection system 
shall be provided in ozone gas-generator rooms in accordance 
with Section 3705.3.2. 



m garages. A flammable-gas detection system 
shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by 
non-odorized gases in accordance with Section 2211.7.2. 

)8.6 MefrigeratloE systems. Refrigeration system machin- 
ery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector in accor- 
dance with Section 606.8. 



iOKE CONTROL SYSTI 



use. This section applies to mechan- 
ical or passive smoke control systems when they are required 
for new buildings or portions thereof by provisions of the Inter- 
national Building Code or this code. The purpose of this sec- 
tion is to establish minimum requirements for the design, 
installation and acceptance testing of smoke control systems 
that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evac- 
uation or relocation of occupants. These provisions are not in- 
tended for the preservation of contents, the timely restoration 
of operations, or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul 
activities. Smoke control systems regulated by this section 
serve a different purpose than the smoke- and heat- venting pro- 
visions found in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control sys- 
tems shall not be considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 
of the International Mechanical Code. 



Is. Buildings, struc- 
tures, or parts thereof required by the International Building 
Code or this code to have a smoke control system or systems 
shall have such systems designed in accordance with the appli- 
cable requirements of Section 909 and the generally accepted 
and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the 
design. The construction documents shall include sufficient in- 
formation and detail to describe adequately the elements of the 
design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke 
control systems. These documents shall be accompanied with 



Special nespectnoe amd test reqiinrememits. In addi- 
tion to the ordinary inspection and test requirements to which 
buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, 
smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 
shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify 
the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its fi- 
nal installed condition. The design submission accompanying 
the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and 
methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections 
and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with 
generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible, 
based on published standards for the particular testing in- 
volved. The special inspections and tests required by this sec- 
tion shall be conducted under the same terms as in the 
International Building Code. 



A Analysis. A rational analysis supporting the types of 
smoke control systems to be employed, the methods of their 
operations, the systems supporting them, and the methods of 
construction to be utilized shall accompany the construction 
documents submission and include, but not be limited to, the 
items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6. 



h4A Stack effect. The system shall be designed such 
that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect 
will not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities. In 
determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, 
elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be 
used. 

[B] 9(D9.4.2 Temperatmire effect of ire. Buoyancy and ex- 
pansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed 
such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the 
system's capabilities. 



The design shall consider the ad- 
verse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent 
with the wind-loading provisions of the International Build- 
ing Code. 



A A Systems. The design shall consider the effects 
of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) sys- 
tems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall in- 
clude all permutations of systems status. The design shall 
consider the effects of the fire on the heating, ventilating and 
air-conditioning systems. 



The design shall consider the effects 
of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. 
Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow 
or ice blockage. 



m. All portions of active or 
passive smoke control systems shall be capable of continued 
operation after detection of the fire event for not less than 20 
minutes. 

[B] 909,5 Smoke barrier coestractioini. Smoke barriers shall 
comply with the International Building Code. Smoke barriers 
shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclusive 
of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area 



2003 INTERMAUONAL FDRE CODE® 



FERE PROTECTIOINS SYSTEMS 



shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leak- 
age area ratios: 

1. Walls: AIA =0.00100 

w 

2. Exit enclosures: AIA =0.00035 

w 

3. All other shafts: AIA = 0.00150 

w 

4. Floors and roofs: AIA^ = 0.00050 
where: 

A = Total leakage area, square feet (m^). 

Ap = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m^). 

A„ = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m^). 

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due 
to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be in- 
cluded in calculating the total leakage area. 



oS.l Leakage area. Total leakage area of the barrier 
is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by 
the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other open- 
ings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance shall 
be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure dif- 
ference across the barrier with the system in the smoke con- 
trol mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive 
smoke control systems tested using other approved means 
such as door fan testing shall be as approved by the fire code 
official. 



[B] 909.5.2 Opeeing protectnom. Openings in smoke barri- 
ers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated 
by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control 
system. Door openings shall be protected by door assem- 
blies complying with the requirements of the International 
Building Code for doors in smoke barriers. 



1. Passive smoke control systems with auto- 
matic-closing devices actuated by spot-type 
smoke detectors listed for releasing service in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 907.11. 

2. Fixed openings between smoke zones which are 
protected utilizing the airflow method. 

3. In Group 1-2, where such doors are installed across 
corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors with- 
out a center mullion shall be installed having vi- 
sion panels with approved fire-rated glazing 
materials in approved fire-rated frames, the area of 
which shall not exceed that tested. The doors shall 
be close fitting within operational tolerances, and 
shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. The 
doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or 
rabbets at meeting edges, and automatic-closing 
devices. Positive-latching devices are not required. 

4. Group 1-3. 

5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling 
heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and 
bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as 
determined by the design fire size. 

[B] 909.5.2.1 Ducts aed air tramsfer openimigs. Ducts 
and air transfer openings are required to be protected 



with a minimum Class II, 250°F (121 °C) smoke damper 
complying with the International Building Code. 

[B] 909.6 Pressrarizatfloe method. The primary mechanical 
means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences 
across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is 
not required in the smoke-control zone of fire origin. 

[B] 909.(5.1 Mimimem pressure diffiereince. The minimum 
pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05-inch 
water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings. 

In buildings allowed to be other than fully sprinklered, the 
smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure 
differences at least two times the maximum calculated pres- 
sure difference produced by the design fire. 



pressere difference. The maxi- 
mum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 
determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The 
actual force required to open exit doors when the system is 
in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1008.1.2. Opening and closing forces for other doors 
shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the 
resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to 
set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be deter- 
mined by: 



F = F^^ + K{WAAP)l2iW- d) 
where: 



(Eqeatloni 9=1) 



A = Door area, square feet (m^). 

d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet 
(m). 

F = Total door opening force, pounds (N). 

F^c = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds 

(N). 

K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0). 
W = Door width, feet (m). 
AP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa). 



.7 Airiniow desigm metlhod When approved by the fire 
code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a per- 
manently open position, which are located between 
smoke-control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be 
permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this 
section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration 
from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be consid- 
ered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects. 



.7.1 Velocnty. The minimum average velocity 
through a fixed opening shall not be less than: 

V = 217.2 [h (T^- Ty(T^+ 460)1^^2 
For SI: v = 1 19.9 [h (7}- rj/7}]'/2 
where: 

h = Height of opening, feet (m). 
7} = Temperature of smoke, °F (K). 
Tg = Temperature of ambient air, °F (K). 

V = Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute). 



86 



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[B] 9©9o7«2 ProMtolted comdllttons. This method shall not 
be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity 
of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the 
smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt 
plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall 
airflow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 
m/s). Where the formula in Section 909.7.1 requires 
airflows to exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be 
used. 



When approved by the fire code 
official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, 
such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the ex- 
haust method. The design exhaust volumes shall be in accor- 
dance with this section. 



• 



.8.1 Exhaest rate. The height of the lowest horizon- 
tal surface of the accumulating smoke layer shall be main- 
tained at least 10 feet (3048 mm) above any walking surface 
which forms a portion of a required egress system within the 
smoke zone. The required exhaust rate for the zone shall be 
the largest of the calculated plume mass flow rates for the 
possible plume configurations. Provisions shall be made for 
natural or mechanical supply of air from outside or adjacent 
smoke zones to make up for the air exhausted. Makeup air- 
flow rates, when measured at the potential fire location, 
shall not exceed 200 feet per minute (60 960 mm per minute) 
toward the fire. The temperature of the makeup air shall be 
such that it does not expose temperature-sensitive fire pro- 
tection systems beyond their limits. 

[B] 909.8.2 Axisymmetrk plumes. The plume mass flow 
rate (nip), in pounds per second (kg/s), shall be determined by 
placing the design fire center on the axis of the space being 
analyzed. The limiting flame height shall be determined by: 

z, = 0.5332/5 (Equatnomi 9^3) 

For SI: Zi = 0.l66Q,^'' 

where: 

Mp = Plume mass flow rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 

Q = Total heat output. 

Qc = Convective heat output, British thermal units per 
second (kW). (The value of Q^ shall not be taken as 
less than 0.70 Q.) 

z = Height from top of fuel surface to bottom of smoke 
layer, feet (m). 

Zi = Limiting flame height, feet (m). The Z/ value must be 
greater than the fuel equivalent diameter (see 
Section 909.9). 

for z>Zi 

nip = OmiQJ'h"^ + 0.0042Q, 

For SI: m^ = 0.071 Q,"h^'^ + 0.00180, 

for z = Zi 

nip = 0.011 a 

For SI: mp = 0.035Q, 

for z<Zi 



Mp = 0.0208e/'z 

For SI: mp = 0.032Q,'"z 

To convert m^ from pounds per second of mass flow to a 
volumetric rate, the following formula shall be used: 

V=60 m /p (Equation 9-4) 

where: 

V = Volumetric flow rate, cubic feet per minute (mVs). 

p = Density of air at the temperature of the smoke layer, 
pounds per cubic feet (T: in °F) [kg/m^ (T: in °C)]. 

[B] 909.8.3 Balcomy spill plumes. The plume mass flow 
rate (m^) for spill plumes shall be determined using the geo- 
metrically probable width based on architectural elements 
and projections in the following equation: 

nip = Q.\2A{QWyi\Zb + ^.25H) 

(Equation 9-5) 

For SI: mp= 036{QWy'\Zh + 0.25/f) 

where: 

H = Height above fire to underside of balcony, feet (m). 

nip = Plume mass flow rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 

Q = Total heat output. 

W = Plume width at point of spill, feet (m). 

Zh = Height from balcony, feet (m). 

[B] 909.8.4 Window plumes. The plume mass flow rate 
(nip) shall be determined from: 

Mp = 0.011(AJIJ'y\z^+ay" + OAMJiJ'^ 

(Equation 9-6) 

For SI: m, = OmAJiJ''r\z^ + a^' + \.5AJI^ ^'^ 

where: 

A„ = Area of the opening, square feet (m^). 

H^^, = Height of the opening, feet (m). 

nip = Plume mass flow rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 

z^ = Height from the top ofthe window or opening to the 
bottom of the smoke layer, feet (m). 

a = 2AAJ''HJ''-2.\H, 

[B] 909.8.5 Plume contact with walls. When a plume con- 
tacts one or more of the surrounding walls, the mass flow 
rate shall be adjusted for the reduced entrainment resulting 
from the contact provided that the contact remains constant. 
Use of this provision requires calculation of the plume di- 
ameter, that shall be calculated by: 

d = 0.48 [(T, + 460)/(T, + 460)y'h 



(Equatiom 9-7) 



For SI: d = 0.48 (TJT^'h 

where: 

d = Plume diameter, feet (m). 

T^ = Ambient air temperature, °F (K). 

r, = Plume centerline temperature, °F (K). 



2003 INTERMATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



87 



FIRE PROTECTBON SYSTEIViS 



= 0.60 (t; + 460) a''' z -"^ + r, 

z = Height at which T^ is determined, feet (m). 
For SI: T, = 0.08 r,Q,2/3 ^ -5/3 + ^^ 

[B] 909.9 Design fire. The design fire shall be based on a g of 
not less than 5,000 Btu/s (5275 kW) unless a rational analysis is 
performed by the registered design professional and approved 
by the fire code official. The design fire shall be based on the 
analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this section. 

[B] 909.9.1 Factors considered. The engineering analysis 
shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects 
included by the fire, and whether the fire is likely to be 
steady or unsteady. 

[B] 909.9.2 Separation distance. Determination of the de- 
sign fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel 
spacing and configuration. The ratio of the separation dis- 
tance to the fuel equivalent radius shall not be less than 4. 
The fuel equivalent radius shall be the radius of a circle of 
equal area to floor area of the fuel package. The design fire 
shall be increased if other combustibles are within the sepa- 
ration distance as determined by: 

R = [Q/{l2Tzq")V'^ (Equation 9=8) 

where: 

q" = Incident radiant heat flux required for nonpiloted 
ignition, Btu/ft^ • s (W/m^). 

Q = Heat release from fire, Btu/s (kW). 

R = Separation distance from target to center of fuel 
package, feet (m). 

[B] 909.9.3 Heat-release assumptions. The analysis shall 
make use of best available data from approved sources and 
shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of 
combustible material. 

[B] 909.9.4 Sprinkler effectiveness assumptions. A docu- 
mented engineering analysis shall be provided for condi- 
tions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of 
sprinkler activation. 

[B] 909.10 Equipment. Equipment such as, but not Hmited to, 
fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers, shall be 
suitable for their intended use, suitable for the probable expo- 
sure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and as ap- 
proved by the fire code official. 

[B] 909,10.1 Exhaust fans. Components of exhaust fans 
shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the prob- 
able temperature rise to which the components will be ex- 
posed. This temperature rise shall be computed by: 



T^ = Smoke temperature, °F (K). 

Exception: Reduced T^ as calculated based on the assur- 
ance of adequate dilution air. 



T^(QJmc) + (TJ 
where: 



(Equation 9-9) 



c = Specific heat of smoke at smokelayer temperature, 

Btu/lb°F. (kJ/kg • K). 
m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 
Q^ = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW). 
T^ = Ambient temperature, °F (K). 



^.10.2 Ducts. Duct materials and joints shall be capa- 
ble of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures 
to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with 
Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported 
in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 
Ducts shall be leak tested to 1,5 times the maximum design 
pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. 
Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. 
Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation 
procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resis- 
tance-rated structural elements of the building by substan- 
tial, noncombustible supports. 

Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of vi- 
bration isolation) complying with the International Me- 
chanical Code and which are constructed of approved 
fire-resistance-rated materials. 



^.10.3 Equipment, inlets and outlets. Equipment 
shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of 
the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets 
shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introduc- 
ing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall 
be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into 
the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent 
buildings to an additional fire hazard. 



^.10.4 Automatic dampers. Automatic dampers, re- 
gardless of the purpose for which they are installed within 
the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the 
requirements of approved recognized standards. 



[).5 Fans. In addition to other requirements, 
belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts re- 
quired for the design duty with the minimum number of 
belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable perfor- 
mance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, 
elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer's fan 
curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans 
shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible de- 
vices in accordance with the structural design requirements 
of Chapter 16 of the International Building Code. Motors 
driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate 
horsepower (kilowatts) as determined from measurement of 
actual current draw and shall have a minimum service factor 
of 1.15. 

[B] 909.11 Power systems. The smoke control system shall be 
supphed with two sources of power. Primary power shall be the 
normal building power systems. Secondary power shall be 
from an approved standby source complying with the ICC 
Electrical Code. The standby power source and its transfer 
switches shall be in a separate room from the normal power 
transformers and switch gear and shall be enclosed in a room 
constructed of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated fire 
barriers, ventilated directly to and from the exterior. Power dis- 
tribution from the two sources shall be by independent routes. 



^ 



88 



2003 INTERNATIONAL HRE CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTDON SYSTEMS 



Transfer to full standby power shall be automatic and within 60 
seconds of failure of the primary power. The systems shall 
comply with the ICC Electrical Code. 

[B] 909.11.1 Power soorces audi power serges. Elements 
of the smoke management system relying on volatile memo- 
ries or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power 
sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary 
power interruption. Elements of the smoke management 
system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably pro- 
tected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved 
means. 

[B] 909.12 Detectnom amd comtrol systems. Fire detection sys- 
tems providing control input or output signals to mechanical 
smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be 
equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed 
as smoke control equipment. 

Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall 
include provisions for verification. Verification shall include 
positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, 
the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, 
through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence report, abnor- 
mal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. 

[B] 909ol2.1 Wsrnmg. In addition to meeting requirements 
of the ICC Electrical Code, all wiring, regardless of voltage, 
shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways. 



(593°C) and hquidus below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux 
shall be used on copper- to-brass joints only. 



909.12.2 ActnvatROim. Smoke control systems shall be acti- 
vated in accordance with this section. 



Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressuriza- 
tion, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely au- 
tomatic control. 



909.12.2.2 Passnve metliod. Passive smoke control sys- 
tems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for 
releasing service shall be permitted. 



,12.3 Amitomatic comtrol. Where completely automatic 
control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences 
shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic 
sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1, manual 
controls that are readily accessible to the fu:e department, and 
any smoke detectors required by the engineering analysis. 



air tatjnmgo Control air tubing shall be of 
sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall 
be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be 
adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing 
passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and pro- 
tected from abrasion and electrolytic action. 



3.1 Materials. Control air tubing shall be hard 
drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 
42, ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 
and ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, 
solder type, in accordance with ASME B 16. 18 or ASME B 
16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate 
tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at 
final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed us- 
ing a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F 



nil Nonmetallic tubing used within control pan- 
els and at the final connection to devices, provided all of 
the following conditions are met: 

1 . Tubing shall be listed by an approved agency for 
flame and smoke characteristics. 

2. Tubing and the connected device shall be com- 
pletely enclosed within a galvanized or 
paint-grade steel enclosure of not less than 0.030 
inch (0.76 mm) (No. 22 galvanized sheet gage) 
thickness. Entry to the enclosure shall be by cop- 
per tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene 
or teflon or by suitable brass compression to 
male-barbed adapter. 

3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately docu- 
mented coding. 

4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within 
enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or 
moveable device shall be of sufficient length to 
avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be 
protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices 
on doors shall be fastened along hinges. 



ns. Control tub- 
ing serving other than smoke control functions shall be iso- 
lated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an 
independent system. 

[B] 909.13.3 Testttog. Control air tubing shall be tested at 
three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 min- 
utes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to 
final connection to devices. 



The detection and 
control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, ac- 
cesses and terminations. 



iagramSo Identical control diagrams showing 
all devices in the system and identifying their location and 
function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the 
fire code official, the fire department and in the fire command 
center in format and manner approved by the fire chief. 



A fire-fighter's 

smoke control panel for fire department emergency response 
purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual con- 
trol or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke con- 
trol systems. The panel shall be located in a fire command 
center complying with Section 509 and shall comply with Sec- 
tions 909.16.1 through 909.16.3. 



IS, Fans within the building 
shall be shown on the fire-fighter's control panel. A clear in- 
dication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of 
components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be 
provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by 
fan and zone and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows: 

1 . Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
normal status — WHITE. 

2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
off or closed status — RED. 



2003 INTERMATDONAL FJRE CODE® 



F!RE PROTECTIOS^ SYSTEMS 



3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
on or open status — GREEN. 

4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a 
fault status— YELLOW/AMBER. 

909.16.2 Smoke control panel. The fire-fighter's control 
panel shall provide control capability over the complete 
smoke-control system equipment within the building as fol- 
lows: 

1 . ON- AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of 
operating smoke control equipment that can also be 
controlled from other sources within the building. 
This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke ex- 
haust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator 
shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or in- 
tended for smoke control purposes. 

2. OPEN- AUTO-CLOSE control over individual damp- 
ers relating to smoke control and that are also con- 
trolled from other sources within the building. 

3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke con- 
trol and other critical equipment associated with a fire 
or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled 
from the fire-fighter's control panel. 

Exceptions: 

1. Complex systems, where approved, where 
the controls and indicators are combined to 
control and indicate all elements of a single 
smoke zone as a unit. 

2. Complex systems, where approved, where 
the control is accomplished by computer in- 
terface using approved, plain Enghsh com- 
mands. 

909.16.3 Control action and priorities. The fire-fighter's 
control panel actions shall be as follows: 

1. ON-OFF, OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have 
the highest priority of any control point within the 
building. Once issued from the fire-fighter's control 
panel, no automatic or manual control from any other 
control point within the building shall contradict the 
control action. Where automatic means are provided 
to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment opera- 
tion or produce a specific result to safeguard the build- 
ing or equipment (i.e., duct freezestats, duct smoke 
detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-ac- 
tuated linkage and similar devices), such means shall 
be capable of being overridden by the fire-fighter's 
control panel. The last control action as indicated by 
each fire-fighter's control panel switch position shall 
prevail. In no case shall control actions require the 
smoke control system to assume more than one con- 
figuration at any one time. 

Exception: Power disconnects required by the 
ICC Electrical Code. 

2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position 
fire-fighter's control panel switch shall allow auto- 
matic or manual control action from other control 
points within the building. The AUTO position shall 
be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control 



position. Where a fire-fighter's control panel is in the 
AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, 
off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the 
status indicator described above. When directed by an 
automatic signal to assume an emergency condirion, 
the NORMAL position shall become the emergency 
condition for that device or group of devices within 
the zone. In no case shall control actions require the 
smoke control system to assume more than one con- 
figuration at any one time. 

.17 System response time. Smoke-control system activa- 
tion shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropri- 
ate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control 
systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers 
and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage 
to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes 
of smoke control, the fire-fighter's control panel response time 
shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action 
initiated from any other building control point. The total re- 
sponse time, including that necessary for detection, shutdown 
of operating equipment and smoke control system startup, shall 
allow for full operational mode to be achieved before the condi- 
tions in the space exceed the design smoke condition. The sys- 
tem response time for each component and their sequential 
relationships shall be detailed in the required rational analysis 
and verification of their installed condition reported in the re- 
quired final report. 



.18 Acceptance testing. Devices, equipment, components 
and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addi- 
tion to those required by other provisions of this code, shall 
consist of determination of function, sequence and, where ap- 
plicable, capacity of their installed condition. 



.18,1 Detection devices. Smoke or fire detectors that are 
a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accor- 
dance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. When ap- 
plicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow in 
both minimum and maximum conditions. 



909.18.2 Ducts. Ducts that are part of a smoke control sys- 
tem shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to 
determine actual air quantities. 



S.3 Dampers. Dampers shall be tested for function in 
their installed condition. 



.18.4 Inlets and outlets. Inlets and outlets shall be read 
using generally accepted practices to determine air quanti- 
ties. 



.18.5 Fans. Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. 
Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per minute 
and belt tension shall be made. 



.18,6 Smoke barriers. Measurements using inclined 
manometers or other approved calibrated measuring de- 
vices shall be made of the pressure differences across smoke 
barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for each 
possible smoke control condition. 



^.18.7 Controls. Each smoke zone, equipped with an au- 
tomatic-initiation device, shall be put into operation by the 
actuation of one such device. Each additional device within 
the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence with- 



90 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FiRE CODE® 



FDRE PROTECTDOiM SYSTEMS 



• 



out requiring the operation of fan motors in order to prevent 
damage. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the 
system, including verification of override from the 
fire-fighter's control panel and simulation of standby power 
conditions. 



hlU.B Special imspectnoms for smoke conntroL Smoke 
control systems shall be tested by a special inspector. 



.18.8.1 Scope of itesltmg. Special inspections shall be 
conducted in accordance with the following: 

1 . During erection of ductwork and prior to conceal- 
ment for the purposes of leakage testing and re- 
cording of device location. 

2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion 
for the purposes of pressure-difference tesfing, 
flow measurements, and detection and control ver- 
ification. 



909.18.8.2 QaialfficaitEoras. Special inspection agencies 
for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection 
engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as 
air balancers. 



DolS.S.S Reports. A complete report of testing shall be 
prepared by the special inspector or special inspection 
agency. The report shall include identification of all de- 
vices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, 
measured values and identification tag or mark. The re- 
port shall be reviewed by the responsible registered de- 
sign professional and, when satisfied that the design 
intent has been achieved, the responsible registered de- 
sign professional shall seal, sign and date the report. 



li.lS.S.S.l Report ilimg. A copy of the final report 
shall be filed with the fire code official and an identi- 
cal copy shall be maintained in an approved location 
at the building. 

15.18.9 HeEtiflicatioE amd documemtatiom. Charts, 
drawings and other documents identifying and locating each 
component of the smoke control system, and describing 
their proper function and maintenance requirements, shall 
be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the 
report required by Section 909. 1 8.8.3. Devices shall have an 
approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent with 
the other required documentation and shall be dated indicat- 
ing the last time they were successfully tested and by whom. 



51 System acceptamce. Buildings, or portions thereof, re- 
quired by this code to comply with this section shall not be is- 
sued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire code 
official determines that the provisions of this section have been 
fully complied with, and that the fire department has received 
satisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic and 
manual, of the system. 

Exceptiom: In buildings of phased construction, a tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code 
official, shall be permitted provided that those portions of 
the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this 
section and that the remainder does not pose a significant 
hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent 
buildings. 



[B] 9®9.20 Umdergroiiiiiiid toeiMmg smoke exihaest system. 
Where required by the International Building Code for under- 
ground buildings, a smoke exhaust system shall be provided in 
accordance with this section. 

[B] 9(09.20.1 Exihaiiist capability. Where compartmenta- 
tion is required, each compartment shall have an independ- 
ent, automatically activated smoke exhaust system capable 
of manual operation. The system shall have an air supply 
and smoke exhaust capability that will provide a minimum 
of six air changes per hour. 



tioe. The smoke exhaust system shall be 
operated in the compartment of origin by the following, in- 
dependently of each other: 

1 . Two cross-zoned smoke detectors within a single pro- 
tected area or a single smoke detector monitored by an 
alarm verification zone or an approved equivalent 
method. 

2. The automatic sprinkler system. 

3. Manual controls that are readily accessible to the fire 
department. 

909.2(0.3 Alarm reqeired. Activation of the smoke exhaust 
system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantiy at- 
tended location. 

909.21 Maimtemairace. Smoke control systems shall be main- 
tained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capa- 
ble of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system 
shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's in- 
structions and Sections 909.21.1 through 909.21.5. 



.21.1 Sdiedmle. A routine maintenance and operational 
testing program shall be initiated immediately after the 
smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A 
written schedule for routine maintenance and operational 
testing shall be established. 



.21,2 Writtem record, A written record of smoke con- 
trol system testing and maintenance shall be maintained on 
the premises. The written record shall include the date of the 
maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and 
notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the correc- 
tive action taken, including parts replaced. 

909.21,3 Testieg. Operational testing of the smoke control 
system shall include all equipment such as initiating de- 
vices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows. 



IIA Dedicated smoke comitirol systemms. Dedicated 
smoke control systems shall be operated for each control se- 
quence semiannually. The system shall also be tested under 
standby power conditions. 

909.21.S Nomdedicated smoke control systems. 
Nondedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for 
each control sequence annually. The system shall also be 
tested under standby power conditions. 



SiViOECE AND HEM VENTS 

.1 GeeeraL Where required by this code or otherwise in- 
stalled, smoke and heat vents, or mechanical smoke exhaust 



2003 INTERNATJOSMAL PURE CODE® 



911 



F!RE PR0TECT80N SYSTEMS 



systems, and draft curtains shall conform to the requirements 
of this section. 

ExceptioMo Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage 
of Class I and Class 11 commodities where protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

910.2 Where reqeired. Approved smoke and heat vents shall 
be installed in the roofs of one- story buildings or portions 
thereof occupied for the uses set forth in Sections 910.2.1 
through 910.2.4. 

910.2.1 Groups F-1 or S=l. Buildings and portions thereof 
used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy having more than 
50,000 square feet (4645 m^) of undivided area. 

Exceptions Group S-1 aircraft repair hangars. 

910.2.2 Groep H. Buildings and portions thereof used as a 
Group H occupancy as follows: 

1 . In occupancies classified as Group H-2 or H-3, any of 
which are more than 15,000 square feet (1394 m^) in 
single floor area. 

Exceptlom: Buildings of noncombustible con- 
struction containing only noncombustible materi- 
als. 

2. In areas of buildings in Group H used for storing Class 
2, 3 and 4 liquid and solid oxidizers, Class 1 and un- 
classified detonable organic peroxides, Class 3 and 4 
unstable (reactive) materials, or Class 2 or 3 water-re- 



active materials as required for a high-hazard 
commodity classification. 

Exceptloim: Buildings of noncombustible con- 
struction containing only noncombustible materi- 
als. 



i. Buildings and 
portions thereof containing high-piled combustible stock or 
rack storage in any occupancy group when required by Sec- 
tion 2306.7. 



.2.4 Exnt access travel distamce increase. Buildings 
and portions thereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy 
where the maximum exit access travel distance is increased 
with Section 1015.2. 



,3,1 Vent operation. Smoke and heat vents shall be ap- 
proved and labeled and shall be capable of being operated 
by approved automatic and manual means. Automatic oper- 
ation of smoke and heat vents shall conform to the provi- 
sions of this section. 



Automatic 

smoke and heat vents containing heat-sensitive glazing 
designed to shrink and drop out of the vent opening when 
exposed to fire shall fully open within 5 minutes after the 
vent cavity is exposed to a simulated fire represented by a 




Design and installation. The design and installation of 
smoke and heat vents and draft curtains shall be as specified in 
this section and Table 910.3. 



• 



TABLE 910.3 
REQUlREiViENTS FOR DRAFT CURTASiSJS AND Si 



SOKE AND HEAT VENTS' 



OCCUPANCY 

GROUP AND 

COMMODITY 

CLASSIFICATION 


DESIGNATED 

STORAGE HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MINIMUM DRAFT 

CURTAIN DEPTH 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM AREA 

FORMED BY DRAFT 

CURTAINS 

(square feet) 


VENT AREA TO 

FLOOR AREA 

RATIO 


MAXIMUM SPACING 

OF VENT CENTERS 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM DISTANCE 
TO VENTS FROM 
WALL OR DRAFT 

curtain'' 

(feet) 


Group F-1 


— 


0.2 X H*^ 
but>4 


50,000 


1:100 


120 


60 


Group S-1 

I-IV 
(Option 1) 


<20 


6 


10,000 


1:100 


100 


60 


> 20 < 40 


6 


8,000 


1:75 


100 


55 


Group S-1 
I-IV 

(Option 2) 


<20 


4 


3,000 


1:75 


100 


55 


> 20 < 40 


4 


3,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


Group S-1 

High hazard 

(Option 1) 


<20 


6 


6,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


> 20 < 30 


6 


6,000 


1:40 


90 


45 


Group S-1 

High hazard 

(Option 2) 


<20 


4 


4,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


> 20 < 30 


4 


2,000 


1:30 


75 


40 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 

a. Requirements for rack storage heights in excess of those indicated shall be in accordance with Chapter 23. For sohd-piled storage heights in excess of those indi- 
cated, an approved engineered design shall be used. 

b. The distance specified is the maximum distance from any vent in a particular draft curtained area to walls or draft curtains which form the perimeter of the draft 
curtained area. 

c. "H" is the height of the vent, in feet, above the floor. 



92 



2003 



FBRE PROTECTDOiSg SYSTEMS 



time-temperature gradient that reaches an air tempera- 
ture of 500°F (260°C) within 5 minutes. 



.1.2 Sprmktered toenMmgs. Where installed in 
buildings equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler 
system, smoke and heat vents shall be designed to oper- 
ate automatically. 

9103.1.3 NonsprlmHeredl tanMnngs. Where installed in 
buildings not equipped with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system, smoke and heat vents shall operate au- 
tomatically by actuation of a heat-responsive device 
rated at between 100°F (56°C) and 220°F (122°C) above 
ambient. 



mi Gravity-operated drop out vents comply- 
ing with Section 910.3.1.1. 



Bmemsloms, The effective venting area shall 
not be less than 16 square feet (1.5 m^) with no dimension 
less than 4 feet (1219 mm), excluding ribs or gutters having 
a total width not exceeding 6 inches (152 mm). 



Rs. Smoke and heat vents shall be lo- 
cated 20 feet (6096 mm) or more from adjacent lot lines and 
fire walls and 10 feet (3048 mm) or more from fire barrier 
walls. Vents shall be uniformly located within the roof area 
above high-piled storage areas, with consideration given to 
roof pitch, draft curtain location, sprinkler location and 
structural members. 



3.4 Draft CMrtaSms. Where required, draft curtains shall 
be provided in accordance with this section. 



m Where areas of buildings are equipped with 
early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers, draft 
curtains shall not be provided within these areas. Draft 
curtains shall only be provided at the separadon between 
the ESFR sprinklers and the conventional sprinklers. 



L3.4,l Constrinctlom. Draft curtains shall be con- 
structed of sheet metal, lath and plaster, gypsum board or 
other approved materials that provide equivalent perfor- 
mance to resist the passage of smoke. Joints and connec- 
tions shall be smoke tight. 



The location and mini- 
mum depth of draft curtains shall be in accordance with 
Table 910.3. 

910.4 Mechanical smoke eslhaiList, Where approved by the fire 
code official, engineered mechanical smoke exhaust shall be an 
acceptable alternative to smoke and heat vents. 



,1 Location. Exhaust fans shall be uniformly spaced 
within each draft-curtained area and the maximum distance 
between fans shall not be greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 



.4,2 Size. Fans shall have a maximum individual capac- 
ity of 30,000 cfm (14.2 mVs). The aggregate capacity of 
smoke exhaust fans shall be determined by the equation: 

C = Ax300 



where: 

C = Capacity of mechanical ventilation required, in 
cubic feet per minute (mVs). 



= Area of roof vents provided in square feet (m^) in 
accordance with Table 910.3. 



Mechanical smoke exhaust fans shall 
be automatically activated by the automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem or by heat detectors having operating characteristics 
equivalent to those described in Section 910.3.1. Individual 
manual controls for each fan unit shall also be provided. 



Wiring for operation and con- 
trol of smoke exhaust fans shall be connected ahead of the 
main disconnect and protected against exposure to tempera- 
tures in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) for a period of not less 
than 15 minutes. Controls shall be located so as to be imme- 
diately accessible to the fire service from the exterior of the 
building and protected against interior fire exposure by fire 
barriers having a fire-resistance rating not less than 1 hour. 



' anr. Supply air for exhaust fans shall be pro- 
vided at or near the floor level and shall be sized to provide a 
minimum of 50 percent of required exhaust. Openings for 
supply air shall be uniformly distributed around the periph- 
ery of the area served. 



On combination comfort air-han- 
dling/smoke removal systems or independent comfort 
air-handling systems, fans shall be controlled to shut down 
in accordance with the approved smoke control sequence. 



EXPLOI 



lOM CONTROL 



911.1 GeeeraL Explosion control shall be provided in the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1 . Where a structure, room or space is occupied for pur- 
poses involving explosion hazards as identified in Table 
911.1. 

2. Where quantities of hazardous materials specified in Ta- 
ble 911.1 exceed the maximum allowable quantities in 
Table 2703.1.1(1). 

Such areas shall be provided with explosion (deflagration) 
venting, explosion (deflagration) prevention systems, or barri- 
cades in accordance with this section and NFPA 69, or NFPA 
495 as applicable. Deflagration venting shall not be utilized as 
a means to protect buildings from detonation hazards. 



ng. Areas that are required 
to be provided with deflagration venting shall comply with the 
following: 

1. Walls, ceilings and roofs exposing surrounding areas 
shall be designed to resist a minimum internal pressure 
of 100 pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa). The mini- 
mum internal design pressure shall not be less than five 
times the maximum internal relief pressure specified in 
Section 91 1.2, Item 5. 

2. Deflagration venting shall be provided only in exterior 
walls and roofs. 



m Where sufficient exterior wall and roof 
venting cannot be provided because of inadequate ex- 
terior wall or roof area, deflagration venting shall be 



2003 BNTERNATDONAL FIRE CODE® 



FIRE PR0TECT80N SYSTESVIS 



allowed by specially designed shafts vented to the ex- 
terior of the building. 

Deflagration venting shall be designed to prevent unac- 
ceptable structural damage. Where reUeving a deflagra- 
tion, vent closures shall not produce projectiles of 
sufficient velocity and mass to cause life threatening in- 
juries to the occupants or other persons on the property or 
adjacent public ways. 

The aggregate clear area of vents and venting devices 
shall be governed by the pressure resistance of the con- 
struction assemblies specified in Item 1 of this section 
and the maximum internal pressure allowed by Item 5 of 
this section. 



5. Vents shall be designed to withstand loads in accordance 
with the International Building Code. Vents shall consist 
of any one or any combination of the following to relieve 
at a maximum internal pressure of 20 pounds per square 
foot (958 Pa), but not less than the loads required by the 
International Building Code: 

5.1. Exterior walls designed to release outward. 

5.2. Hatch covers. 

5.3. Outward swinging doors. 

5.4. Roofs designed to uplift. 

5.5. Venting devices listed for the purpose. 



TABLE 911.1 
EXPLOSSOW CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS 


Barricade 
construction 


Explosion (deflagration) venting 

or explosion (deflagration) 

prevention systems 


Hazard Category 


Combustible dusts^ 





Not required 


Required 


Cryogenic fluids 


Flammable 


Not required 


Required 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Required 
Required 
Not required 
Not required 
Required 
Required 


Not required 
Not required 
Required 
Required 
Not required 
Not required 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not required 
Not required 


Required 
Required 


Flammable liquids 


lA'' 


Not required 
Not required 


Required 
Required 


Organic peroxides 


U 

I 


Required 
Required 


Not permitted 
Not permitted 


Oxidizer liquids and solids 


4 


Required 


Not permitted 


Pyrophoric 


Gases 


Not required 


Required 


Unstable (reactive) 


4 

3 detonable 

3 nondetonable 


Required 

Required 

Not required 


Not permitted 

Not permitted 

Required 


Water-reactive liquids and solids 


3 

2^ 


Not required 
Not required 


Required 
Required 


Special Uses 


Acetylene generator rooms 


— 


Not required 


Required 


Grain processing 


— 


Not required 


Required 


Liquefied petroleum gas 
distribution facilities 


— 


Not required 


Required 


Where explosion hazards exist'' 


Detonation 
Deflagration 


Required 
Not required 


Not permitted 
Required 



a. Combustible dusts that are generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of Combustible Dust in Chapter 2. 

b. Storage or use. 

c. In open use or dispensing. 

d. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous 
materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process. 

e. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures. 



2003 8MTERNAT10NAL FIRE CODEC 



FDRE PROTECTJON SYSTEiVJS 



6. Vents designed to release from the exterior walls or roofs 
of the building when venting a deflagration shall dis- 
charge directly to the exterior of the building where an 
unoccupied space not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in 
width is provided between the exterior walls of the build- 
ing and the property line. 

ExceptiOES Vents complying with Item 7 of this sec- 
tion. 

7. Vents designed to remain attached to the building when 
venting a deflagration shall be so located that the dis- 
charge opening shall not be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
vertically from window openings and exits in the build- 
ing and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from exits in the 
building, from window openings and exits in adjacent 
buildings on the same property, and from the property 
line. 

8. Discharge from vents shall not be into the interior of the 
building. 

911o3 Explosnom preveetioim systems., Explosion prevention 
systems shall be of an approved type and installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 69. 

911.4 Bamcades. Barricades shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with NFPA 495. 



FIRE DEPARTilENT CONNECTIONS 

912.1 Imstallatnom. Fire department connections shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the NFPA standard applicable to the 
system design. 



With respect to hydrants, driveways, build- 
ings and landscaping, fire department connections shall be so 
located that fire apparatus and hose connected to supply the 
system will not obstruct access to the buildings for other fire 
apparatus. The location of fire department connections shall be 
approved. 

912.2.1 VnsnWe localtioinio Fire department connections shall 
be located on the street side of buildings, fully visible and 
recognizable from the street or nearest point of fire depart- 
ment vehicle access or as otherwise approved by the fire 
code official. 



|§. On existing buildings, wher- 
ever the fire department connection is not visible to ap- 
proaching fire apparatus, the fire department connection 
shall be indicated by an approved sign mounted on the street 
front or on the side of the building. Such sign shall have the 
letters "FDC" at least 6 inches (152 mm) high and words in 
letters at least 2 inches (5 1 mm) high or an arrow to indicate 
the location. All such signs shall be subject to the approval 
of the fire code official. 

912.3 Access. Immediate access to fire department connec- 
tions shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction by 
fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other object for a minimum 
of 3 feet (914 mm). 

912.3.1 Locking ffire departmemlt commectiomi caps. The 
fire code official is authorized to require locking caps on fire 
department connections for water-based fire protection sys- 



tems where the responding fire department carries 
appropriate key wrenches for removal. 

912.4 Sigms. A metal sign with raised letters at least 1 inch (25 
mm) in size shall be mounted on all fire department connec- 
tions serving automatic sprinklers, standpipes or fire pump 
connections. Such signs shall read: AUTOMATIC SPRIN- 
KLERS or STANDPIPES or TEST CONNECTION or a com- 
bination thereof as applicable. 



[P] 912.S Backfflow protectDom. The potable water supply to 
automatic sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be protected 
against backflow as required by the International Plumbing 
Code. 

912.6 ImspectioE, testneg amd manmteiraainice. All fire depart- 
ment connections shall be periodically inspected, tested and 
maintained in accordance with NFPA 25. 



913.1 GemeraL Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed 
in accordance with this section and NFPA 20. 



n of service. The fire 
pump, driver, and controller shall be protected in accordance 
with NFPA 20 against possible interruption of service through 
damage caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, 
insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism and other adverse con- 
ditions. 



room. Suitable means shall be 
provided for maintaining the temperature of a pump room or 
pump house, where required, above 40°F (5°C). 

913.3.1 Emgime mamofactarer's recommeimdaltloe. Tem- 
perature of the pump room, pump house or area where en- 
gines are installed shall never be less than the minimum 
recommended by the engine manufacturer. The engine 
manufacturer's recommendations for oil heaters shall be 
followed. 



Ml. Where provided, the fire pump suc- 
tion, discharge and bypass valves, and the isolation valves on 
the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be super- 
vised open by one of the following methods. 

1 . Central-station, proprietary, or remote-station signaling 
service. 

2. Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an 
audible signal at a constantly attended location. 

3. Locking valves open. 

4. Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspec- 
tion where valves are located within fenced enclosures 
under the control of the owner. 

913.4.1 Test oiuiltlet valve smpervislom. Fire pump test outlet 
valves shall be supervised in the closed position. 



Fire pumps shall be in- 
spected, tested and maintained in accordance with the require- 
ments of this section and NFPA 25. 



5.1 Acceptamce test. Acceptance testing shall be done 
in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 20. 



2003 INTERNATDONAL FIRE CODE® 



RRE PROTECTION SYSTEIVIS 



913.5.2 Generator sets. Engine generator sets supplying 
emergency or standby power to fire pump assemblies shall 
be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110. 

913.5.3 Transfer switches. Automatic transfer switches 
shall be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110. 

913.5.4 Pump room environmental conditions. Tests of 
pump room environmental conditions, including heating, 
ventilation and illumination shall be made to ensure proper 
manual or automatic operation of the associated equipment. 




96 2003 BNTERMATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



User Notes See Preface page nv ("margieal markmgs" for Chapter 1© reorgamizatioe nmforinniatnoeo 



GENERAL 

A GeeeraL Buildings or portions thereof shall be pro- 
vided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. 
The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, con- 
struction and arrangement of means of egress components re- 
quired to provide an approved means of egress from structures 
and portions thereof. Sections 1003 through 1025 shall apply to 
new construction. Sections 1026 and 1027 shall apply to exist- 
ing buildings. 



tmni Detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate 
means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply 
with the International Residential Code. 



It shall be unlawful to alter a 
building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of 
exits or the capacity of the means of egress to less than required 
by this code. 



[B]SECTDON1002 
DEFiWDTIONS 

ol DeHnnStnoes. The following words and tenns shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGEESS. A continuous and un- 
obstructed way of egress travel from any point in a building or 
facility that provides an accessible route to an area of refuge, a 
horizontal exit or a public way. 

AISLE ACCESS 
leads to an aisle. 



That portion of an exit access that 



ALTERNATING TMEAD DEVICE, A device that has a se- 
ries of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) 
from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an 
alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on 
the same level at the same time. 

AEEA OF EEFUGE. An area where persons unable to use 
stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assis- 
tance during emergency evacuation. 

□ BLEACHERS. Tiered seating facilities. 

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of 
exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before 
two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are 
available. Paths that merge are common paths of travel. Com- 
mon paths of egress travel shall be included within the permit- 
ted travel distance. 



A door equipped with double-pivoted 
hardware so designed as to cause a semicounterbalanced swing 
action when opening. 

EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a 
public way for one or more exits. 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An 
operable window, door or other similar device that provides for 
a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emer- 
gency. 

EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system which is sepa- 
rated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives as 
required to provide a protected path of egress travel between 
the exit access and the exit discharge. Exits include exterior exit 
doors at ground level, exit enclosures, exit passageways, exte- 
rior exit stairs, exterior exit ramps and horizontal exits. 

EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that 
leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an 
exit. 

EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress sys- 
tem between the termination of an exit and a public way. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The horizontal plane lo- 
cated at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit dis- 
charge begins. 

EXIT ENCLOSURE. An exit component that is separated 
from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-re- 
sistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and pro- 
vides for a protected path of egress travel in a vertical or 
horizontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way. 

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. A path of egress travel from one 
building to an area in another building on approximately the 
same level, or a path of egress travel through or around a wall or 
partition to an area on approximately the same level in the same 
building, which affords safety from fire and smoke from the 
area of incidence and areas communicating therewith. 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated 
from all other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and 
provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal di- 
rection to the exit discharge or the public way. 

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hardware that is listed for 
use on fire door assemblies. 



An enclosed exit access component that defines 
and provides a path of egress travel to an exit. 



DSS. The floor area within the inside per- 
imeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, 
exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corri- 
dors, stairways, closets, the thickness of interior walls, col- 
umns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion 
thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be 
the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or 
floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with 
no openings or interior courts. 



2003 IIMTEIRMATIIOIMAL FIRE CODE® 



97 



lEAWS OF EGRESS 



i|ET. The actual occupied area not including 
unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet 
rooms, mechanical rooms and closets. 

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating 
facilities having an overall shape and size that are capable of 
being reduced for purposes of moving or storing. 

GRANDSTAND, Tiered seating facilities. 

GUARD. A building component or a system of building com- 
ponents located at or near the open sides of elevated walking 
surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walk- 
ing surface to a lower level. 

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasp- 
ing by the hand for guidance or support. 

MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path 
of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied por- 
tion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of 
egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit ac- 
cess, the exit and the exit discharge. 

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings 
at the top of stairway flights. 

OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the 
means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed. 

PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incorporat- 
ing a device that releases the latch upon the application of a 
force in the direction of egress travel. 



A street, alley or other parcel of land open to 
the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedi- 
cated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for 
public use and which has a clear width and height of not less 
than 10 feet (3048 mm). 

RAMPo A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 
one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5 -percent slope). 

SCISSOR STAIR. Two interlocking stairways providing two 
separate paths of egress located within one stairwell enclosure. 

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating 
served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumu- 
lation within or under a structure. 

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more risers . 

STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or in- 
terior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting 
them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one 
level to another. 

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. A stairway that is open on at least 
one side, except for required structural columns, beams, hand- 
rails and guards. The adjoining open areas shall be either yards, 
courts or public ways. The other sides of the exterior stairway 
need not be open. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. A stairway not meeting the defini- 
tion of an exterior stairway. 



A stairway having a closed circular 
form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped treads at- 
tached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter supporting 
column. 

. A tread with nonparallel edges. 



1003.1 Applncability. The general requirements specified in 
Sections 1003 through 1012 shall apply to all three elements of 
the means of egress system, in addition to those specific re- 
quirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge 
detailed elsewhere in this chapter. 



<$n3 



leflglhL The means of egress shall have a ceiling 
height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). 



1. Sloped ceilings in accordance with Section 1208.2 of 
the International Building Code. 

2. Ceihngs of dwelhng units and sleeping units within 
residential occupancies in accordance with Section 
1208.2 of the International Building Code. 

3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 
1003.3. 

4. Stair headroom in accordance with Section 1009.2. 

5. Door height in accordance with Section 1008.1.1. 



3. Protruding objects shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4. 



.3.1 Headroom. Protruding objects are permitted to 
extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Sec- 
tion 1003.2 provided a minimum headroom of 80 inches 
(2032 mm) shall be provided for any walking surface, in- 
cluding walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. Not more 
than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means of egress shall 
be reduced in height by protruding objects. 



11°. Door closers and stops shall not reduce head- 
room to less than 78 inches (1981 mm). 

A barrier shall be provided where the vertical clearance is 
less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high. The leading edge of 
such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maxi- 
mum above the floor. 



A free-standing object 
mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that post or 
pylon more than 12 inches (305 mm) where the lowest point 
of the leading edge is more than 27 inches (686 mm) and less 
than 80 inches (2032 imn) above the walking surface. 
Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts 
or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons 
is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such 
sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (685 mm) maximum 
or 80 inches (2030 mm) minimum above the finish floor or 
ground. 



jj, JUS This requirement shall not apply to sloping 

portions of handrails serving stairs and ramps. 



Structural elements, fix- 
tures or furnishings shall not project horizontally from ei- 
ther side more than 4 inches (102 mm) over any walking 
surface between the heights of 27 inches (686 mm) and 80 
inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. 



imni Handrails serving stairs and ramps are per- 
mitted to protrude 4.5 inches (114 mm) from the wall. 



2003 DSMTERNATIONAL F8RE CODE® 



aEAMS OF EGRESS 




Protruding objects shall not reduce 
the minimum clear width of accessible routes as required in 
Section 1104 of the International Building Code. 



OCCUPANT LOAD 



A Floor siirfaceo Walking surfaces of the means of egress 
shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely attached. 



.5 Elevatiom cfiamgeo Where changes in elevation of less 
than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means of egress, sloped 
surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit 
vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps comply- 
ing with Section 1010 shall be used. Where the difference in el- 
evation is 6 inches (152 nmi) or less, the ramp shall be equipped 
with either handrails or floor finish materials that contrast with 
adjacent floor finish materials. 



1 . A single step with a maximum riser height of 7 inches 
(178 mm) is permitted for buildings with occupancies 
in Groups F, H, R-2 and R-3 as applicable in Section 
1001.1, and Groups S and U at exterior doors not re- 
quired to be accessible by Chapter 1 1 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

2. A stair with a single riser or with two risers and a tread 
is permitted at locations not required to be accessible 
by Chapter 11 of the International Building Code, 
provided that the risers and treads comply with Sec- 
tion 1009.3, the minimum depth of the tread is 13 
inches (330 mm) and at least one handrail complying 
with Section 1009.11 is provided within 30 inches 
(762 mm) of the centerline of the normal path of 
egress travel on the stair. 

3. An aisle serving seating that has a difference in eleva- 
tion less than 12 inches (305 mm) is permitted at loca- 
tions not required to be accessible by Chapter 1 1 of the 
International Building Code, provided that the risers 
and treads comply with Section 1024.11 and the aisle 
is provided with a handrail complying with Section 
1024.13. 

Any change in elevation in a corridor serving 
nonambulatory persons in a Group 1-2 occupancy shall be by 
means of a ramp or sloped walkway. 



f egress comtlmeity. The path of egress travel 
along a means of egress shall not be interrupted by any building 
element other than a means of egress component as specified in 
this chapter. Obstructions shall not be placed in the required 
width of a means of egress except projections permitted by this 
chapter. The required capacity of a means of egress system 
shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel. 



^.7 Elevators, escalators and moving walks. Elevators, 
escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component 
of a required means of egress from any other part of the build- 
ing. 

Exceptiomi Elevators used as an accessible means of egress 
in accordance with Section 1007.4. 



L In determining means of egress 
requirements, the number of occupants for whom means of 
egress facilities shall be provided shall be established by the 
largest number computed in accordance with Sections 
1004.1.1 through 1004.1.3. 



r. The actual number of occupants 
for whom each occupied space, floor or building is de- 
signed. 



. 1 o2. The number of occu- 
pants computed at the rate of one occupant per unit of area as 
prescribed in Table 1004. 1 .2. 

TABLE 1004.1.2 
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWA^SCES PER OCCUPANT 



OCCUPASVSCY 


FLOOR AREA IN SQ. FT. 
PER OCCUPANT 


Agricultural building 


300 gross 


Aircraft hangars 


500 gross 


Airport terminal 
Baggage claim 
Baggage handling 
Concourse 
Waiting areas 


20 gross 
300 gross 
100 gross 

15 gross 


Assembly 
Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc.) 


1 1 gross 


Assembly with fixed seats 


See Section 1004.7 


Assembly without fixed seats 

Concentrated (chairs only — not fixed) 

Standing space 

Unconcentrated (tables and chairs) 


7 net 
5 net 
15 net 


Bowling centers, allow 5 persons for each lane 
including 15 feet of runway, and for additional 
areas 


7 net 


Business areas 


100 gross 


Courtrooms — other than fixed seating areas 


40 net 


Dormitories 


50 gross 


Educational 
Classroom area 
Shops and other vocational room areas 


20 net 
50 net 


Exercise rooms 


50 gross 


H-5 Fabrication and manufacturing areas 


200 gross 


Industrial areas 


100 gross 


Institutional areas 

Inpatient treatment areas 
Outpatient areas 
Sleeping areas 


240 gross 
100 gross 
120 gross 


Kitchens, commercial 


200 gross 


Library 
Reading rooms 
Stack area 


50 net 
100 gross 


Locker rooms 


50 gross 


Mercantile 

Areas on other floors 
Basement and grade floor areas 
Storage, stock, shipping areas 


60 gross 
30 gross 
300 gross 



(continued) 



2003 1^3TERNATJ0NAL FDRE CODE® 



1EANS OF EGRESS 



TABLE 1004,1.2— continued 
lAXllViUlVi FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT 



OCCUPANCY 


FLOOR AREA IN SO. FT. 
PER OCCUPANT 


Parking garages 


200 gross 


Residential 


200 gross 


Skating rinks, swimming pools 
Rink and pool 
Decks 


50 gross 
15 gross 


Stages and platforms 


15 net 


Accessory storage areas, mechanical 
equipment room 


300 gross 


Warehouses 


500 gross 



For SI: 1 square foot ^ 0.0929 m^ 



.1.3 Number by comblnatioe. Where occupants from 
accessory spaces egress through a primary area, the calcu- 
lated occupant load for the primary space shall include the 
total occupant load of the primary space plus the number of 
occupants egressing through it from the accessory space. 



1.2 Increased occupant load. The occupant load permit- 
ted in any building or portion thereof is permitted to be in- 
creased from that number established for the occupancies in 
Table 1004. 1 .2 provided that all other requirements of the code 
are also met based on such modified number and the occupant 
load shall not exceed one occupant per 5 square feet (0.47 m^) 
of occupiable floor space. Where required by the fire code offi- 
cial, an approved aisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram 
substantiating any increase in occupant load shall be submit- 
ted. Where required by the fire code official, such diagram shall 
be posted. 



1.3 Posting of occupant load. Every room or space that is 
an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load of the 
room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit 
or exit access doorway from the room or space. Posted signs 
shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be 
maintained by the owner or authorized agent. 

1004.4 Exiting from multiple levels. Where exits serve more 
than one floor, only the occupant load of each floor considered 
individually shall be used in computing the required capacity 
of the exits at that floor, provided that the exit capacity shall not 
decrease in the direction of egress travel. 



1.5 Egress convergence. Where means of egress from 
floors above and below converge at an intermediate level, the 
capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence 
shall not be less than the sum of the two floors. 



1.6 Mezzanine levels. The occupant load of a mezzanine 
level with egress onto a room or area below shall be added to 
that room or area's occupant load, and the capacity of the exits 
shall be designed for the total occupant load thus estabhshed. 



.7 Fixed seating. For areas having fixed seats and aisles, 
the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed 
seats installed therein. 

For areas having fixed searing without dividing arms, the oc- 
cupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on 
one person for each 18 inches (457 mm) of seating length. 



The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one 
person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length mea- 
sured at the backrest of the seating booth. 

1004.8 Outdoor areas. Yards, patios, courts and similar out- 
door areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants 
shall be provided with means of egress as required by this chap- 
ter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be assigned 
by the fire code official in accordance with the anticipated use. 
Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the 
occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the 
outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress re- 
quirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the oc- 
cupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas. 

Exceptions: 

1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the 
building need only have one means of egress. 

2. Both outdoor areas associated with Group R-3 and in- 
dividual dwelling units of Group R-2, as applicable in 
Section 1001.1. 

1004.9 Multiple occupancies. Where a building contains two 
or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall 
apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of 
that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize portions of 
the same means of egress system, those egress components 
shall meet the more stringent requirements of all occupancies 
that are served. 



[B]SECT8ON1005 
EGRESS WIDTH 

)5.1 Minimum required egress width. The means of 
egress width shall not be less than required by this section. The 
total width of means of egress in inches (mm) shall not be less 
than the total occupant load served by the means of egress mul- 
tiplied by the factors in Table 1005. 1 and not less than specified 
elsewhere in this code. Multiple means of egress shall be sized 
such that the loss of any one means of egress shall not reduce 
the available capacity to less than 50 percent of the required ca- 
pacity. The maximum capacity required from any story of a 
building shall be maintained to the termination of the means of 
egress. 

Exception; Means of egress complying with Section 1024. 

TABLE 1005.1 
EGRESS WIDTH PER OCCUPANT SERVED 



OCCUPANCY 


WITHOUT SPRINKLER SYSTEM 


WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM^ 


Stairways 
(Inches per 
occupant) 


Other egress 

components 

(Inches per 

occupant) 


Stairways 
(Inches per 
occupant) 


Other egress 

components 

(Inches per 

occupant) 


Occupancies 
other than those 
listed below 


0.3 


0.2 


0.2 


0.15 


Hazardous: H-1, 
H-2, H-3 and H-4 


0.7 


0.4 


0.3 


0.2 


Institutional: 1-2 


Not 
Apphcable 


Not 
Applicable 


0.3 


0.2 



• 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinider system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1. lor 903.3.1.2. 



100 



2003 SNTERNATIOMAL FSRE CODE® 



^EANS OF EGRESS 




Doors opening into the path of 
egress travel shall not reduce the required width to less than 
one-half during the course of the swing. When fully open, the 
door shall not project more than 7 inches (178 mm) into the re- 
quired width. 



m; The restrictions on a door swing shall not apply 
to doors within individual dwelling units and sleeping units 
of Group R-2 and dwelling units of Group R-3. 



Eo Emergency lighting facilities 
shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is at least 
an average of 1 foot-candle (11 lux) and a minimum at any 
point of 0.1 foot-candle (1 lux) measured along the path of 
egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to 
dechne to 0.6 foot-candle (6 lux) average and a minimum at any 
point of 0.06 foot-candle (0.6 lux) at the end of the emergency 
lighting time duration. A maximum-to-minimum illumination 
uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded. 



ECTIOM 100S 



n 



CiEANS OF EGRES: 

jol Illemiinatloini required. The means of egress, including 
the exit discharge, shall be illuminated at all times the building 
space served by the means of egress is occupied. 

ExcepMoms; 

1. Occupancies in Group U. 

2. Aisle accessways in Group A. 

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-1, R-2 
and R-3. 

4. Sleeping units of Group I occupancies. 

1(01(16.2 IlluiimmatioE level. The means of egress illumination 
level shall not be less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the floor 
level. 



m: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls 
and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the 
floor level is permitted to be reduced during performances to 
not less than 0.2 foot-candle (2.15 lux) provided that the re- 
quired illumination is automatically restored upon activa- 
tion of a premise's fire alarm system where such system is 
provided. 



IllMmmlnaftsonii emergemicy power. The power supply for 
means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the 
premise's electrical supply. 

In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical 
:J system shall automatically illuminate the following areas: 

1 . Exit access corridors, passageways and aisles in rooms 
and spaces which require two or more means of egress. 

2. Exit access corridors and exit stairways located in build- 
ings required to have two or more exits. 

3. Exterior egress components at other than the level of exit 
discharge until exit discharge is accomplished for build- 
ings required to have two or more exits. 

4. Interior exit discharge elements, as permitted in Section 
1023.1, in buildings required to have two or more exits. 

5. The portion of the exterior exit discharge immediately 
adjacent to exit discharge doorways in buildings required 
to have two or more exits. 

The emergency power system shall provide power for a du- 
ration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage 
batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installa- 
tion of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with 
Section 604. 



)ff egress reqenred. Accessible 
means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible 
spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible 
means of egress. Where more than one means of egress is re- 
quired by Section 1014.1 or 1018.1 from any accessible space, 
each accessible portion of the space shall be served by not less 
than two accessible means of egress. 

nss 

Accessible means of egress are not required in alter- 
ations to existing buildings. 

One accessible means of egress is required from an 
accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1007.3 or 1007.4. 

In assembly spaces with sloped floors, one accessible 
means of egress is required from a space where the 
common path of travel of the accessible route for ac- 
cess to the wheelchair spaces meets the requirements 
in Section 1024.8. 



3. 



Is. Each required accessi- Q 
ble means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and 
shall consist of one or more of the following components: 

1. Accessible routes complying with Section 1104 of the 
International Building Code. 

2. Stairways within exit enclosures complying with Sec- 
tions 1007.3 and 1019.1. 

3. Elevators complying with Section 1007.4. 

4. Platform Hfts complying with Section 1007.5. □ 

5. Horizontal exits. 

6. Smoke barriers. 

Exceptnoes: 

1 . Where the exit discharge is not accessible, an exterior 
area for assisted rescue must be provided in accor- 
dance with Section 1007.8. 

2. Where the exit stairway is open to the exterior, the ac- 
cessible means of egress shall include either an area of 
refuge in accordance with Section 1007.6 or an exte- 
rior area for assisted rescue in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1007.8. 

IdlOT.lol Banlldirngs with foinr or more stories. In buildings 
where a required accessible floor is four or more stories 
above or below a level of exit discharge, at least one required 



2003 INTERSSIATDONAL FIRE CODE® 



101 



1EANS OF EGRESS 



accessible means of egress shall be an elevator complying 
with Section 1007.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 
shall not be required on floors provided with a hor- 
izontal exit and located at or above the level of exit 
discharge. 

2. In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 
shall not be required on floors provided with a 
ramp conforming to the provisions of Section 
1010. 

1007.3 Enclosed exit stairways. An enclosed exit stairway, to 
be considered part of an accessible means of egress, shall have 
a clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum between hand- 
rails and shall either incorporate an area of refuge within an en- 
larged floor-level landing or shall be accessed from either an 
area of refuge complying with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal 
exit. 

Exceptions; 

1. Open exit stairways as permitted by Section 1019.1 
are permitted to be considered part of an accessible 
means of egress. 

2. The area of refuge is not required at open stairways 
that are permitted by Section 1019.1 in buildings or 
facilities that are equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails and the area of refuge is not required at exit 
stairways in buildings or facilities equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system installed in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

4. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails is not required for enclosed exit stairways 
accessed from a horizontal exit. 

5 . Areas of refuge are not required at exit stairways serv- 
ing open parking garages. 

1007.4 Elevators. An elevator to be considered part of an ac- 
cessible means of egress shall comply with the emergency op- 
eration and signaling device requirements of Section 2.27 of 
ASME A17.1. Standby power shall be provided in accordance 
with Sections 2702 and 3003 of the International Building 
Code. The elevator shall be accessed from either an area of ref- 
uge complying with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal exit. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Elevators are not required to be accessed from an area 
of refuge or horizontal exit in open parking garages. 

2. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an area 
of refuge or horizontal exit in buildings and facilities 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 



Platform (wheelchair) lifts shall not 
serve as part of an accessible means of egress, except where al- 
lowed as part of a required accessible route in Section 1 109.7 of 
the International Building Code. Platform lifts in accordance 
with Section 604 shall be installed in accordance with ASME 
A18.1. Standby power shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 604.2 for platform lifts permitted to serve as part of a 
means of egress. 




.6 Areas of refuge. Every required area of refuge shall be 
accessible from the space it serves by an accessible means of 
egress. The maximum travel distance from any accessible 
space to an area of refuge shall not exceed the travel distance 
permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Section 
1015.1. Every required area of refuge shall have direct access to 
an enclosed stairway complying with Sections 1007.3 and 
1019.1 or an elevator complying with Section 1007.4. Where 
an elevator lobby is used as an area of refuge, the shaft and 
lobby shall comply with Section 1019.1.8 for smokeproof en- 
closures except where the elevators are in an area of refuge 
formed by a horizontal exit or smoke barrier. 



.6.1 Size. Each area of refuge shall be sized to accom- 
modate one wheelchair space of 30 inches by 48 inches (762 
mm by 1219 mm) for each 200 occupants or portion thereof, 
based on the occupant load of the area of refuge and areas 
served by the area of refuge. Such wheelchair spaces shall 
not reduce the required means of egress width. Access to 
any of the required wheelchair spaces in an area of refuge 
shall not be obstructed by more than one adjoining wheel- 
chair space. 



.6,2 Separation. Each area of refuge shall be separated 
from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier comply- 
ing with Section 709 of the International Building Code. 
Each area of refuge shall be designed to minimize the intru- 
sion of smoke. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Areas of refuge located within a stairway enclo- 
sure. 

2. Areas of refuge where the area of refuge and areas 
served by the area of refuge are equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

1(D07.6.3 Two-way communication. Areas of refuge shall 
be provided with a two-way communication system be- 
tween the area of refuge and a central control point. If the 
central control point is not constantly attended, the area of 
refuge shall also have controlled access to a public tele- 
phone system. Location of the central control point shall be 
approved by the fire department. The two-way communica- 
tion system shall include both audible and visible signals. 



IS. In areas of refuge that have a 
two-way emergency communications system, instructions 
on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be 
posted adjoining the communications system. The instruc- 
tions shall include all of the following: 

1. Directions to find other means of egress. 

2. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as 
possible, unless they are assisting others. 



102 



2003 SNTERNATSONAL FIRE CODE® 



lEANS OF EGRESS 



3. Information on planned availability of assistance in 
the use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators 
and how to summon such assistance. 

4. Directions for use of the emergency communications 
system. 

.5 Memtfficatioiio Each door providing access to an 
area of refuge from an adjacent floor area shall be identified 
by a sign complying with ICC A117.1, stating: AREA OF 
REFUGE, and including the International Symbol of Ac- 
cessibility. Where exit sign illumination is required by Sec- 
tion 1011.2, the area of refuge sign shall be illuminated. 
Additionally, tactile signage complying with ICC A117.1 
shall be located at each door to an area of refuge. 



.7 Sigmage. At exits and elevators serving a required ac- 
cessible space but not providing an approved accessible means 
of egress, signage shall be installed indicating the location of 
accessible means of egress. 



I rescine. The exterior area for 
assisted rescue must be open to the outside air and meet the re- 
quirements of Section 1007.6.1. Separation walls shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 704 for exterior walls. Where 
walls or openings are between the area for assisted rescue and 
the interior of the building, the building exterior walls within 
10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated wall or unpro- 
tected opening shall be constructed as required for a minimum 
1-hour fire-resistance rating with V4-hour opening protectives. 
This construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a 
point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor level of the area for as- 
sisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower. 

1007«8J OpemmesSo The exterior area for assisted rescue 
shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the 
guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumula- 
tion of smoke or toxic gases. 



.8o2 Extertor exit stairway. Exterior exit stairways 
that are part of the means of egress for the exterior area for 
assisted rescue shall provide a clear width of 48 inches 
(1219 mm) between handrails. 



n. Exterior areas for assisted rescue 
shall have identification as required for area of refuge that 
complies with Section 1007.6.5. 



[BISECTION 1008 
DOORS, GATES AND TURNSTILES 

JS.l Doors. Means of egress doors shall meet the require- 
ments of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system 
shall meet the requirements of this section and Section 1017.2. 
Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than re- 
quired by this code shall meet the requirements of this section. 

Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from 
the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are 
easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting ma- 
terials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of 
egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decora- 
tions or similar materials. 



shall provide a clear width of not less than 32 inches (813 
mm). Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors 
shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, 
with the door open 90 degrees (1 .57 rad). Where this section 
requires a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) and 
a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, 
one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 32 inches 
(813 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf 
shall be 48 inches (1219 nmi) nominal. Means of egress 
doors in an occupancy in Group 1-2 used for the movement 
of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 41 '/2 inches 
(1054 mm). The height of doors shall not be less than 80 
inches (2032 mm). 

ExceptflOMs; 

1 . The minimum and maximum width shall not apply 
to door openings that are not part of the required 
means of egress in occupancies in Groups R-2 and 
R-3 as applicable in Section 1001.1. 

2. Door openings to resident sleeping units in occu- D 
pancies in Group 1-3 shall have a clear width of not 
less than 28 inches (711 mm). 

3. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 
square feet (0.93 m^) in area shall not be limited by 
the minimum width. 

4. Width of door leafs in revolving doors that comply 
with Section 1008.1.3.1 shall not be Umited. 

5. Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in 
height. 

6. Exterior door openings in dwelling units and 
sleeping units, other than the required exit door, 
shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in 
height. 

7. Interior egress doors within a dwelling unit or 
sleeping unit which is not required to be adaptable 
or accessible. 

8. Door openings required to be accessible within 
Type B dwelling units shall have a minimum clear 
width of 3P/4 inches (806 mm). 

1(0)®8.1.1.1 Projectioms into clear widtlh. There shall not 
be projections into the required clear width lower than 34 
inches (864 nrni) above the floor or ground. Projections 
into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 
mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground 
shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm). 



D8.I0I Snze olF doors. The minimum width of each door 
opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and 



swmg. Egress doors shall be side-hinged 
swinging. 

Exceptnomis; 

1. Private garages, office areas, factory and storage 
areas with an occupant load of 10 or less. 

2. Group 1-3 occupancies used as a place of deten- 
tion. 

3. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in 
Groups R-2 and R-3 as applicable in Section 
1001.1. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FDRE CODE® 



H 



1EA^SS OF EGRESS 



4. In other than Group H occupancies, revolving 
doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.1. 

5. In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal 
sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.3 
are permitted in a means of egress. 

6. Power-operated doors in accordance with Section 
1008.1.3.2. 

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where 
serving an occupant load of 50 or more persons or a Group H 
occupancy. 

The opening force for interior side-swinging doors with- 
out closers shall not exceed a 5-pound (22 N) force. For 
other side-swinging, sliding and folding doors, the door 
latch shall release when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) 
force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 
30-pound (133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open 
position when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. Forces 
shall be applied to the latch side. 



rs. Special doors and security grilles 
shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1008.1.3.1 
through 1008.1.3.5. 

s. Revolving doors shall 



1008.1.3.1 

comply with the following: 

1 . Each revolving door shall be capable of collapsing 
into a bookfold position with parallel egress paths 
providing an aggregate width of 36 inches (914 
mm). 

2. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of the foot of or top of stairs or escala- 
tors. A dispersal area shall be provided between 
the stairs or escalators and the revolving doors. 

3. The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving 
door shall not exceed those shown in Table 
1008.1.3.1. 

4. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged 
swinging door which complies with Section 
1008.1 in the same wall and within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of the revolving door. 



TABLE 1008.1.3.1 
REV0LV8NG DOOR SPEEDS 


INSIDE DIAMETER 
(feet-inches) 


POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE 

SPEED CONTROL 

(rpm) 


MANUAL-TYPE 

SPEED CONTROL 

(rpm) 


6-6 


11 


12 


7-0 


10 


11 


7-6 


9 


11 


8-0 


9 


10 


8-6 


8 


9 


9-0 


8 


9 


9-6 


7 


8 


10-0 


7 


8 



1008.1.3.1.1 Egress compoEemt. A revolving door 
used as a component of a means of egress shall com- 
ply with Section 1008.1.3.1 and the following three 
conditions: 

1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for 
more than 50 percent of the required egress ca- 
pacity. 

2. Each revolving door shall be credited with no 
more than a 50-person capacity. 

3. Each revolving door shall be capable of being 
collapsed when a force of not more than 130 
pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 
mm) of the outer edge of a wing. 




D8.1.3.1.2 Otlier thsm egress component. A re- 
volving door used as other than a component of a 
means of egress shall comply with Section 
1008.1.3.1. The collapsing force of a revolving door 
not used as a component of a means of egress shall not 
be more than 180 pounds (801 N). 



For Sr. 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



m A collapsing force in excess of 180 
pounds (801 N) is permitted if the collapsing force 
is reduced to not more than 130 pounds (578 N) 
when at least one of the following conditions is sat- 
isfied: 

1 . There is a power failure or power is removed 
to the device holding the door wings in posi- 
tion. 

2. There is an actuation of the automatic sprin- 
kler system where such system is provided. 

3. There is an actuation of a smoke detection 
system which is installed in accordance with 
Section 907 to provide coverage in areas 
within the building which are within 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) of the revolving doors. 

4. There is an actuation of a manual control 
switch, in an approved location and clearly 
defined, which reduces the holding force to 
below the 130-pound (578 N) force level. 

D8. 1.3.2 Power-operated doors. Where means of 
egress doors are operated by power, such as doors with a 
photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the door upon 
the approach of a person, or doors with power-assisted 
manual operation, the design shall be such that in the 
event of power failure, the door is capable of being 
opened manually to permit means of egress travel or 
closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. 
The forces required to open these doors manually shall 
not exceed those specified in Section 1008.1.2, except 
that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 50 
pounds (220 N). The door shall be capable of swinging 
from any position to the full width of the opening in 
which such door is installed when a force is applied to the 
door on the side from which egress is made. 
Full-power-operated doors shall comply with BHMA 



2003 DliMTERWATlONAL FBRE CODE® 



lEAMS OF EGRESS 




A156.10. Power-assisted and low-energy doors shall 
comply with BHMA A156.19. 



1. Occupancies in Group 1-3. 

2. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Sec- 
tion 1008.1.3.3. 

3. For a biparting door in the emergency breakout 
mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf 
opening shall be exempt from the minimum 
32-inch (813 mm) single-leaf requirement of 
Section 1 008 .1.1, provided a minimum 32-inch 
(813 mm) clear opening is provided when the 
two biparting leaves meeting in the center are 
broken out. 



In other than 
Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors permitted 
to be a component of a means of egress in accordance 
with Exception 5 to Section 1008.1.2 shall comply with 
all of the following criteria: 

1 . The doors shall be power operated and shall be ca- 
pable of being operated manually in the event of 
power failure. 

2. The doors shall be openable by a simple method 
from both sides without special knowledge or ef- 
fort. 

3. The force required to operate the door shall not ex- 
ceed 30 pounds (133 N) to set the door in motion 
and 1 5 pounds (67 N) to close the door or open it to 
the minimum required width. 

4. The door shall be openable with a force not to ex- 
ceed 15 pounds (67 N) when a force of 250 pounds 
( 1 100 N) is applied perpendicular to the door adja- 
cent to the operating device. 

5. The door assembly shall comply with the applica- 
ble fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be 
self-closing or automatic-closing by smoke detec- 
tion, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80 
and shall comply with Section 715 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

6. The door assembly shall have an integrated 
standby power supply. 

7. The door assembly power supply shall be electri- 
cally supervised. 

8. The door shall open to the minimum required 
width within 10 seconds after activation of the op- 
erating device. 

10©8ol,3.4 Access-comtrolled egress doors. The en- 
trance doors in a means of egress in buildings with an oc- 
cupancy in Group A, B, E, M, R-1 or R-2 and entrance 
doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Groups A, B, E, 
M, R-1 and R-2 are permitted to be equipped with an ap- 
proved entrance and egress access control system which 
shall be installed in accordance with all of the following 
criteria: 

1 . A sensor shall be provided on the egress side ar- 
ranged to detect an occupant approaching the 



doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a 
signal from or loss of power to the sensor. 

2. Loss of power to that part of the access control sys- 
tem which locks the doors shall automatically un- 
lock the doors. 

3. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a man- 
ual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 
inches ( 1 1 6 mm to 1 2 1 9 mm) vertically above the 
floor and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the secured 
doors. Ready access shall be provided to the man- 
ual unlocking device and the device shall be 
clearly identified by a sign that reads: PUSH TO 
EXIT. When operated, the manual unlocking de- 
vice shall result in direct interruption of power to 
the lock — independent of the access control sys- 
tem electronics — and the doors shall remain un- 
locked for a minimum of 30 seconds. 

4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, if pro- 
vided, shall automatically unlock the doors, and 
the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm 
system has been reset. 

5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or 
fire detection system, if provided, shall automati- 
cally unlock the doors. The doors shall remain un- 
locked until the fire alarm system has been reset. 

6. Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in 
Group A, B, E or M shall not be secured from the 
egress side during periods that the building is open 
to the general pubhc. 



jSo In Groups B, F, M and S, 
horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permit- 
ted at the main exit and shall be openable from the inside 
without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort 
during periods that the space is occupied. The grilles 
shall remain secured in the full-open position during the 
period of occupancy by the general public. Where two or 
more means of egress are required, not more than 
one-half of the exits or exit access doorways shall be 
equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical security 
grilles. 



There shall be a floor or landing 
on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the 
same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be 
level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to 
have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units hori- 
zontal (2-percent slope). 



1. Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 as applicable in Section 1001 . 1 where 
the following apply: 

1 . 1 . A door is permitted to open at the top step 
of an interior flight of stairs, provided the 
door does not swing over the top step. 

1.2. Screen doors and storm doors are permit- 
ted to swing over stairs or landings. 



2003 INTERMATDONAL FDRE CODE® 



105 



lEANS OF EGRESS 



2. Exterior doors as provided for in Section 1003.5, 
Exception 1, and Section 1017.2, which are not on 
an accessible route. 

3. In Group R-3 occupancies, the landing at an exte- 
rior doorway shall not be more than 7% inches 
(197 mm) below the top of the threshold, provided 
the door, other than an exterior storm or screen 
door, does not swing over the landing. 

4. Variations in elevation due to differences in finish 
materials, but not more than 0.5 inch (12.7 nrni). 

5. Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of 
Type B dwelling units and have impervious sur- 
faces, and that are not more than 4 inches (102 
mm) below the finished floor level of the adjacent 
interior space of the dwelling unit. 

1008.1.5 Landings at doors. Landings shall have a width 
not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever 
is the greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not re- 
duce a required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). 
When a landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, 
doors in any position shall not reduce the landing to less than 
one-half its required width. Landings shall have a length 
measured in the direction of travel of not less than 44 inches 
(1118 mm). 

Exception: Landing length in the direction of travel in 
Group R-3 as applicable in Section 1001.1 and Group U 
and within individual units of Group R-2 as apphcable in 
Section 1001.1, need not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 

1008.1.6 Thresholds. Thresholds at doorways shall not ex- 
ceed 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) in height for sliding doors serving 
dwelling units or 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) for other doors. Raised 
thresholds and floor level changes greater than 0.25 inch 
(6.4 mm) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not 
greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-per- 
cent slope). 

Exceptions The threshold height shall be limited to 7 V4 
inches (197 mm) where the occupancy is Group R-2 or 
R-3 as applicable in Section 1001.1, the door is an exte- 
rior door that is not a component of the required means of 
egress and the doorway is not on an accessible route. 

1008.1.7 Door arrangement. Space between two doors in 
series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum plus the 
width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in series shall 
swing either in the same direction or away from the space 
between doors. 



1 . The minimum distance between horizontal sliding 
power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 inches 
(1219 mm). 

2. Storm and screen doors serving individual dwell- 
ing units in Groups R-2 and R-3 as applicable in 
Section 1 00 1 . 1 need not be spaced 48 inches (1219 
mm) from the other door. 

3. Doors within individual dwelling units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 as apphcable in Section 1001.1 other 
than within Type A dwelling units. 



1008.1.8 Door operations. Except as specifically permitted 
by this section egress doors shall be readily openable from 
the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge 
or effort. 

1008.1.8.1 Hardware. Door handles, pulls, latches, 
locks and other operating devices on doors required to be 
accessible by Chapter 1 1 of the International Building 
Code shall not require tight grasping, tight pinching or 
twisting of the wrist to operate. 




)8.1.8,2 Hardware height. Door handles, pulls, 
latches, locks and other operating devices shall be in- 
stalled 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches 
(1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks 
used only for security purposes and not used for normal 
operation are permitted at any height. 

1008.1.8.3 Locks and latches. Locks and latches shall 
be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of 
the following exists: 

1 . Places of detention or restraint. 

2. In buildings in occupancy Group A having an oc- 
cupant load of 300 or less, Groups B, F, M and S, 
and in churches, the main exterior door or doors are 
permitted to be equipped with key-operated lock- 
ing devices from the egress side provided: 

2.1. The locking device is readily distinguish- 
able as locked, 

2.2. A readily visible durable sign is posted on 
the egress side on or adjacent to the door 
stating: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UN- 
LOCKED WHEN BUILDING IS OC- 
CUPIED. The sign shall be in letters 1 inch 
(25 mm) high on a contrasting background, 

2.3. The use of the key-operated locking device 
is revokable by the fire code official for due 
cause. 

3 . Where egress doors are used in pairs, approved au- 
tomatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be used, 
provided that the door leaf having the automatic 
flush bolts has no doorknob or surface-mounted 
hardware. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units 
of Group R occupancies having an occupant load 
of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a 
night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided 
such devices are openable from the inside without 
the use of a key or tool. 



)8. 1.8.4 Bolt locks. Manually operated flush bolts or 
surface bolts are not permitted. 



ions; 

1 . On doors not required for egress in individual 
dwelling units or sleeping units. 

2. Where a pair of doors serves a storage or equip- 
ment room, manually operated edge- or sur- 
face-mounted bolts are permitted on the 
inactive leaf. 



k 



106 



2003 SNTERNATIONAL F8RE CODE® 



1EAMS OF EGRESS 



m 



1008olo8o5 Umlatchmgo The unlatching of any leaf shall 
not require more than one operation. 



m: More than one operation is permitted for 
unlatching doors in the following locations: 

1 . Places of detention or restraint. 

2. Where manually operated bolt locks are permit- 
ted by Section 1008.1.8.4. 

3. Doors with automatic flush bolts as permitted 
by Section 1008.1.8.3, Exception 3. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling units and 
guestrooms of Group R occupancies as permit- 
ted by Section 1008.1.8.3, Exception 4. 



1®08.1.8.6 Delayed egress locks. Approved, listed, de- 
layed egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on 
doors serving any occupancy except Group A, E and H 
occupancies in buildings that are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or 
heat detection system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907, provided that the doors unlock in accordance 
with Items 1 through 6 below. A building occupant shall 
not be required to pass through more than one door 
equipped with a delayed egress lock before entering an 
exit. 

1 . The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic 
sprinkler system or automatic fire detection sys- 
tem. 

2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling 
the lock or lock mechanism. 

3. The door locks shall have the capability of being 
unlocked by a signal from the fire command center. 

4. The initiation of an irreversible process which will 
release the latch in not more than 15 seconds when 
a force of not more than 15 pounds (67 N) is ap- 
plied for 1 second to the release device. Initiation 
of the irreversible process shall activate an audible 
signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the door 
lock has been released by the application of force 
to the releasing device, relocking shall be by man- 
ual means only. 



m; Where approved, a delay of not 
more than 30 seconds is permitted. 

5. A sign shall be provided on the door located above 
and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the release de- 
vice reading: PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. 
DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 [30] SECONDS. 

6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door, 

1®(Q)8. 1.8.7 Stairway doors. Interior stairway means of 
egress doors shall be openable from both sides without 
the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. 

ExcepMoms: 

1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable 
from the egress side and shall only be locked 
from the opposite side. 



2. This section shall not apply to doors arranged in 
accordance with Section 403. 12 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

3. In stairways serving not more than four stories, 
doors are permitted to be locked from the side 
opposite the egress side, provided they are 
openable from the egress side. 

10CD8,1<,9 Pamk amd ire exit hardware. Where panic and 
fire exit hardware is installed, it shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . The actuating portion of the releasing device shall ex- 
tend at least one-half of the door leaf width. 

2. A maximum unlatching force of 15 pounds (67 N). 

Each door in a means of egress from an occupancy of 
Group A or E having an occupant load of 100 or more and 
any occupancy of Group H-1, H-2, H-3 or H-5 shall not be 
provided with a latch or lock unless it is panic hardware or 
fire exit hardware. 

If balanced doors are used and panic hardware is re- 
quired, the panic hardware shall be the push-pad type and 
the pad shall not extend more than one-half the width of the 
door measured from the latch side. 



is. Gates serving the means of egress system shall 
comply with the requirements of this section. Gates used as a 
component in a means of egress shall conform to the apphcable 
requirements for doors. 



mi Horizontal sHding or swinging gates exceeding 
the 4-foot (1219 mm) maximum leaf width limitation are 
permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium. 

1®®§.2.1 Stadrams. Panic hardware is not required on gates 
surrounding stadiums where such gates are under constant 
immediate supervision while the public is present, and fur- 
ther provided that safe dispersal areas based on 3 square feet 
(0.28 m^) per occupant are located between the fence and 
enclosed space. Such required safe dispersal areas shall not 
be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the enclosed 
space. See Section 1017 for means of egress from safe dis- 
persal areas. 

1008.3 Ibrastiles. Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict 
travel to one direction shall not be placed so as to obstruct any 
required means of egress. 

Exceptioe: Each turnstile or similar device shall be credited 
with no more than a 50-person capacity where all of the fol- 
lowing provisions are met: 

1 . Each device shall turn free in the direction of egress 
travel when primary power is lost, and upon the man- 
ual release by an employee in the area. 

2. Such devices are not given credit for more than 50 
percent of the required egress capacity. 

3. Each device is not more than 39 inches (991 mm) 
high. 

4. Each device has at least 16.5 inches (419 mm) clear 
width at and below a height of 39 inches (991 mm) 
and at least 22 inches (559 mm) clear width at heights 
above 39 inches (991 mm). 



C=] 



2003 BNTERNATBONAL FIRE CODE® 



107 



lEANS OF EGRESS 



Where located as part of an accessible route, turnstiles 
shall have at least 36 inches (914 mm) clear at and below 
a height of 34 inches (864 mm), at least 32 inches (813 
mm) clear width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 
inches (2032 mm) and shall consist of a mechanism other 
than a revolving device. 

1008.3.1 High turnstile. Turnstiles more than 39 inches 
(991 mm) high shall meet the requirements for revolving 
doors. 

1008.3.2 Additional door. Where serving an occupant load 
greater than 300, each turnstile that is not portable shall have 
a side-hinged swinging door which conforms to Section 
1008.1 within 50 feet (15 240 mm). 



[BISECTION 1009 
STAIRWAYS AND HANDRAILS 

1009.1 Stairway width. The width of stairways shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not 
be less than 44 inches (1118 mm). See Section 1007.3 for ac- 
cessible means of egress stairways. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Stairways serving an occupant load of 50 or less shall 
have a width of not less than 36 inches (914 mm). 

2. Spiral stairways as provided for in Section 1009.9. 

3. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1024. 

4. Where a stairway lift is installed on stairways serving 
occupancies in Group R-3, or within dwelling units in 
occupancies in Group R-2, both as applicable in Sec- 
tion 1001.1 a clear passage width not less than 20 
inches (508 mm) shall be provided. If the seat and 
platform can be folded when not in use, the distance 
shall be measured from the folded position. 

1009.2 Headroom. Stairways shall have a minimum head- 
room clearance of 80 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically 
from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such headroom 
shall be continuous above the stairway to the point where the 
line intersects the landing below, one tread depth beyond the 
bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be maintained the 
full width of the stairway and landing. 

Exception: Spiral stairways complying with Section 
1009.9 are permitted a 78-inch (1981 mm) headroom clear- 
ance. 

1009.3 Stair treads and risers. Stair riser heights shall be 7 
inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. 
Stair tread depths shall be 1 1 inches (279 mm) minimum. The 
riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading 
edges of adjacent treads. The greatest riser height within any 
flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 
inch (9.5 nmi). The tread depth shall be measured horizontally 
between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adja- 
cent treads and at right angle to the tread's leading edge. The 
greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed 
the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). Winder treads 
shall have a minimum tread depth of 1 1 inches (279 mm) mea- 
sured at a right angle to the tread's leading edge at a point 12 
inches (305 mm) from the side where the treads are narrower 



and a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm). The great- 
est winder tread depth at the 1 2-inch (305 mm) walk line within 
any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 
0.375 inch (9.5 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Circular stairways in accordance with Section 1009.7. 

2. Winders in accordance with Section 1009.8. 

3. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1009.9. 

4. Aisle stairs in assembly seating areas where the stair 
pitch or slope is set, for sighdine reasons, by the slope 
of the adjacent seating area in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1024.11.2. 

5. In occupancies in Group R-3, as apphcable in Section 
1001.1, within dwelling units in occupancies in 
Group R-2, as applicable in Section 1001.1, and in oc- 
cupancies in Group U, which are accessory to an oc- 
cupancy in Group R-3, as applicable in Section 
100 1 . 1 , the maximum riser height shall be 7.75 inches 
(197 mm) and the minimum tread depth shall be 10 
inches (254 mm), the minimum winder tread depth at 
the walk line shall be 10 inches (254 mm), and the 
minimum winder tread depth shall be 6 inches (152 
mm). A nosing not less than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) but 
not more than 1.25 inches (32 mm) shall be provided 
on stairways with solid risers where the tread depth is 
less than 1 1 inches (279 mm). 

6. See the International Existing Building Code for the 
replacement of existing stairways. 

1009.3.1 Dimensional uniformity. Stair treads and risers 
shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between 
the largest and smallest riser or between the largest and 
smallest tread shall not exceed 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) in any 
flight of stairs. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Nonuniform riser dimensions of aisle stairs com- 
plying with Section 1024.11.2. 

2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with Sec- 
tion 1009.8, differing from rectangular treads in 
the same stairway flight. 

Where the bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping public 
way, walkway or driveway having an established grade and 
serving as a landing, the bottom or top riser is permitted to 
be reduced along the slope to less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
height with the variation in height of the bottom or top riser 
not to exceed one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-per- 
cent slope) of stairway width. The nosings or leading edges 
of treads at such nonuniform height risers shall have a dis- 
tinctive marking stripe, different from any other nosing 
marking provided on the stair flight. The distinctive mark- 
ing stripe shall be visible in descent of the stair and shall 
have a slip-resistant surface. Marking stripes shall have a 
width of at least 1 inch (25 mm) but not more than 2 inches 
(51 mm). 

1009.3.2 Profile. The radius of curvature at the leading edge 
of the tread shall be not greater than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 
Beveling of nosings shall not exceed 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 



!• 



108 



2003 INTERMATIOIMAL FIRE CODE® 



SEAMS OF EGRESS 




Risers shall be solid and vertical or sloped from the under- 
side of the leading edge of the tread above at an angle not 
more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. The lead- 
ing edge (nosings) of treads shall project not more than 1 .25 
inches (32 mm) beyond the tread below and all projections 
of the leading edges shall be of uniform size, including the 
leading edge of the floor at the top of a flight. 

ExcepMomis: 

1 . Solid risers are not required for stairways that are 
not required to comply with Section 1007.3, pro- 
vided that the opening between treads does not per- 
mit the passage of a sphere with a diameter of 4 
inches (102 mm). 

2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in 
Group 1-3. 

^.4 Stairway lamdliinigs. There shall be a floor or landing at 
the top and bottom of each stairway. The width of landings shall 
not be less than the width of stairways they serve. Every landing 
shall have a minimum dimension measured in the direction of 
travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need 
not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) where the stairway has a 
straight run. 



1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1024. 

2. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the 
landing to less than one-half the required width. When 
fully open, the door shall not project more than 7 
inches (178 nmn) into a landing. 

,5 Stairway comstractioim. All stairways shall be built of 
materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of 
construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall 
be permitted for all types of construction. 



.1 Stairway walkimg simrlTace. The walking surface 
of treads and landings of a stairway shall not be sloped 
steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-per- 
cent slope) in any direction. Stairway treads and landings 
shall have a solid surface. Finish floor surfaces shall be se- 
curely attached. 



ii: In Group F, H and S occupancies, other than 
areas of parking structures accessible to the public, open- 
ings in treads and landings shall not be prohibited pro- 
vided a sphere with a diameter of 1 Vg inches (29 mm) 
cannot pass through the opening. 



IS. Outdoor stairways and out- 
door approaches to stairways shall be designed so that water 
will not accumulate on walking surfaces. In other than occu- 
pancies in Group R-3, and occupancies in Group U that are 
accessory to an occupancy in Group R-3, treads, platforms 
and landings that are part of exterior stairways in climates 
subject to snow or ice shall be protected to prevent the accu- 
mulation of same. 



isSo A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical 
rise greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or 
landings. 

Exceptions Aisle stairs complying with Section 1024. 

l(D09o7 Circular stairways. Circular stairways shall have a 
minimum tread depth and a maximum riser height in accor- 
dance with Section 1009.3 and the smaller radius shall not be 
less than twice the width of the stairway. The minimum tread 
depth measured 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrower end of 
the tread shall not be less than 1 1 inches (279 mm). The mini- 
mum tread depth at the narrow end shall not be less than 10 
inches (254 mm). 



m: For occupancies in Group R-3, and within indi- 
vidual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, both as 
applicable in Section 1001.1. 



rs. Winders are not permitted in means of egress 
stairways except within a dwelling unit. 

l(0iO9.9 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are permitted to be 
used as a component in the means of egress only within dwell- 
ing units or from a space not more than 250 square feet (23 m^) 
in area and serving not more than five occupants, or from gal- 
leries, catwalks and gridirons in accordance with Section 
1014.6. 

A spiral stairway shall have a 7.5-inch (191 mm) minimum 
clear tread depth at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrow 
edge. The risers shall be sufficient to provide a headroom of 78 
inches (1981 mm) minimum, but riser height shall not be more 
than 9.5 inches (241 mm). The minimum stairway width shall 
be 26 inches (660 mm). 



D) Altenmatninig tread devices. Alternating tread devices 
are limited to an element of a means of egress in buildings of 
Groups F, H and S from a mezzanine not more than 250 square 
feet (23 m^) in area and which serves not more than five occu- 
pants; in buildings of Group 1-3 from a guard tower, observa- 
tion station or control room not more than 250 square feet (23 
m^) in area and for access to unoccupied roofs. 

]l©(0)9ol(I])<,l Handrails of altermatiing tread devices. Hand- 
rails shall be provided on both sides of alternating tread de- 
vices and shall conform to Section 1009.1 1. 



0).2 Treads of altenraatimg tread devices. Alter- 
nating tread devices shall have a minimum projected tread 
of 5 inches (127 mm), a minimum tread depth of 8.5 inches 
(216 mm), a minimum tread width of 7 inches (178 mm) and 
a maximum riser height of 9.5 inches (241 mm). The initial 
tread of the device shall begin at the same elevation as the 
platform, landing or floor surface. 



ni: Alternating tread devices used as an element 
of a means of egress in buildings from a mezzanine area 
not more than 250 square feet (23 m^) in area which 
serves not more than five occupants shall have a mini- 
mum projected tread of 8.5 inches (216 mm) with a mini- 
mum tread depth of 10.5 inches (267 mm). The rise to the 
next alternating tread surface should not be more than 8 
inches (203 mm). 



2003 BMTERWATIIOSMAL FDRE CODE® 



109 



1EANS OF EGRESS 



.11 Haodrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each 
side. Handrails shall be adequate in strength and attachment in 
accordance with Section 1607.7 of the International Building 
Code. Handrails for ramps, where required by Section 1010.8, 
shall comply with this section. 

Exceptions: 

1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1024 provided 
with a center handrail need not have additional hand- 
rails. 

2. Stairways within dwelling units, spiral stairways and 
aisle stairs serving seating only on one side are per- 
mitted to have a handrail on one side only. 

3. Decks, patios and walkways that have a single change 
in elevation where the landing depth on each side of 
the change of elevation is greater than what is required 
for a landing do not require handrails. 

4. In Group R-3 occupancies, a change in elevation con- 
sisting of a single riser at an entrance or egress door 
does not require handrails. 

5. Changes in room elevations of only one riser within 
dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 and 
R-3 occupancies do not require handrails. 

1009.11.1 Height, Handrail height, measured above stair 
tread nosings, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be uni- 
form, not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 
inches (965 mm). 

1009.11.2 Intermediate handrails. Intermediate handrails 
are required so that all portions of the stairway width re- 
quired for egress capacity are within 30 inches (762 mm) of 
a handrail. On monumental stairs, handrails shall be located 
along the most direct path of egress travel. 

1009.11.3 Haedral! graspaMIIty. Handrails with a circular 
cross section shall have an outside diameter of at least 1 .25 
inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (5 1 mm) or 
shall provide equivalent graspability. If the handrail is not 
circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 
inches (102 mm) and not greater than 6.25 inches (160 mm) 
with a maximum cross-section dimension of 2.25 inches (57 
mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 
mm). 

1009.11.4 Coetseeity, Handrail-gripping surfaces shall be 
continuous, without interruption by newel posts or other ob- 
structions. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Handrails within dwelling units are permitted to be 
interrupted by a newel post at a stair landing. 

2. Within a dwelling unit, the use of a volute, turnout 
or starting easing is allowed on the lowest tread. 

3. Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the bot- 
tom surface of the handrail that do not project hori- 
zontally beyond the sides of the handrail within 1 .5 
inches (38 mm) of the bottom of the handrail shall 
not be considered to be obstructions and provided 
further that for each 0.5 inch (13 mm) of additional 
handrail perimeter dimension above 4 inches (102 
mm), the vertical clearance dimension of 1.5 



inches (38 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced by 
0.125 inch (3 mm). 

1,5 Handrail extensions. Handrails shall return to a 
wall, guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to 
the handrail of an adjacent stair flight. Where handrails are 
not continuous between flights, the handrails shall extend 
horizontally at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond the top riser 
and continue to slope for the depth of one tread beyond the 
bottom riser. 



li 



1. Handrails within a dweUing unit that is not re- 
quired to be accessible need extend only from the 
top riser to the bottom riser. 

2. Aisle handrails in Group A occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 1024.13. 

,11,6 Clearance. Clear space between a handrail and a 
wall or other surface shall be a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 
mm). A handrail and a wall or other surface adjacent to the 
handrail shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements. 



L7 Stairway projections. Projections into the re- 
quired width at each handrail shall not exceed 4.5 inches 
(114 mm) at or below the handrail height. Projections into 
the required width shall not be limited above the minimum 
headroom height required in Section 1009.2. 



i roof. In buildings four or more stories in 
height above grade, one stairway shall extend to the roof sur- 
face, unless the roof has a slope steeper than four units vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope). In buildings without 
an occupied roof, access to the roof from the top story shall be 
permitted to be by an alternating tread device. 

1009.12,1 Roof access. Where a stairway is provided to a 
roof, access to the roof shall be provided through a pent- 
house complying with Section 1509.2 of the International 
Building Code. 

Exception: In buildings without an occupied roof, ac- 
cess to the roof shall be permitted to be a roof hatch or 
trap door not less than 16 square feet (1.5 m^) in area and 
having a minimum dimension of 2 feet (610 mm). 



I]SEI 



).l Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
ramps used as a component of a means of egress. 



1 . Other than ramps that are part of the accessible routes 
providing access in accordance with Sections 
1108.2.2 through 1108.2.4.1 of the International 
Building Code, ramped aisles within assembly rooms 
or spaces shall comply with the provisions in Section 
1024.11. 

2. Curb ramps shall comply with ICC All 7.1. 

3. Vehicle ramps in parking garages for pedestrian exit 
access shall not be required to comply with Sections 
1010.3 through 1010.9 when they are not an accessi- 
ble route serving accessible parking spaces, other re- 



i10 



2003 ffSSTERNATlONAL FIRE CODE® 



lEANS OF EGRESS 



m 



quired accessible elements or part of an accessible 
means of egress. 

Slope. Ramps used as part of a means of egress shall 
have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 12 
units horizontal (8-percent slope). The slope of other ramps 
shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight units horizon- 
tal (12. 5 -percent slope). 



tmmi Aisle ramp slope in occupancies of Group A 
shall comply with Section 1024.11. 



The slope measured perpendicular to the 
direction of travel of a ramp shall not be steeper than one unit 
vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope). 



rise. The rise for any ramp run shall be 30 
inches (762 mm) maximum. 



imeesioES. The minimum dimensions of 
means of egress ramps shall comply with Sections 1010.5.1 
through 1010.5.3. 



.1 WMtln. The minimum width of a means of egress 
ramp shall not be less than that required for corridors by 
Section 1016.2. The clear width of a ramp and the clear 
width between handrails, if provided, shall be 36 inches 
(914 nmi) minimum. 



L The minimum headroom in all parts 
of the means of egress ramp shall not be less than 80 inches 
(2032 mm). 



as. Means of egress ramps shall not re- 
duce in width in the direction of egress travel. Projections 
into the required ramp and landing width are prohibited. 
Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the clear 
width to less than 42 inches (1067 mm). 



|s. Ramps shall have landings at the bottom and 
top of each ramp, points of turning, entrance, exits and at doors. 
Landings shall comply with Sections 1010.6.1 through 
1010.6.5. 



.6.1 Slope. Landings shall have a slope not steeper than 
one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in 
any direction. Changes in level are not permitted. 



n. The landing shall be at least as wide as the 
widest ramp run adjoining the landing. 



]).(5.3 Lemgtlh. The landing length shall be 60 inches 
(1525 mm) minimum. 



Horn: Landings in nonaccessible Group R-2 and 
R-3 individual dwelling units, as applicable in Section 
1001.1, are permitted to be 36 inches (914 mm) mini- 
mum. 



je m dkectnoini. Where changes in direction 
of travel occur at landings provided between ramp runs, the 
landing shall be 60 inches by 60 inches (1524 mm by 1524 
mm) minimum. 



ni Landings in nonaccessible Group R-2 and 
R-3 individual dwelling units, as applicable in Section 
1001.1, are permitted to be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 
mm by 914 mm) minimum. 



L6.5 Doorways, Where doorways are located adjacent 
to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearances required by ICC 
Al 17.1 are permitted to overlap the required landing area. 

L7 Ramp comsltrectnoiii. All ramps shall be built of materi- 
als consistent with the types permitted for the type of construc- 
tion of the building; except that wood handrails shall be 
permitted for all types of construction. Ramps used as an exit 
shall conform to the applicable requirements of Sections 
1019.1 and 1019.1.1 through 1019.1.3 for vertical exit enclo- 
sures. 



.7.1 Ramp smrface. The surface of ramps shall be of 
slip-resistant materials that are securely attached. 



,7.2 Oetdoor coeditnoms. Outdoor ramps and outdoor 
approaches to ramps shall be designed so that water will not 
accumulate on walking surfaces. In other than occupancies 
in Group R-3, and occupancies in Group U that are acces- 
sory to an occupancy in Group R-3, surfaces and landings 
which are part of exterior ramps in climates subject to snow 
or ice shall be designed to minimize the accumulation of 
same. 



Is. Ramps with a rise greater than 6 inches 
(152 mm) shall have handrails on both sides complying with 
Section 1009.11. 



Edge protectnoE. Edge protection complying with Sec- 
tion 1010.9.1 or 1010.9.2 shall be provided on each side of 
ramp runs and at each side of ramp landings. 



1 . Edge protection is not required on ramps not required 
to have handrails, provided they have flared sides that 
comply with the ICC Al 17.1 curb ramp provisions. 

2. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp 
landings serving an adjoining ramp run or stairway. 

3. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp 
landings having a vertical dropoff of not more than 
0.5 inch (13 mm) within 10 inches (254 mm) horizon- 
tally of the required landing area. 

,1 Maslmgs, A rail shall be mounted below the hand- 
rail 17 inches to 19 inches (432 mm to 483 mm) above the 
ramp or landing surface. 



r. A curb or barrier shall be pro- 
vided that prevents the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 
mm) sphere, where any portion of the sphere is within 4 
inches (102 mm) of the floor or ground surface. 



Q) Gmards. Guards shall be provided where required by 
Section 1012 and shall be constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1012. 



[BISECTION 1011 



1.1 Where reqmred. Exits and exit access doors shall be 
marked by an approved exit sign readily visible from any direc- 
tion of egress travel. Access to exits shall be marked by readily 
visible exit signs in cases where the exit or the path of egress 
travel is not immediately visible to the occupants. Exit sign 
placement shall be such that no point in an exit access corridor 



2003 INTERMATIIONAL FIRE CODE® 



111 



lEANS OF EGRESS 



is more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) or the hsted viewing dis- 
tance for the sign, whichever is less, from the nearest visible 
exit sign. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Exit signs are not required in rooms or areas which re- 
quire only one exit or exit access. 

2. Main exterior exit doors or gates which obviously and 
clearly are identifiable as exits need not have exit 
signs where approved by the fire code official. 

3. Exit signs are not required in occupancies in Group U 
and individual sleeping units or dwelling units in 
Group R-l,R-2 or R-3. 

4. Exit signs are not required in sleeping areas in occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3. 

5. In occupancies in Groups A-4 and A-5, exit signs are 
not required on the seating side of vomitories or open- 
ings into seating areas where exit signs are provided in 
the concourse that are readily apparent from the vomi- 
tories. Egress lighting is provided to identify each 
vomitory or opening within the seating area in an 
emergency. 

1011.2 IIlomiiiatloE. Exit signs shall be internally or exter- 
nally illuminated. 

Exception: Tactile signs required by Section 1011.3 need 
not be provided with illumination. 

1011.3 Tactile exit siges. A tactile sign stating EXIT and com- 
plying with ICC A117.1 shall be provided adjacent to each 
door to an egress stairway, an exit passageway and the exit dis- 
charge. 

1011.4 Internally illominated exit signs. Internally illumi- 
nated exit signs shall be listed and labeled and shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Section 
604. Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times. 

1011.5 Externally illominated exit signs. Externally illumi- 
nated exit signs shall comply with Sections 1011.5.1 through 
1011.5.3. 

1011.5.1 Graphics. Every exit sign and directional exit sign 
shall have plainly legible letters not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) high with the principal strokes of the letters not less 
than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) wide. The word "EXIT" shall have 
letters having a width not less than 2 inches (51 mm) wide 
except the letter "I," and the minimum spacing between let- 
ters shall not be less than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). Signs larger 
than the minimum established in this section shall have let- 
ter widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to their height. 

The word "EXIT" shall be in high contrast with the back- 
ground and shall be clearly discernible when the exit sign il- 
lumination means is or is not energized. If an arrow is 
provided as part of the exit sign, the construction shall be 
such that the arrow direction cannot be readily changed. 

101 1.5.2 Exit sign illumination. The face of an exit sign il- 
luminated from an external source shall have an intensity of 
not less than 5 foot-candles (54 lux). 

1011.5.3 Power source. Exit signs shall be illuminated at 
all times. To ensure continued illumination for a duration of 



not less than 90 minutes in case of primary power loss, the 
sign illumination means shall be connected to an emergency 
power system provided from storage batteries, unit equip- 
ment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emer- 
gency power system shall be in accordance with Section 
604. 

Exception: Approved exit sign illumination means that 
provide continuous illumination independent of external 
power sources for a duration of not less than 90 minutes, 
in case of primary power loss, are not required to be con- 
nected to an emergency electrical system. 



[BISECTION 1012 
GUARDS 

1012.1 Where required. Guards shall be located along 
open-sided walking surfaces, mezzanines, industrial equip- 
ment platforms, stairways, ramps and landings which are lo- 
cated more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade 
below. Guards shall be adequate in strength and attachment in 
accordance with Section 1607.7 of the International Building 
Code. Guards shall also be located along glazed sides of stair- 
ways, ramps and landings that are located more than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above the floor or grade below where the glazing 
provided does not meet the strength and attachment require- 
ments in Section 1607.7 of the International Building Code. 

Exception: Guards are not required for the following loca- 
tions: 

1. On the loading side of loading docks or piers. 

2. On the audience side of stages and raised platforms, 
including steps leading up to the stage and raised plat- 
forms. 

3. On raised stage and platform floor areas such as run- 
ways, ramps and side stages used for entertainment or 
presentations. 

4. At vertical openings in the performance area of stages 
and platforms. 

5. At elevated walking surfaces appurtenant to stages 
and platforms for access to and utilization of special 
lighting or equipment. 

6. Along vehicle service pits not accessible to the public. 

7. In assembly seating where guards in accordance with 
Section 1024.14 are permitted and provided. 

1012.2 Height. Guards shall form a protective barrier not less 
than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, measured vertically above the 
leading edge of the tread, adjacent walking surface or adjacent 
seatboard. 

Exceptions: 

1. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual 
dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, both as 
applicable in Section 1001.1, guards whose top rail 
also serves as a handrail shall have a height not less 
than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches 
(965 mm) measured vertically from the leading edge 
of the stair tread nosing. 



112 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



lEAfMS OF EGRESS 



« 



The height in assembly seating areas shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 1024.14. 



Open guards shall have balusters 
or ornamental patterns such that a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) 
sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 34 
inches (864 mm). From a height of 34 inches (864 mm) to 42 
inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent walking surfaces, a 
sphere 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter shall not pass. 



^ 



1 . The triangular openings formed by the riser, tread and 
bottom rail at the open side of a stairway shall be of a 
maximum size such that a sphere of 6 inches (152 
mm) in diameter cannot pass through the opening. 

2. At elevated walking surfaces for access to and use of 
electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equip- 
ment, guards shall have balusters or be of solid materi- 
als such that a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches 
(533 mm) cannot pass through any opening. 

3. In areas which are not open to the public within occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3, F, H or S, balusters, horizontal 
intermediate rails or other construction shall not per- 
mit a sphere with a diameter of 21 inches (533 mm) to 
pass through any opening. 

4. In assembly seating areas, guards at the end of aisles 
where they terminate at a fascia of boxes, balconies 
and galleries shall have balusters or ornamental pat- 
terns such that a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere 
cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 26 
inches (660 mm). From a height of 26 inches (660 
mm) to 42 inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent walk- 
ing surfaces, a sphere 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter 
shall not pass. 

1(D12.4 Screem porches. Porches and decks which are enclosed 
with insect screening shall be provided with guards where the 
walking surface is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above 
the floor or grade below. 



Guards shall be provided 
where appliances, equipment, fans or other components that re- 
quire service are located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a roof 
edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open 
side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor, 
roof or grade below. The guard shall be constructed so as to pre- 
vent the passage of a 21 -inch-diameter (533 mm) sphere. 



P|SECTnON1013 
EXm ACCESS 

The exit access arrangement shall comply 
with Sections 1013 through 1016 and the applicable provisions 
of Sections 1003 through 1012. 

1(0)13,2 Egress tiiroogii mterveminig spaces,, Egress from a 
room or space shall not pass through adjoining or intervening 
rooms or areas, except where such adjoining rooms or areas are 
accessory to the area served; are not a high-hazard occupancy 
and provide a discernible path of egress travel to an exit. Egress 



shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms, closets or 
spaces used for similar purposes. An exit access shall not pass 
through a room that can be locked to prevent egress. Means of 
egress from dwelling units or sleeping areas shall not lead 
through other sleeping areas, toilet rooms or bathrooms. 

Exceptnomss 

1 . Means of egress are not prohibited through a kitchen 
area serving adjoining rooms constituting part of the 
same dwelling unit or sleeping unit. 

2. Means of egress are not prohibited through adjoining 
or intervening rooms or spaces in a Group H occu- 
pancy when the adjoining or intervening rooms or 
spaces are the same or a lesser hazard occupancy 
group. 

1013.2ol Meltiple ttenamts. Where more than one tenant oc- 
cupies any one floor of a building or structure, each tenant 
space, dwelling unit and sleeping unit shall be provided with 
access to the required exits without passing through adja- 
cent tenant spaces, dwelling units and sleeping units. 

1013o2,2 Group 1=2. Habitable rooms or suites in Group 1-2 
occupancies shall have an exit access door leading directly 
to an exit access corridor. 



1 . Rooms with exit doors opening directly to the out- 
side at ground level. 

2. Patient sleeping rooms are permitted to have one 
intervening room if the intervening room is not 
used as an exit access for more than eight patient 
beds. 

3 . Special nursing suites are permitted to have one in- 
tervening room where the arrangement allows for 
direct and constant visual supervision by nursing 
personnel. 

4. For rooms other than patient sleeping rooms, 
suites of rooms are permitted to have one interven- 
ing room if the travel distance within the suite to 
the exit access door is not greater than 100 feet (30 
480 mm) and are permitted to have two intervening 
rooms where the travel distance within the suite to 
the exit access door is not greater than 50 feet (15 
240 mm). 

Suites of sleeping rooms shall not exceed 5,000 square 
feet (465 m^). Suites of rooms, other than patient sleeping 
rooms, shall not exceed 10,000 square feet (929 m^). Any 
patient sleeping room, or any suite that includes patient 
sleeping rooms, of more than 1 ,000 square feet (93 m^) shall 
have at least two exit access doors remotely located from 
each other. Any room or suite of rooms, other than patient 
sleeping rooms, of more than 2,500 square feet (232 m^) 
shall have at least two access doors remotely located from 
each other. The travel distance between any point in a Group 
1-2 occupancy and an exit access door in the room shall not 
exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The travel distance between 
any point in a suite of sleeping rooms and an exit access door 
of that suite shall not exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm). 



2003 IWTEIRNATIOMAL FIRE CODE® 



113 



fMEANS OF EGRESS 



1013.3 Common palli of egress traveL In occupancies other 
than Groups H-1, H-2 and H-3, the common path of egress 
travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). In occupancies in 
Groups H-1, H-2, and H-3, the common path of egress travel 
shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . The length of a common path of egress travel in an oc- 
cupancy in Groups B, F and S shall not be more than 
100 feet (30 480 mm), provided that the building is 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Where a tenant space in an occupancy in Groups B, S 
and U has an occupant load of not more than 30, the 
length of a common path of egress travel shall not be 
more than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

3. The length of a common path of egress travel in occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3 shall not be more than 100 feet 
(30 480 mm). 

1013.4 Aisles. Aisles serving as a portion of the exit access in 
the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements 
of this section. Aisles shall be provided from all occupied por- 
tions of the exit access which contain seats, tables, furnishings, 
displays and similar fixtures or equipment. Aisles serving as- 
sembly areas, other than seating at tables, shall comply with 
Section 1024. Aisles serving reviewing stands, grandstands 
and bleachers shall also comply with Section 1024. 

The required width of aisles shall be unobstructed. 

Exception: Doors, when fully opened, and handrails shall 
not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 
mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required 
width by more than one-half. Other nonstructural projec- 
tions such as trim and similar decorative features are permit- 
ted to project into the required width 1.5 inches (38 mm) 
from each side. 

1013.4.1 Groups B and M. In Group B and M occupancies, 
the minimum clear aisle width shall be determined by Sec- 
tion 1005.1 for the occupant load served, but shall not be 
less than 36 inches (914 mm). 

Exception: Nonpublic aisles serving less than 50 peo- 
ple, and not required to be accessible by Chapter 1 1 of the 
International Building Code, need not exceed 28 inches 
(711 nmi) in width. 

1013.4.2 Seating at tables. Where seating is located at a ta- 
ble or counter and is adjacent to an aisle or aisle accessway, 
the measurement of required clear width of the aisle or aisle 
accessway shall be made to a line 19 inches (483 mm) away 
from and parallel to the edge of the table or counter. The 
19-inch (483 mm) distance shall be measured perpendicular 
to the side of the table or counter. In the case of other side 
boundaries for aisle or aisle accessways, the clear width 
shall be measured to walls, edges of seating and tread edges, 
except that handrail projections are permitted. 

Exception: Where tables or counters are served by fixed 
seats, the width of the aisle accessway shall be measured 
from the back of the seat. 



1013.4.2.1 Aisle accessway for tables and seating. 
Aisle accessways serving arrangements of seating at ta- 
bles or counters shall have sufficient clear width to con- 
form to the capacity requirements of Section 1005.1 but 
shall not have less than the appropriate minimum clear 
width specified in Section 1013.4.1. 

1013.4.2.2 Table and seating accessway width. Aisle 
accessways shall provide a minimum of 12 inches (305 
mm) of width plus 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of width for each 
additional 1 foot (305 mm), or fraction thereof, beyond 
12 feet (3658 mm) of aisle accessway length measured 
from the center of the seat farthest from an aisle. 

Exception: Portions of an aisle accessway having a 
length not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) and used by a 
total of not more than four persons. 

1013.4.2.3 Table and seating aisle accessway length. 
The length of travel along the aisle accessway shall not 
exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any seat to the point 
where a person has a choice of two or more paths of 
egress travel to separate exits. 

1013.5 Egress balconies. Balconies used for egress purposes 
shall conform to the same requirements as corridors for width, 
headroom, dead ends and projections. Exterior balconies shall 
be designed to minimize accumulation of snow or ice that im- 
pedes the means of egress. 

Exception: Exterior balconies and concourses in outdoor 
stadiums shall be exempt from the design requirement to 
protect against the accumulation of snow or ice. 

1013.5.1 Wall separation. Exterior egress balconies shall 
be separated from the interior of the building by walls and 
opening protectives as required for corridors. 

Exception: Separation is not required where the exterior 
egress balcony is served by at least two stairs and a 
dead-end travel condition does not require travel past an 
unprotected opening to reach a stair. 

1013.5.2 Openness. The long side of an egress balcony 
shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the 
guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumula- 
tion of smoke or toxic gases. 



[BISECTION 1014 
EXIT AND EXIT ACCESS DOORWAYS 

1014.1 Exit or exit access doorways required. Two exits or 
exit access doorways from any space shall be provided where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1 . The occupant load of the space exceeds the values in Ta- 
ble 1014.1. 

2. The common path of egress travel exceeds the limitations 
of Section 1013.3. 

3. Where required by Sections 1014.3, 1014.4 and 1014.5. 

Exception: Group 1-2 occupancies shall comply with Sec- 
tion 1013.2.2. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



TABLE 10M.11 
SPACES WiTH OME IMIEANS OF EGRESS 



OCCUPANCY 


WiAXIMUM OCCUPANT LOAD 


A, B, E, F, M, U 


50 


H-l,H-2,H-3 


3 


H-4, H-5, 1-l, 1-3, 1-4, R 


10 


S 


30 



,lol, TSuree or more exntSo Access to three or more exits 
shall be provided from a floor area where required by Sec- 
tion 1018.1. 

l(I])14o2 Exfl(t or exStt access doorway arramgememHo Required 
exits shall be located in a manner that makes their availability 
obvious. Exits shall be unobstructed at all times. Exit and exit 
access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with Sections 
1014.2.1 and 1014.2.2. 

I(ttl4.2<,l Two exnits or exit access doorways. Where two 
exits or exit access doorways are required from any portion 
of the exit access, the exit doors or exit access doorways 
shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than 
one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal di- 
mension of the building or area to be served measured in a 
straight line between exit doors or exit access doorways. In- 
terlocking or scissor stairs shall be counted as one exit stair- 
way. 

ExceptnoEs; 

1. Where exit enclosures are provided as a portion 
of the required exit and are interconnected by a 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated corridor conform- 
ing to the requirements of Section 1016, the re- 
quired exit separation shall be measured along 
the shortest direct line of travel within the corri- 
dor. 

2. Where a building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the separation dis- 
tance of the exit doors or exit access doorways 
shall not be less than one-third of the length of the 
maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area 
served. 

1014.2o2 Three or more exits or exit access doorways. 
Where access to three or more exits is required, at least two 
exit doors or exit access doorways shall be placed a distance 
apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the max- 
imum overall diagonal dimension of the area served mea- 
sured in a straight line between such exit doors or exit access 
doorways. Additional exits or exit access doorways shall be 
arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes 
blocked, the others will be available. 



tiom; Where a building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903 .3 . 1 . 1 or 903.3 . 1 .2, the separation distance 
of at least two of the exit doors or exit access doorways 
shall not be less than one-third of the length of the 
maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area 
served. 



Two exit ac- 
cess doorways are required in boiler, incinerator and furnace 
rooms where the area is over 500 square feet (46 m^) and any 
fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 British thermal units 
(Btu) (422 000 KJ) input capacity. Where two exit access door- 
ways are required, one is permitted to be a fixed ladder or an al- 
ternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated 
by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the maximum hori- 
zontal dimension of the room. 



as. Machinery rooms 
larger than 1 ,000 square feet (93 m^) shall have not less than 
two exits or exit access doors. Where two exit access doorways 
are required, one such doorway is permitted to be served by a 
fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access door- 
ways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to 
one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of room. 

All portions of machinery rooms shall be within 150 feet (45 
720 mm) of an exit or exit access doorway. An increase in travel 
distance is permitted in accordance with Section 1015.1. 

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel, regardless 
of the occupant load served. Doors shall be tight fitting and 
self-closing. 



js. Rooms or spaces hav- 
ing a floor area of 1 ,000 square feet (93 m^) or more, containing 
a refrigerant evaporator and maintained at a temperature below 
68°F (20°C), shall have access to not less than two exits or exit 
access doors. 

Travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section 
1015.1, but all portions of a refrigerated room or space shall be 
within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access door 
where such rooms are not protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system. Egress is allowed through adjoining refriger- 
ated rooms or spaces. 



K Where using refrigerants in quantities limited 
to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

l®Mo6 Stage meainis offegresSo Where two means of egress are 
required, based on the stage size or occupant load, one means 
of egress shall be provided on each side of the stage. 

MI)14o6ol Gallery, gridirom amd catwallk meams of egress. 
The means of egress from lighting and access catwalks, gal- 
leries and gridirons shall meet the requirements for occu- 
pancies in Group F-2. 

ioms; 



<=: 



1 . A minimum width of 22 inches (559 mm) is per- 
mitted for lighting and access catwalks. 

2. Spiral stairs are permitted in the means of egress. 

3. Stairways required by this subsection need not be 
enclosed. 

4. Stairways with a minimum width of 22 inches (559 
mm), ladders, or spiral stairs are permitted in the 
means of egress. 

5. A second means of egress is not required from 
these areas where a means of escape to a floor or to 
a roof is provided. Ladders, alternating tread de- 



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vices or spiral stairs are permitted in the means of 
escape. 

6. Ladders are permitted in the means of egress. 



lOlS.l Travel distance MmltatlonSo Exits shall be so located 
on each story such that the maximum length of exit access 
travel, measured from the most remote point within a story to 
the entrance to an exit along the natural and unobstructed path 
of egress travel, shall not exceed the distances given in Table 
1015.1. 

Where the path of exit access includes unenclosed stair- 
ways or ramps within the exit access or includes unenclosed 
exit ramps or stairways as permitted in Section 1019.1, the 
distance of travel on such means of egress components shall 
also be included in the travel distance measurement. The mea- 
surement along stairways shall be made on a plane parallel 
and tangent to the stair tread nosings in the center of the stair- 
way. 

Exceptions: 

1. Travel distance in open parking garages is permitted 
to be measured to the closest riser of open stairs. 

2. In outdoor facilities with open exit access compo- 
nents and open exterior stairs or ramps, travel distance 
is permitted to be measured to the closest riser of a 
stair or the closest slope of the ramp. 

3. Where an exit stair is permitted to be unenclosed in 
accordance with Exception 8 or 9 of Section 
1019.1, the travel distance shall be measured from 
the most remote point within a building to an exit 
discharge. 

TABLE 1015.1 
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE^ 



OCCUPANCY 


WITHOUT SPRINKLER 

SYSTEM 

(feet) 


WITH SPRINKLER 

SYSTEM 

(feet) 


A,E,F-1,I-1,M, 
R,S-1 


200 


250"^ 


B 


200 


300^ 


F-2, S-2, U 


300 


400" 


H-1 


Not Permitted 


75'^ 


H-2 


Not Permitted 


lOO"^ 


H-3 


Not Permitted 


ISO'^ 


H-4 


Not Permitted 


175^ 


H-5 


Not Permitted 


200^ 


1-2, 1-3, 1-4 


150 


200^ 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. See the following sections for modifications to exit access travel distance re- 
quirements: 

Section 402 of the International Building Code: For the distance limitation 

in malls. 

Section 404 of the International Building Code: For the distance limitation 

through an atrium space. 

Section 1015.2: For increased limitation in Groups F-I and S-1. 

Section 1024.7: For increased limitation in assembly seating. 



Section 1024.7: For increased limitation for assembly open-air seating. 
Section 1018.2: For buildings with one exit. 

Chapter 3 1 of the International Building Code: For the limitation in tempo- 
rary structures. 

b. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. See Section 903 for occupancies 
where sprinkler systems according to Section 903.3.1.2 are permitted. 

c. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

1015.2 Roof vemt increase. In buildings which are one story in 
height, equipped with automatic heat and smoke roof vents 
complying with Section 910 and equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903 .3 . 1.1, the maximum exit access travel distance shall be 400 
feet (122 m) for occupancies in Group F-1 or S-1. 



jgress ijalcoey increase. Travel distances 
specified in Section 1015.1 shall be increased up to an additional 
100 feet (30 480 mm) provided the last portion of the exit access 
leading to the exit occurs on an exterior egress balcony con- 
structed in accordance with Section 1013.5. The length of such 
balcony shall not be less than the amount of the increase taken. 



astriictlon. Corridors shall be fire-resistance rated 
in accordance with Table 1016. 1 . The corridor walls required to 
be fire-resistance rated shall comply with Section 708 of the In- 
ternational Building Code for fire partitions. 



1 . A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in 
an occupancy in Group E where each room that is 
used for instruction has at least one door directly to the 
exterior and rooms for assembly purposes have at 
least one-half of the required means of egress doors 
opening directly to the exterior. Exterior doors speci- 
fied in this exception are required to be at ground 
level. 

2. A fire -resistance rating is not required for corridors 
contained within a dwelling or sleeping unit in an oc- 
cupancy in Group R. 

3. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in 
open parking garages. 

4. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in 
an occupancy in Group B which is a space requiring 
only a single means of egress complying with Section 
1014.1. 

1016.2 Corridor width. The minimum corridor width shall be 
as determined in Secfion 1005.1, but not less than 44 inches 
(1118 mm). 

ions; 

Twenty-four inches (610 mm) — For access to and uti- 
lization of electrical, mechanical or plumbing sys- 
tems or equipment. 

Thirty-six inches (914 mm) — With a required occu- 
pant capacity of 50 or less. 

Thirty-six inches (914 mm) — Within a dwelling unit. 



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4. Seventy-two inches (1829 mm) — In Group E with a 
corridor having a required capacity of 100 or more. 

5. Seventy-two inches (1829 mm) — In corridors serving 
surgical Group I, health care centers for ambulatory 
patients receiving outpatient medical care, which 
causes the patient to be not capable of self-preserva- 
tion. 

6. Ninety-six inches (2438 mm) — In Group 1-2 in areas 
where required for bed movement. 

,3 Dead emidls. Where more than one exit or exit access 
doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged such that 
there are no dead ends in corridors more than 20 feet (6096 
mm) in length. 

Exceptiomsi 

1 . In occupancies in Group 1-3 of Occupancy Condition 
2, 3 or 4 (see Section 202, definition of Occupancy 
Group 1-3), the dead end in a corridor shall not exceed 
50 feet (15 240 mm). 

2. In occupancies in Groups B and F where the building 
is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the 
length of dead-end corridors shall not exceed 50 feet 
(15 240 mm). 

3. A dead-end corridor shall not be limited in length 
where the length of the dead-end corridor is less than 
2.5 times the least width of the dead-end corridor. 

1(016.4 Air movemeinit ne comdors. Exit access corridors shall 
not serve as supply, return, exhaust, relief or ventilation air 
ducts or plenums. 



Use of a corridor as a source of makeup air for exhaust 
systems in rooms that open directly onto such corri- 
dors, including toilet rooms, bathrooms, dressing 
rooms, smoking lounges and janitor closets, shall be 
permitted provided that each such corridor is directly 
supplied with outdoor air at a rate greater than the rate 
of makeup air taken from the corridor. 

Where located within a dwelling unit, the use of corri- 
dors for conveying return air shall not be prohibited. 



Where located within tenant spaces of 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^) or less in area, utilization of corridors for 
conveying return air is permitted. 

4.1 Corridor ceiliEg, Use of the space between the 
corridor ceiling and the floor or roof structure above as a re- 
turn air plenum is permitted for one or more of the following 
conditions: 

1. The corridor is not required to be of fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction; 

2. The corridor is separated from the plenum by fire-re- 
sistance-rated construction; 

3. The air-handling system serving the corridor is shut 
down upon activation of the air-handling unit smoke 
detectors required by the International Mechanical 
Code. 

4. The air-handling system serving the corridor is shut 
down upon detection of sprinkler waterflow where 
the building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system; or 

5. The space between the corridor ceiling and the floor 
or roof structure above the corridor is used as a com- 
ponent of an approved engineered smoke control sys- 
tem. 



Fire-resistance-rated corridors 
shall be continuous from the point of entry to an exit, and shall 
not be interrupted by intervening rooms. 

Exceptlora; Foyers, lobbies or reception rooms constructed 
as required for corridors shall not be construed as interven- 
ing rooms. 



PlSECTiOW101? 
EXITS 

.1 General. Exits shall comply with Sections 1017 
through 1022 and the applicable requirements of Secfions 1003 
through 1012. An exit shall not be used for any purpose that in- 
terferes with its function as a means of egress. Once a given 
level of exit protection is achieved, such level of protection 
shall not be reduced until arrival at the exit discharge. 



TABLE1l016.il 
CORRIDOR FDRE-RESISTANCE RATING 



OCCUPANCY 


OCCUPANT LOAD SERVED BY CORRJDOR 


REQUIRED FlRE-RESlSTANCE RATING 
(hours) 


Without sprinkler system 


With sprinkler system^ 


H-l,H-2,H-3 


All 


Not Permitted 


1 


H-4, H-5 


Greater than 30 


Not Permitted 


1 


A, B, E, F, M, S, U 


Greater than 30 


1 





R 


Greater than 10 


1 


0.5 


I-2^ 1-4 


All 


Not Permitted 





1-1,1-3 


All 


Not Permitted 


I'' 



a. For requirements for occupancies in Group 1-2, see Section 407.3 of the International Building Code. 

b. For a reduction in the fire-resistance rating for occupancies in Group 1-3, see Section 408.7 of the International Building Code. 

c. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 where allowed. 



2003 INTEIRMATIONAL FBRE CODE® 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



1017.2 Exterior exit doors. Buildings or structures used for 
human occupancy shall have at least one exterior door that 
meets the requirements of Section 1008.1.1. 

1017.2.1 Detailed requirements. Exterior exit doors shall 
comply with the applicable requirements of Section 1008. 1 . 

1017.2.2 Arrangement. Exterior exit doors shall lead di- 
rectly to the exit discharge or the public way. 



[B] SECTION 1018 
NUMBER OF EXITS AND CONTINUITY 

1018.1 Minimum number of exits. All rooms and spaces 
within each story shall be provided with and have access to the 
minimum number of approved independent exits required by 
Table 1018.1 based on the occupant load, except as modified in 
Section 1014.1 or 1018.2. For the purposes of this chapter, oc- 
cupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required for stories. 
The required number of exits from any story, basement or indi- 
vidual space shall be maintained until arrival at grade or the 
pubUc way. 



TABLE 1018.1 
MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS FOR OCCUPANT LOAD 



TABLE 1018.2 
BUILDINGS WITH ONE EXIT 



OCCUPANT LOAD 


MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS 


1-500 


2 


501-1,000 


3 


More than 1,000 


4 



1018.1.1 Open parking structures. Parking structures 
shall not have less than two exits from each parking tier, ex- 
cept that only one exit is required where vehicles are me- 
chanically parked. Unenclosed vehicle ramps shall not be 
considered as required exits unless pedestrian facihties are 
provided. 

1018.1.2 Helistops. The means of egress from hehstops 
shall comply with the provisions of this chapter, provided 
that landing areas located on buildings or structures shall 
have two or more exits. For landing platforms or roof areas 
less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) long, or less than 2,000 square 
feet (186 m^) in area, the second means of egress is permit- 
ted to be a fire escape or ladder leading to the floor below. 

1018.2 Buildings with one exit. Only one exit shall be re- 
quired in buildings as described below: 

1. Buildings described in Table 1018.2, provided that the 
building has not more than one level below the first story 
above grade plane. 

2. Buildings of Group R-3 occupancy. 

3. Single-level buildings with the occupied space at the 
level of exit discharge provided that the story or space 
complies with Section 1014.1 as a space with one means 
of egress. 



OCCUPANCY 


MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF 

BUILDING ABOVE 

GRADE PLANE 


MAXIMUM OCCUPANTS 

(OR DWELLING UNITS) 

PER FLOOR AND 

TRAVEL DISTANCE 


A, B", E, F, M, U 


1 Story 


50 occupants and 75 feet 
travel distance 


H-2, H-3 


1 Story 


3 occupants and 25 feet 
travel distance 


H-4, H-5, 1, R 


1 Story 


10 occupants and 75 feet 
travel distance 


S^ 


1 Story 


30 occupants and 100 
feet travel distance 


Rb, F, M, S^ 


2 Stories 


30 occupants and 75 feet 
travel distance 


R-2 


2 Stories^ 


4 dwelling units and 50 
feet travel distance 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. For the required number of exits for open parking structures, see Section 
1018.1.1. 

b. For the required number of exits for air traffic control towers, see Section 
412.1 of the International Building Code. 

c. Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 or 903.3.1 .2 and pro- 
vided with emergency escape and rescue openings in accordance with Sec- 
don 1025 shall have a maximum height of three stories above grade. 

d. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 with an occupancy in Group B shall have a 
maximum travel distance of 100 feet. 

1018.3 Exit continuity. Exits shall be continuous from the 
point of entry into the exit to the exit discharge. 

1018.4 Exit door arrangement. Exit door an-angement shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 1014.2 through 1014.2.2. 



[BISECTION 1019 
VERTICAL EXIT ENCLOSURES 

1019.1 Enclosures required. Interior exit stairways and inte- 
rior exit ramps shall be enclosed with fire barriers. Exit enclo- 
sures shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours 
where connecting four stories or more and not less than 1 hour 
where connecting less than four stories. The number of stories 
connected by the shaft enclosure shall include any basements 
but not any mezzanines. An exit enclosure shall not be used for 
any purpose other than means of egress. Enclosures shall be 
constructed as fire barriers in accordance with Section 706 of 
the International Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. In other than Group H and I occupancies, a stairway 
serving an occupant load of less than 10 not more than 
one story above the level of exit discharge is not re- 
quired to be enclosed. 

2. Exits in buildings of Group A-5 where all portions of 
the means of egress are essentially open to the outside 
need not be enclosed. 



118 



2003 INTERNATIOMAL FIRE CODE® 



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• 



m 



3. Stairways serving and contained within a single resi- 
dential dwelling unit or sleeping unit in occupancies 
in Group R-2 or R-3 and sleeping units in occupancies 
in Group R-1 are not required to be enclosed. 

4. Stairways that are not a required means of egress ele- 
ment are not required to be enclosed where such stair- 
ways comply with Section 707.2 of the International 
Building Code. 

5 . Stairways in open parking structures which serve only 
the parking structure are not required to be enclosed. 

6. Stairways in occupancies in Group 1-3 as provided for 
in Section 408.3.6 of the International Building Code 
are not required to be enclosed. 

7. Means of egress stairways as required by Section 
410.5.4 of the International Building Code are not re- 
quired to be enclosed. 

8. In other than occupancy Groups H and I, a maximum 
of 50 percent of egress stairways serving one adjacent 
floor are not required to be enclosed, provided at least 
two means of egress are provided from both floors 
served by the unenclosed stairways. Any two such in- 
terconnected floors shall not be open to other floors. 

9. In other than occupancy Groups H and I, interior 
egress stairways serving only the first and second sto- 
ries of a building equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3. 1 . 1 are not required to be enclosed, provided at 
least two means of egress are provided from both 
floors served by the unenclosed stairways. Such inter- 
connected stories shall not be open to other stories. 



.1.1 Opemiinigs and peeetratioims. Exit enclosure 
opening protectives shall be in accordance with the require- 
ments of Section 715 of the International Building Code. 

Except as permitted in Section 402.4.6 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code, openings in exit enclosures other than 
unexposed exterior openings shall be limited to those neces- 
sary for exit access to the enclosure from normally occupied 
spaces and for egress from the enclosure. 

While interior exit enclosures are extended to the exterior 
of a building by an exit passageway, the door assembly from 
the exit enclosure to the exit passageway shall be protected 
by a fire door conforming to the requirements in Section 
715.3 of the International Building Code. Fire door assem- 
blies in exit enclosures shall comply with Section 7 15.3.4 of 
the International Building Code. 

1019.1,2 PeeetratnoES, Penetrations into and openings 
through an exit enclosure are prohibited except for required 
exit doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for inde- 
pendent pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, elec- 
trical raceway for fire department communication and 
electrical raceway serving the exit enclosure and terminat- 
ing at a steel box not exceeding 1 6 square inches (0.010 m^). 
Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with 
Section 712 of the International Building Code. There shall 
be no penetrations or communication openings, whether 
protected or not, between adjacent exit enclosures. 



,1.3 VeettJlaMoini. Equipment and ductwork for exit en- 
closure ventilation shall comply with one of the following 
items: 

1 . Such equipment and ductwork shall be located exte- 
rior to the building and shall be directly connected to 
the exit enclosure by ductwork enclosed in construc- 
tion as required for shafts. 

2. Where such equipment and ductwork is located 
within the exit enclosure, the intake air shall be taken 
directly from the outdoors and the exhaust air shall be 
discharged direcdy to the outdoors, or such air shall 
be conveyed through ducts enclosed in construction 
as required for shafts. 

3. Where located within the building, such equipment 
and ductwork shall be separated from the remainder 
of the building, including other mechanical equip- 
ment, with construction as required for shafts. 

In each case, openings into the fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction shall be hmited to those needed for maintenance 
and operation and shall be protected by self-closing fire-re- 
sistance-rated devices in accordance with Chapter 7 of the 
International Building Code for enclosure wall opening 
protectives. 

Exit enclosure ventilation systems shall be independent 
of other building ventilation systems. 

1®19,1.4 Vertical emclosere extedoir walls. Exterior walls 
of a vertical exit enclosure shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section 704 of the International Building Code for 
exterior walls. Where nonrated walls or unprotected open- 
ings enclose the exterior of the stairway and the walls or 
openings are exposed by other parts of the building at an an- 
gle of less than 1 80 degrees (3.14 rad), the building exterior 
walls within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated 
wall or unprotected opening shall be constructed as required 
for a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating with ^-hour 
opening protectives. This construction shall extend verti- 
cally from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the 
topmost landing of the stairway or to the roof line, which- 
ever is lower. 



,1.5 Emclosimres emder stairways. The walls and soffits 
within enclosed usable spaces under enclosed and unen- 
closed stairways shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction, or the fire-resistance rating of the 
stairway enclosure, whichever is greater. Access to the en- 
closed usable space shall not be directly from within the stair 
enclosure. 



ni Spaces under stairways serving and con- 
tained within a single residential dwelling unit in Group 
R-2 or R-3 as applicable in Section 1001.1. 

There shall be no enclosed usable space under exterior 
exit stairways unless the space is completely enclosed in 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. The open space [_ 
under exterior stairways shall not be used for any purpose. 

1®19.1.6 Discharge ndemtiicatiom. A stairway in an exit 
enclosure shall not continue below the level of exit dis- 
charge unless an approved barrier is provided at the level of 
exit discharge to prevent persons from unintentionally con- 



2003 INTERMATIOMAL FIRE CODE® 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



tinuing into levels below. Directional exit signs shall be pro- 
vided as specified in Section 101 1. 

1019.1.7 Stairway floor number signs. A sign shall be pro- 
vided at each floor landing in interior vertical exit enclo- 
sures connecting more than three stories designating the 
floor level, the terminus of the top and bottom of the stair en- 
closure and the identification of the stair. The signage shall 
also state the story of, and the direction to the exit discharge 
and the availability of roof access from the stairway for the 
fire department. The sign shall be located 5 feet (1524 mm) 
above the floor landing in a position which is readily visible 
when the doors are in the open and closed positions. 

1019.1.8 Smokeproof enclosures. In buildings required to 
comply with Section 403 or 405, each of the exits of a build- 
ing that serves stories where the floor surface is located 
more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire 
department vehicle access or more than 30 feet (9144 mm) 
below the level of exit discharge serving such floor levels 
shall be a smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway in 
accordance with Section 909.20 of the International Build- 
ing Code. 

1019.1.8.1 Enclosure exit. A smokeproof enclosure or 
pressurized stairway shall exit into a public way or into 
an exit passageway, yard or open space having direct ac- 
cess to a public way. The exit passageway shall be with- 
out other openings and shall be separated from the 
remainder of the building by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction. 

Exceptions; 

1. Openings in the exit passageway serving a 
smokeproof enclosure are permitted where the 
exit passageway is protected and pressurized in 
the same manner as the smokeproof enclosure, 
and openings are protected as required for ac- 
cess from other floors. 

2. Openings in the exit passageway serving a pres- 
surized stairway are permitted where the exit 
passageway is protected and pressurized in the 
same manner as the pressurized stairway. 

1019.1.8.2 Eeclosore access. Access to the stairway 
within a smokeproof enclosure shall be by way of a vesti- 
bule or an open exterior balcony. 

Exception: Access is not required by way of a vesti- 
bule or exterior balcony for stairways using the pres- 
surization alternative complying with Section 
909.20.5 of the International Building Code. 



1020.2 Width. The width of exit passageways shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005. 1 but such width shall not be 
less than 44 inches (1118 mm), except that exit passageways 
serving an occupant load of less than 50 shall not be less than 36 
inches (914 mm) in width. 

The required width of exit passageways shall be unob- 
structed. 

Exception: Doors, when fully opened, and handrails, shall 
not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 
mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required 
width by more than one-half. Other nonstructural projec- 
tions such as trim and similar decorative features are permit- 
ted to project into the required width 1 .5 inches (38 mm) on 
each side. 

1020.3 Construction. Exit passageway enclosures shall have 
walls, floors and ceilings of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance 
rating, and not less than that required for any connecting exit 
enclosure. Exit passageways shall be constructed as fire barri- 
ers in accordance with Section 706 of the International Build- 
ing Code. 

1020.4 Openings and penetrations. Exit passageway opening 
protectives shall be in accordance with the requirements of 
Section 715 of the International Building Code. 

Except as permitted in Section 402.4.6 of the International 
Building Code, openings in exit passageways other than unex- 
posed exterior openings shall be limited to those necessary for 
exit access to the exit passageway from normally occupied 
spaces and for egress from the exit passageway. 

Where interior exit enclosures are extended to the exterior of 
a building by an exit passageway, the door assembly from the 
exit enclosure to the exit passageway shall be protected by a fire 
door conforming to the requirements in Section 715.3 of the In- 
ternational Building Code. Fire door assemblies in exit pas- 
sageways shall comply with Section 715.3.4 of the 
International Building Code. 

Elevators shall not open into an exit passageway. 

1020.5 Penetrations. Penetrations into and openings through 
an exit passageway are prohibited except for required exit 
doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for independent 
pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical raceway 
for fire department communication and electrical raceway 
serving the exit passageway and terminating at a steel box not 
exceeding 16 square inches (0.010 m^). Such penetrations shall 
be protected in accordance with Section 712 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. There shall be no penetrations or com- 
municating openings, whether protected or not, between 
adjacent exit passageways. 



[BJSECTBON1020 
EXIT PASSAGEWAYS 

1020.1 Exit passageway. Exit passageways serving as an exit 
component in a means of egress system shall comply with the 
requirements of this section. An exit passageway shall not be 
used for any purpose other than as a means of egress. 



[BJSECT8ON1021 
HORSZOMTAL EXITS 

1021,1 Horizontal exits. Horizontal exits serving as an exit in 
a means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of 
this section. A horizontal exit shall not serve as the only exit 
from a portion of a building, and where two or more exits are re- 



!• 



120 



2003 INTERNATJONAL FIRE CODE® 



S OF EGRESS 



• 



quired, not more than one-half of the total number of exits or to- 
tal exit width shall be horizontal exits. 



1 . Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise two-thirds 
of the required exits from any building or floor area 
for occupancies in Group 1-2. 

2. Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise 100 per- 
cent of the exits required for occupancies in Group 
1-3. At least 6 square feet (0.6 m^) of accessible space 
per occupant shall be provided on each side of the hor- 
izontal exit for the total number of people in adjoining 
compartments. 

Every fire compartment for which credit is allowed 
in connection with a horizontal exit shall not be re- 
quired to have a stairway or door leading directly out- 
side, provided the adjoining fire compartments have 
stairways or doors leading directly outside and are so 
arranged that egress shall not require the occupants to 
return through the compartment from which egress 
originates. 

The area into which a horizontal exit leads shall be provided 
with exits adequate to meet the occupant requirements of this 
chapter, but not including the added occupant capacity imposed 
by persons entering it through horizontal exits from another 
area. At least one of its exits shall lead directly to the exterior or 
to an exit enclosure. 

102L2 SeparaMoo, The separation between buildings or areas 
of refuge connected by a horizontal exit shall be provided by a 
fire wall complying with Section 705 of the International 
Building Code or a fire barrier complying with Section 706 of 
the International Building Code and having a fire-resistance 
rating of not less than 2 hours. Opening protectives in horizon- 
tal exit walls shall also comply with Section 715 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. The horizontal exit separation shall 
extend vertically through all levels of the building unless floor 
assemblies are of 2-hour fire resistance with no unprotected 
openings. 



(tiom: A fire-resistance rating is not required at hori- 
zontal exits between a building area and an above-grade pe- 
destrian walkway constructed in accordance with Section 
3104 of the International Building Code, provided that the 
distance between connected buildings is more than 20 feet 
(6096 mm). 

Horizontal exit walls constructed as fire barriers shall be 
continuous from exterior wall to exterior wall so as to divide 
completely the floor served by the horizontal exit. 

1(D)21<,3 Opemlmig protecttveSo Fire doors in horizontal exits 
shall be self-closing or automatic-closing when activated by a 
smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 907.11. 
Opening protectives in horizontal exits shall be consistent with 
the fire-resistance rating of the wall. Such doors where located 
in a cross-corridor condition shall be automatic-closing by acti- 
vation of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 
907.11. 

1021.4 CapadHy ©f refage area. The refuge area of a horizon- 
tal exit shall be spaces occupied by the same tenant or public ar- 
eas and each such area of refuge shall be adequate to house the 



original occupant load of the refuge space plus the occupant 
load anticipated from the adjoining compartment. The antici- 
pated occupant load from the adjoining compartment shall be 
based on the capacity of the horizontal exit doors entering the 
area of refuge. The capacity of areas of refuge shall be com- 
puted on a net floor area allowance of 3 square feet (0.2787 m^) 
for each occupant to be accommodated therein, not including 
areas of stairways, elevators and other shafts or courts. 



ra; The net floor area allowable per occupant shall 
be as follows for the indicated occupancies: 

1 . Six square feet (0.6 m^) per occupant for occupancies 
in Group 1-3. 

2. Fifteen square feet ( 1 .4 m^) per occupant for ambula- 
tory occupancies in Group 1-2. 

3. Thirty square feet (2.8 m^) per occupant for 
nonambulatory occupancies in Group 1-2. 



EXTERIOR Em nkMPB AND SMIRWAYi 



m. Exterior exit 
ramps and stairways serving as an element of a required means 
of egress shall comply with this section. 

Exceptioes Exterior exit ramps and stairways for outdoor 
stadiums complying with Section 1019.1, Exception 2. 

1022.2 Use im a meaes of egress. Exterior exit ramps and stair- 
ways shall not be used as an element of a required means of 
egress for occupancies in Group 1-2. For occupancies in other 
than Group 1-2, exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be per- 
mitted as an element of a required means of egress for buildings 
not exceeding six stories or 75 feet (22 860 mm) in height. 



J. Exterior exit ramps and stairways serving as 
an element of a required means of egress shall be open on at 
least one side. An open side shall have a minimum of 35 square 
feet (3.3 m^) of aggregate open area adjacent to each floor level 
and the level of each intermediate landing. The required open 
area shall be located not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above 
the adjacent floor or landing level. 



5. The open areas adjoining exterior exit 
ramps or stairways shall be either yards, courts or public ways; 
the remaining sides are permitted to be enclosed by the exterior 
walls of the building. 

1022.5 L<ocait5©m. Exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be lo- 
cated in accordance with Section 1023.3. 



L Exterior 

exit ramps and stairways shall be separated from the interior of 
the building as required in Section 1019.1. Openings shall be 
limited to those necessary for egress from normally occupied 
spaces. 



1 . Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired for occupancies, other than those in Group R- 1 
or R-2, in buildings that are no more than two stories 
above grade where the level of exit discharge is the 
first story above grade. 



2003 BNTEIRNATIOMAL FIRE CODE® 



i21 



lEANS OF EGRESS 



2. Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired where the exterior ramp or stairway is served 
by an exterior ramp and/or balcony that connects two 
remote exterior stairways or other approved exits, 
with a perimeter that is not less than 50 percent open. 
To be considered open, the opening shall be a mini- 
mum of 50 percent of the height of the enclosing wall, 
with the top of the openings no less than 7 feet (2134 
mm) above the top of the balcony. 

3. Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired for an exterior ramp or stairway located in a 
building or structure that is permitted to have unen- 
closed interior stairways in accordance with Section 
1019.1. 

4. Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired for exterior ramps or stairways connected to 
open-ended corridors, provided that Items 4.1 
through 4.4 are met: 

4.1. The building, including corridors and ramps 
and/or stairs, shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

4.2. The open-ended corridors comply with Sec- 
tion 1016. 

4.3. The open-ended corridors are connected on 
each end to an exterior exit ramp or stairway 
complying with Section 1022. 

4.4. At any location in an open-ended corridor 
where a change of direction exceeding 45 de- 
grees (0.79 rad) occurs, a clear opening of not 
less than 35 square feet (3.3 m^) or an exterior 
ramp or stairway shall be provided. Where 
clear openings are provided, they shall be lo- 
cated so as to minimize the accumulation of 
smoke or toxic gases. 



[BISECTION 1023 
EXIT DISCHARGE 

1023.1 GeeeraL Exits shall discharge directly to the exterior of 
the building. The exit discharge shall be at grade or shall pro- 
vide direct access to grade. The exit discharge shall not reenter 
a building. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A maximum of 50 percent of the number and capacity 
of the exit enclosures is permitted to egress through 
areas on the level of discharge provided all of the fol- 
lowing are met: 

1.1. Such exit enclosures egress to a free and unob- 
structed way to the exterior of the building, 
which way is readily visible and identifiable 
from the point of termination of the exit enclo- 
sure. 

1 .2. The entire area of the level of discharge is sep- 
arated from areas below by construction con- 



forming to the fire-resistance rating for the 
exit enclosure. 

1 .3. The egress path from the exit enclosure on the 
level of discharge is protected throughout by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system. All 
portions of the level of discharge with access 
to the egress path shall either be protected 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, or separated from the 
egress path in accordance with the require- 
ments for the enclosure of exits. 

2. A maximum of 50 percent of the number and capacity 
of the exit enclosures is permitted to egress through a 
vestibule provided all of the following are met: 

2.1. The entire area of the vestibule is separated 
from areas below by construction conforming 
to the fire-resistance rating for the exit enclo- 
sure. 

2.2. The depth from the exterior of the building is 
not greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) and the 
length is not greater than 30 feet (9144 mm). 

2.3. The area is separated from the remainder of 
the level of exit discharge by construction pro- 
viding protection at least the equivalent of ap- 
proved wired glass in steel frames. 

2.4. The area is used only for means of egress and 
exits directly to the outside. 

3. Stairways in open parking garages complying with 
Section 1019.1, Exception 5, are permitted to egress 
through the open parking garage at the level of exit 
discharge. 

1023.2 Exit dlscliarge capacity. The capacity of the exit dis- 
charge shall be not less than the required discharge capacity of 
the exits being served. 

1023.3 Exit discharge location. Exterior balconies, stairways 
and ramps shall be located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from ad- 
jacent lot lines and from other buildings on the same lot unless 
the adjacent building exterior walls and openings are protected 
in accordance with Section 704 of the International Building 
Code based on fire separation distance. 

1023.4 Exit discharge components. Exit discharge compo- 
nents shall be sufficiently open to the exterior so as to minimize 
the accumulation of smoke and toxic gases. 

1023.5 Egress courts. Egress courts serving as a portion of the 
exit discharge in the means of egress system shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 1023. 

1023.S.1 Width. The width of egress courts shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall 
not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm), except as specified 
herein. Egress courts serving occupancies in Group R-3 ap- 
plicable in Section 1001 . 1 and Group U shall not be less than 
36 inches (914 mm) in width. 

The required width of egress courts shall be unobstructed 
to a height of 7 feet (2134 mm). 



122 



2003 B^JTER^SAT10NAL FIRE CODE® 



lEAiMS OF EGRESS 



tmni Doors, when fully opened, and handrails 
shall not reduce the required width by more than 7 inches 
(178 mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the re- 
quired width by more than one-half. Other nonstructural 
projections such as trim and similar decorative feature 
are permitted to project into the required width 1 .5 inches 
(38 mm) from each side. 

Where an egress court exceeds the minimum required 
width and the width of such egress court is then reduced 
along the path of exit travel, the reduction in width shall be 
gradual. The transition in width shall be affected by a guard 
not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height and shall not cre- 
ate an angle of more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) with respect 
to the axis of the egress court along the path of egress travel. 
In no case shall the width of the egress court be less than the 
required minimum. 

W233.2 CoESltiriuicMom amdl opemmgSo Where an egress 
court serving a building or portion thereof is less than 10 feet 
(3048 mm) in width, the egress court walls shall be not less 
than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior walls complying 
with Section 704 of the International Building Code for a 
distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor of the court, 
and openings therein shall be equipped with fixed or 
self-closing, ^-hour opening protective assemblies. 



1 . Egress courts serving an occupant load of less than 
10. 

2. Egress courts serving Group R-3 as applicable in 
Section 1001.1. 

1(0)23.6 Access to a pelbMc way. The exit discharge shall pro- 
vide a direct and unobstructed access to a public way. 



m 



dnoe; Where access to a public way cannot be pro- 
vided, a safe dispersal area shall be provided where all of the 
following are met: 

1 . The area shall be of a size to accommodate at least 5 
square feet (0.28 m^) for each person. 

2. The area shall be located on the same property at least 
50 feet (15 240 mm) away from the building requiring 
egress. 

3. The area shall be permanently maintained and identi- 
fied as a safe dispersal area. 

4. The area shall be provided with a safe and unob- 
structed path of travel from the building. 



PI SECTDOW 10241 
ASSEMBLY 

. Occupancies in Group A which contain seats, 
tables, displays, equipment or other material shall comply with 
this section. 

10)24.1.1 Bleaclhers. Bleachers, grandstands, and folding 
and telescopic seating shall comply with the ICC 300. 



Group A occupancies that have 
an occupant load of greater than 300 shall be provided with a 
main exit. The main exit shall be of sufficient width to accom- 
modate not less than one-half of the occupant load, but such 
width shall not be less than the total required width of all means 
of egress leading to the exit. Where the building is classified as 
a Group A occupancy, the main exit shall front on at least one 
street or an unoccupied space of not less than 10 feet (3048 
mm) in width that adjoins a street or public way. 



u% In assembly occupancies where there is no 
well-defined main exit or where multiple main exits are pro- 
vided, exits shall be permitted to be distributed around the 
perimeter of the building provided that the total width of 
egress is not less than 100 percent of the required width. 



1024.3 AssemtoSy oHlher exits. In addition to having access to a 
main exit, each level of an occupancy in Group A having an oc- 
cupant load greater than 300 shall be provided with additional 
exits that shall provide an egress capacity for at least one-half 
of the total occupant load served by that level and comply with 
Section 1014.2. 



ni In assembly occupancies where there is no 
well-defined main exit or where multiple main exits are pro- 
vided, exits shall be permitted to be distributed around the 
perimeter of the building provided that the total width of 
egress is not less than 100 percent of the required width. 



Dies. In Group A-1 occupancies, where 
persons are admitted to the building at times when seats are not 
available and are allowed to wait in a lobby or similar space, 
such use of lobby or similar space shall not encroach upon the 
required clear width of the means of egress. Such waiting areas 
shall be separated from the required means of egress by sub- 
stantial permanent partitions or by fixed rigid railings not less 
than 42 inches (1067 mm) high. Such foyer, if not directly con- 
nected to a public street by all the main entrances or exits, shall 
have a straight and unobstructed corridor or path of travel to ev- 
ery such main entrance or exit. 



Qiff egress. For 

balconies or galleries having a seating capacity of over 50 lo- 
cated in Group A occupancies, at least two means of egress 
shall be provided, one from each side of every balcony or gal- 
lery, with at least one leading directly to an exit. 

MD24.S.1 Emclosiare olF toakoey opemings. Interior stairways 
and other vertical openings shall be enclosed in a vertical exit 
enclosure as provided in Section 1019.1, except that stairways 
are permitted to be open between the balcony and the main as- 
sembly floor in occupancies such as theaters, churches and au- 
ditoriums. At least one accessible means of egress is required 
from a balcony or gallery level containing accessible seating 
locations in accordance with Section 1007.3 or 1007.4. 

1024.6 Widllli of meaims of egress for assembly. The clear width 
of aisles and other means of egress shall comply with Section 
1024.6.1 where smoke-protected seating is not provided and with 
Section 1024.6.2 or 1024.6.3 where smoke-protected seating is 
provided. The clear width shall be measured to walls, edges of 
seating and tread edges except for permitted projections. 



123 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



1024.6.1 Without smoke protection. The clear width of 
the means of egress shall provide sufficient capacity in ac- 
cordance with all of the following, as applicable: 

1 . At least 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) of width for each occupant 
served shall be provided on stairs having riser heights 
7 inches (178 nmi) or less and tread depths 1 1 inches 
(279 mm) or greater, measured horizontally between 
tread nosing. 

2. At least 0.005 inch (0.127 nrai) of additional stair 
width for each occupant shall be provided for each 0. 10 
inch (2.5 mm) of riser height above 7 inches (178 mm). 

3. Where egress requires stair descent, at least 0.075 
inch (1.9 mm) of additional width for each occupant 
shall be provided on those portions of stair width hav- 
ing no handrail within a horizontal distance of 30 
inches (762 mm). 

4. Ramped means of egress, where slopes are steeper 
than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent 
slope), shall have at least 0.22 inch (5.6 mm) of clear 
width for each occupant served. Level or ramped 
means of egress, where slopes are not steeper than one 
unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope), 
shall have at least 0.20 inch (5.1 mm) of clear width 
for each occupant served. 

1024.6.2 Smoke-protected seating. The clear width of the 
means of egress for smoke-protected assembly seating shall 
be not less than the occupant load served by the egress ele- 
ment multiplied by the appropriate factor in Table 1024.6.2. 
The total number of seats specified shall be those within a 
single assembly space and exposed to the same smoke-pro- 
tected environment. Interpolation is permitted between the 
specific values shown. A life safety evaluation, complying 
with NFPA 101, shall be done for a facility utilizing the re- 
duced width requirements of Table 1024.6.2 for smoke-pro- 
tected assembly seating. 

Exception: For an outdoor smoke-protected assembly 
with an occupant load not greater than 18,000, the clear 
width shall be determined using the factors in Section 
1024.6.3. 

1024.6.2.1 Smoke control. Means of egress serving a 
smoke-protected assembly seating area shall be provided 
with a smoke control system complying with Section 



909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the 
smoke level at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor of 
the means of egress. 

1024.6.2.2 Roof height. A smoke-protected assembly 
seating area with a roof shall have the lowest portion of 
the roof deck not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the 
highest aisle or aisle accessway. 

Exception: A roof canopy in an outdoor stadium shall 
be permitted to be less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above 
the highest aisle or aisle accessway provided that 
there are no objects less than 80 inches (2032 mm) 
above the highest aisle or aisle accessway. 

1024.6.2.3 Automatic sprinklers. Enclosed areas with 
walls and ceilings in buildings or structures containing 
smoke-protected assembly seating shall be protected 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

Exceptions: 

1. The floor area used for contests, performances 
or entertainment provided the roof construction 
is more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) above the 
floor level and the use is restricted to low fire 
hazard uses. 

2. Press boxes and storage facilities less than 
1,000 square feet (93 m^) in area. 

3. Outdoor seating facilities where seating and the 
means of egress in the seating area are essen- 
tially open to the outside. 

1024.6.3 Width of means of egress for outdoor 
smoke-protected assembly. The clear width in inches 
(mm) of aisles and other means of egress shall be not less 
than the total occupant load served by the egress element 
multipUed by 0.08 (2.0 mm) where egress is by aisles and 
stairs and multiplied by 0.06 (1.52 mm) where egress is by 
ramps, corridors, tunnels or vomitories. 

Exception: The clear width in inches (mm) of aisles and 
other means of egress shall be permitted to comply with 
Section 1024.6.2 for the number of seats in the outdoor 
smoke-protected assembly where Section 1024.6.2 per- 
mits less width. 



TABLE 1024.6.2 
WIDTH OF AISLES FOR SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY 



TOTAL NUMBER OF 
SEATS IN THE SMOKE- 
PROTECTED ASSEMBLY 
OCCUPANCY 


INCHES OF CLEAR WIDTH PER SEAT SERVED 


Stairs and aisle steps with 
handrails within 30 inches 


Stairs and aisle steps 
without handrails 
within 30 inches 


Passageways, doorways 

and ramps not steeper 

than 1 in 10 in slope 


Ramps steeper 
than 1 in 10 in slope 


Equal to or less than 5,000 


0.200 


0.250 


0.150 


0.165 


10,000 


0.130 


0.163 


0.100 


0.110 


15,000 


0.096 


0.120 


0.070 


0.077 


20,000 


0.076 


0.095 


0.056 


0.062 


Equal to or greater than 25,000 


0.060 


0.075 


0.044 


0.048 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



124 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



lEANS OF EGRESS 



istamceo Exits and aisles shall be so located that 
the travel distance to an exit door shall not be greater than 200 
feet (60 960 mm) measured along the line of travel in 
nonsprinklered buildings. Travel distance shall not be more 
than 250 feet (76 200 mm) in sprinklered buildings. Where 
aisles are provided for seating, the distance shall be measured 
along the aisles and aisle accessway without travel over or on 
the seats. 



1. Smoke-protected assembly seating: The travel dis- 
tance from each seat to the nearest entrance to a 
vomitory or concourse shall not exceed 200 feet (60 
960 mm). The travel distance from the entrance to the 
vomitory or concourse to a stair, ramp or walk on the 
exterior of the building shall not exceed 200 feet (60 
960 mm). 

2. Open-air seating: The travel distance from each seat 
to the building exterior shall not exceed 400 feet (122 
m). The travel distance shall not be limited in facilities 
of Type I or II construction. 

1024.8 Common patlhi of travel. The common path of travel 
shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any seat to a point 
where a person has a choice of two paths of egress travel to two 
exits. 



1. For areas serving not more than 50 occupants, the 
common path of travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 
860 mm). 

2. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the common 
path of travel shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

1024.8.1 Patlh throiiiglh adjacemt row. Where one of the two 
paths of travel is across the aisle through a row of seats to an- 
other aisle, there shall be not more than 24 seats between the 
two aisles, and the minimum clear width between rows for 
the row between the two aisles shall be 12 inches (305 mm) 
plus 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for each additional seat above seven 
in the row between aisles. 



ni: For smoke-protected assembly seating there 
shall not be more than 40 seats between the two aisles and 
the minimum clear width shall be 12 inches (305 mm) 
plus 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) for each additional seat. 



aisles are reqiiiredl. Every occupied portion 
of any occupancy in Group A that contains seats, tables, dis- 
plays, similar fixtures or equipment shall be provided with 
aisles leading to exits or exit access doorways in accordance 
with this section. Aisle accessways for tables and seating shall 
comply with Section 1013.4.2. 

1024,9.1 MnEimuim aisle wMth. The minimum clear width 
of aisles shall be as shown: 

1. Forty-eight inches (1219 mm) for aisle stairs having 
seating on each side. 

Exception; Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the 
aisle does not serve more than 50 seats. 

2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for aisle stairs having 
seating on only one side. 



3. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between an aisle stair 
handrail or guard and seating where the aisle is subdi- 
vided by a handrail. 

4. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for level or ramped 
aisles having seating on both sides. 



1. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle 
does not serve more than 50 seats. 

2. Thirty inches (762 mm) where the aisle does 
not serve more than 14 seats. 

5. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for level or ramped aisles 
having seating on only one side. 

Exceptiom: Thirty inches (762 mm) where the 
aisle does not serve more than 14 seats. 

6. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between an aisle stair 
handrail and seating where an aisle does not serve 
more than five rows on one side. 



The aisle width shall provide suffi- 
cient egress capacity for the number of persons accommo- 
dated by the catchment area served by the aisle. The 
catchment area served by an aisle is that portion of the total 
space that is served by that section of the aisle. In establish- 
ing catchment areas, the assumption shall be made that there 
is a balanced use of all means of egress, with the number of 
persons in proportion to egress capacity. 



jimg aisles. Where aisles converge to form 
a single path of egress travel, the required egress capacity of 
that path shall not be less than the combined required capac- 
ity of the converging aisles. 



Those portions of aisles, where 
egress is possible in either of two directions, shall be uni- 
form in required width. 



1024,9,5 Assembly aisle terminiatioe. Each end of an aisle 
shall terminate at cross aisle, foyer, doorway, vomitory or 
concourse having access to an exit. 



1 . Dead-end aisles shall not be greater than 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in length. 

2. Dead-end aisles longer than 20 feet (6096 mm) are 
permitted where seats beyond the 20-foot (6096 
mm) dead-end aisle are no more than 24 seats from 
another aisle, measured along a row of seats hav- 
ing a minimum clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) 
plus 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for each additional seat 
above seven in the row. 

3. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the 
dead-end aisle length of vertical aisles shall not ex- 
ceed a distance of 21 rows. 

4. For smoke-protected assembly seating, a longer 
dead-end aisle is permitted where seats beyond the 
21 -row dead-end aisle are not more than 40 seats 
from another aisle, measured along a row of seats 
having an aisle accessway with a minimum clear 
width of 12 inches (305 mm) plus 0.3 inch (7.6 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



125 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



mm) for each additional seat above seven in the 
row. 

1024.9.6 Assembly aisle obstructions. There shall be no 
obstructions in the required width of aisles except for hand- 
rails as provided in Section 1024.13. 

1024.10 Clear width of aisle accessways serving seating. 
Where seating rows have 14 or fewer seats, the minimum clear 
aisle access way width shall not be less than 12 inches (305 mm) 
measured as the clear horizontal distance from the back of the 
row ahead and the nearest projection of the row behind. Where 
chairs have automatic or self-rising seats, the measurement 
shall be made with seats in the raised position. Where any chair 
in the row does not have an automatic or self-rising seat, the 
measurements shall be made with the seat in the down position. 
For seats with folding tablet arms, row spacing shall be deter- 
mined with the tablet arm down. 

1024.10.1 Dual access. For rows of seating served by aisles 
or doorways at both ends, there shall not be more than 100 
seats per row. The minimum clear width of 12 inches (305 
mm) between rows shall be increased by 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) 
for every additional seat beyond 14 seats, but the minimum 
clear width is not required to exceed 22 inches (559 mm). 

Exceptioe: For smoke-protected assembly seating, the 
row length limits for a 12-inch- wide (305 mm) aisle 
accessway, beyond which the aisle accessway minimum 
clear width shall be increased, are in Table 1024.10.1. 

TABLE 1024.10.1 

SWiOKE-PROTECTED 

ASSEMBLY AISLE ACCESSWAYS 



TOTAL NUMBER OF 
SEATS IN THE SMOKE- 
PROTECTED ASSEMBLY 
OCCUPANCY 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SEATS PER ROW 

PERMITTED TO HAVE A MINIMUM 12-INCH 

CLEAR WIDTH AISLE ACCESSWAY 


Aisle or doorway at 
both ends of row 


Aisle or doorway at 
one end of row only 


Less than 4,000 


14 


7 


4,000 


15 


7 


7,000 


16 


8 


10,000 


17 


8 


13,000 


18 


9 


16,000 


19 


9 


19,000 


20 


10 


22,000 and greater 


21 


11 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

1024.10.2 Single access. For rows of seating served by an 
aisle or doorway at only one end of the row, the minimum 
clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) between rows shall be in- 
creased by 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for every additional seat be- 
yond seven seats, but the minimum clear width is not 
required to exceed 22 inches (559 mm). 

Exceptloe: For smoke-protected assembly seating, the 
row length limits for a 12-inch- wide (305 mm) aisle 
accessway, beyond which the aisle accessway minimum 
clear width shall be increased, are in Table 1024.10.1. 

1024.11 Assembly aisle walking surfaces. Aisles with a slope 
not exceeding one unit vertical in eight units horizontal 
(12.5-percent slope) shall consist of a ramp having a slip-resis- 



tant walking surface. Aisles with a slope exceeding one unit 
vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope) shall con- 
sist of a series of risers and treads that extends across the full 
width of aisles and comphes with Sections 1024.11.1 through 
1024.11.3. 

1024.11.1 Treads. Tread depths shall be a minimum of 1 1 
inches (279 mm) and shall have dimensional uniformity. 

Exception: The tolerance between adjacent treads shall 
not exceed 0.188 inch (4.8 mm). 

1024.11.2 Risers. Where the gradient of aisle stairs is to be 
the same as the gradient of adjoining seating areas, the riser 
height shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) nor more 
than 8 inches (203 mm) and shall be uniform within each 
flight. 

Exceptions! 

1 . Riser height nonuniformity shall be limited to the 
extent necessitated by changes in the gradient of 
the adjoining seating area to maintain adequate 
sightlines. Where nonuniformities exceed 0.188 
inch (4.8 mm) between adjacent risers, the exact 
location of such nonuniformities shall be indicated 
with a distinctive marking stripe on each tread at 
the nosing or leading edge adjacent to the nonuni- 
form risers. Such stripe shall be a minimum of 1 
inch (25 mm), and a maximum of 2 inches (51 
mm), wide. The edge marking stripe shall be dis- 
tinctively different from the contrasting marking 
stripe. 

2. Riser heights not exceeding 9 inches (229 mm) 
shall be permitted where they are necessitated by 
the slope of the adjacent seating ai'eas to maintain 
sighthnes. 

1024.11.3 Tread contrasting marking stripe. A contrast- 
ing marking stripe shall be provided on each tread at the nos- 
ing or leading edge such that the location of each tread is 
readily apparent when viewed in descent. Such stripe shall 
be a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm), and a maximum of 2 
inches (51 mm), wide. 

Exception: The contrasting marking stripe is permitted 
to be omitted where tread surfaces are such that the loca- 
tion of each tread is readily apparent when viewed in de- 
scent. 

1024.12 Seat stability. In places of assembly, the seats shall be 
securely fastened to the floor. 

Exceptions: 

1. In places of assembly or portions thereof without 
ramped or tiered floors for seating and with 200 or 
fewer seats, the seats shall not be required to be fas- 
tened to the floor. 

2. In places of assembly or portions thereof with seating 
at tables and without ramped or tiered floors for seat- 
ing, the seats shall not be required to be fastened to the 
floor. 

3. In places of assembly or portions thereof without 
ramped or tiered floors for seating and with greater 
than 200 seats, the seats shall be fastened together in 



126 



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groups of not less than three or the seats shall be se- 
curely fastened to the floor. 

4. In places of assembly where flexibility of the seating 
arrangement is an integral part of the design and func- 
tion of the space and seating is on tiered levels, a max- 
imum of 200 seats shall not be required to be fastened 
to the floor. Plans showing seating, tiers and aisles 
shall be submitted for approval. 

5. Groups of seats within a place of assembly separated 
from other seating by railings, guards, partial height 
walls or similar barriers with level floors and having 
no more than 14 seats per group shall not be required 
to be fastened to the floor. 

6. Seats intended for musicians or other performers and 
separated by railings, guards, partial height walls or 
similar barriers shall not be required to be fastened to 
the floor. 

1(024.13 Hamdrails. Ramped aisles having a slope exceeding 
one unit vertical in 15 units horizontal (6.7-percent slope) and 
aisle stairs shall be provided with handrails located either at the 
side or within the aisle width. 



1 . Handrails are not required for ramped aisles having a 
gradient no greater than one unit vertical in eight units 
horizontal (12. 5 -percent slope) and seating on both 
sides. 

2. Handrails are not required if, at the side of the aisle, 
there is a guard that complies with the graspability re- 
quirements of handrails. 

l(D24.13ol Discomtieeoes Ihainidranls. Where there is seat- 
ing on both sides of the aisle, the handrails shall be discon- 
tinuous with gaps or breaks at intervals not exceeding five 
rows to facilitate access to seating and to permit crossing 
from one side of the aisle to the other. These gaps or breaks 
shall have a clear width of at least 22 inches (559 mm) and 
not greater than 36 inches (914 mm), measured horizontally, 
and the handrail shall have rounded terminations or bends. 



Where handrails are 
provided in the middle of aisle stairs, there shall be an addi- 
tional intermediate handrail located approximately 12 inches 
(305 mm) below the main handrail. 

1((D24«14 Assembly guards. Assembly guards shall comply 
with Sections 1024.14.1 through 1024.14.3. 

1©24.14.1 Cross aisles. Cross aisles located more than 30 
inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below shall have 
guards in accordance with Section 1012. 

Where an elevation change of 30 inches (762 mm) or less 
occurs between a cross aisle and the adjacent floor or grade 
below, guards not less than 26 inches (660 mm) above the 
aisle floor shall be provided. 

ExcepMomi; Where the backs of seats on the front of the 
cross aisle project 24 inches (610 mm) or more above the 
adjacent floor of the aisle, a guard need not be provided. 

1024.14.2 Sngliiffim!e=coes!tiraiinied geard Jielgite. Unless 
subject to the requirements of Section 1024. 14.3, a fascia or 
railing system in accordance with the guard requirements of 



Section 1012 and having a minimum height of 26 inches 
(660 mm) shall be provided where the floor or footboard el- 
evation is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or 
grade below and the fascia or railing would otherwise inter- 
fere with the sightlines of immediately adjacent seating. At 
bleachers, a guard must be provided where the floor or foot- 
board elevation is more than 24 inches (610 mm) above the 
floor or grade below and the fascia or railing would other- 
wise interfere with the sightlines of the immediately adja- 
cent seating. 



f aisles. A fascia or railing 
system complying with the guard requirements of Section 
1012 shall be provided for the full width of the aisle where 
the foot of the aisle is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above 
the floor or grade below. The fascia or railing shall be a min- 
imum of 36 inches (914 mm) high and shall provide a mini- 
mum 42 inches (1067 mm) measured diagonally between 
the top of the rail and the nosing of the nearest tread. 



1(D)24.1S BeMcSii seatimg. Where bench seating is used, the num- 
ber of persons shall be based on one person for each 18 inches 
(457 mm) of length of the bench. 



EfiiEROEMCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE 

1(D)25.1 Gemeral. In addition to the means of egress required by 
this chapter, provisions shall be made for emergency escape 
and rescue in Group R as applicable in Section 1001.1 and 
Group I-l occupancies. Basements and sleeping rooms below 
the fourth story above grade plane shall have at least one exte- 
rior emergency escape and rescue opening in accordance with 
this section. Where basements contain one or more sleeping 
rooms, emergency egress and rescue openings shall be required 
in each sleeping room, but shall not be required in adjoining ar- 
eas of the basement. Such opening shall open directly into a 
public street, public alley, yard or court. 

Exceptioms: 

1. In other than Group R-3 occupancies as applicable in 
Section 1001.1, buildings equipped throughout with 
an approved automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

2. In other than Group R-3 occupancies as applicable in 
Section 1001.1, sleeping rooms provided with a door 
to a fire-resistance-rated corridor having access to 
two remote exits in opposite directions. 

3. The emergency escape and rescue opening is permit- 
ted to open onto a balcony within an atrium in accor- 
dance with the requirements of Section 404 of the 
International Building Code, provided the balcony 
provides access to an exit and the dwelling unit or 
sleeping unit has a means of egress that is not open to 
the atrium. 

4. Basements with a ceiling height of less than 80 inches 
(2032 nrni) shall not be required to have emergency 
escape and rescue windows. 

5 . High-rise buildings in accordance with Section 403 of 
the International Building Code. 



Cn 



2003 IMTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



127 



lEANS OF EGRESS 



6. Emergency escape and rescue openings are not re- 
quired from basements or sleeping rooms which have 
an exit door or exit access door that opens directly into 
a public street, public alley, yard, egress court or to an 
exterior exit balcony that opens to a public street, pub- 
lic alley, yard or egress court. 

7. Basements without habitable spaces and having no 
more than 200 square feet (18.6 square meters) in 
floor area shall not be required to have emergency es- 
cape windows. 

1025.2 Mieimum size. Emergency escape and rescue open- 
ings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet 
(0.53 m2). 

Exception: The minimum net clear opening for emergency 
escape and rescue grade-floor openings shall be 5 square 
feet (0.46 m^). 

1025.2.1 Mleimum dimensions. The minimum net clear 
opening height dimension shall be 24 inches (610 mm). The 
minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 
inches (508 mm). The net clear opening dimensions shall be 
the result of normal operation of the opening. 

1025.3 Maximum height from floor. Emergency escape and 
rescue openings shall have the bottom of the clear opening not 
greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor. 

1025.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and res- 
cue openings shall be operational from the inside of the room 
without the use of keys or tools. Bars, grilles, grates or similar 
devices are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and 
rescue openings provided the minimum net clear opening size 
complies with Section 1025.2 and such devices shall be 
releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a 
key, tool or force greater than that which is required for normal 
operation of the escape and rescue opening. Where such bars, 
grilles, grates or similar devices are installed in existing build- 
ings, smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.10 regardless of the valuation of the alteration. 

1025.5 Window wells. An emergency escape and rescue open- 
ing with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground level 
shall be provided with a window well in accordance with Sec- 
tions 1025.5.1 and 1025.5.2. 

1025.5.1 Minimum size. The minimum horizontal area of 
the window well shall be 9 square feet (0.84 m^), with a min- 
imum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm). The area of the 
window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue 
opening to be fully opened. 

1025.5.2 Ladders or steps. Window wells with a vertical 
depth of more than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be equipped 
with an approved permanently affixed ladder or steps. Lad- 
ders or rungs shall have an inside width of at least 12 inches 
(305 mm), shall project at least 3 inches (76 mm) from the 
wall and shall be spaced not more than 18 inches (457 mm) 
on center (o.c.) vertically for the full height of the window 
well. The ladder or steps shall not encroach into the required 
dimensions of the window well by more than 6 inches (152 
mm). The ladder or steps shall not be obstructed by the 



emergency escape and rescue opening. Ladders or steps 
required by this section are exempt from the stairway re- 
quirements of Section 1009. 



iVIEANS OF EGRESS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 

1026.1 General. Means of egress in existing buildings shall 
comply with Sections 1003 through 1025, except as amended 
in Secdon 1026. 

Exception; Mean of egress conforming to the requirements 
of the building code under which they were constructed 
shall be considered as complying means of egress if, in the 
opinion of the fire code official, they do not constitute a dis- 
tinct hazard to hfe. 

1026.2 Elevators, escalators and moving walks. Elevators, 
escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component 
of a required means of egress. 

Exceptions; 

1 . Elevators used as an accessible means of egress where 
allowed by Secdon 1007.4. 

2. Previously approved escalators and moving walks in 
existing buildings. 

1026.3 Exit sign illnmination. Exit signs shall be internally or 
externally illuminated. The face of an exit sign illuminated 
from an external source, shall have an intensity of not less than 
5 foot-candles (54 lux). Internally illuminated signs shall pro- 
vide equivalent luminance and be listed for the purpose. 

Exception: Approved self-luminous signs that provide 
evenly illuminated letters shall have a minimum luminance 
of 0.06 foot-lamberts (0.21 cd/m^). 

1026.4 Power source. Where emergency illuminadon is re- 
quired in Section 1026.5, exit signs shall be visible under emer- 
gency illumination conditions. 

Exception; Approved signs that provide continuous illumi- 
nation independent of external power sources are not re- 
quired to be connected to an emergency electrical system. 

1026.5 Illumination emergency power. The power supply for 
means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the 
premises' electrical supply. In the event of power supply fail- 
ure, illumination shall be automatically provided from an 
emergency system for the following occupancies where such 
occupancies require two or more means of egress: 

1. Group A having more than 50 occupants. 

Exception; Assembly occupancies used exclusively as a 
place of worship and having an occupant load of less than 
300. 

2. Group B buildings three or more stories in height, build- 
ings with 100 or more occupants above or below the level 
of exit discharge, or buildings with 1,000 or more total 
occupants. 

3. Group E in interior stairs, corridors, windowless areas 
with student occupancy, shops and laboratories. 



928 



2003 SE^TERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



lEANS OF EGRESS 



4. Group F having more than 100 occupants. 

ExcepHEOOi Buildings used only during daylight hours 
which are provided with windows for natural hght in ac- 
cordance with the International Building Code. 

5. Group I. 

6. Group M. 

ExcepMoes Buildings less than 3,000 square feet (279 
m^) in gross sales area on one story only, excluding mez- 
zanines. 

7. Group R-1. 

Excepttnoim; Where each guestroom has direct access to 
the outside of the building at grade. 

8. Group R-2 as applicable in Section 1001.1. 

Exceptiom; Where each living unit has direct access to 
the outside of the building at grade. 

9. Group R-4. 

Excepttioe: Where each sleeping room has direct access 
to the outside of the building at ground level. 

The emergency power system shall provide power for not 
less than 60 minutes and consist of storage batteries, unit equip- 
ment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency 
power system shall be in accordance with Section 604. 



Is. Guards complying with this section shall be 
provided at the open sides of means of egress that are more than 
30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below. 



l®26o6.1 Heighlt of geardls. Guards shall form a protective 
barrier not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high. 

Exceptnoes: 

1 . Existing guards on the open side of stairs shall be 
not less than 30 inches (760 mm) high. 

2. Existing guards within dwelling units shall be not 
less than 36 inches (910 mm) high. 

3. Existing guards in assembly seating areas. 

1026.6o2 Opemimg InmitaMoes. Open guards shall have bal- 
usters or ornamental patterns such that a 6-inch diameter 
(152 mm) sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a 
height of 34 inches (864 mm). 



1 . At elevated walking surfaces for access to, and use 
of electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or 
equipment, guards shall have balusters or be of 
solid materials such that a sphere with a diameter 
of 21 inches (533 mm) cannot pass through any 
opening. 

2. In occupancies in Group 1-3, F, H or S, the clear 
distance between intermediate rails measured at 
right angles to the rails shall not exceed 21 inches 
(533 mm). 

3. Approved existing open guards. 



1026.7 Ske of doors. The minimum width of each door open- 
ing shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall 
provide a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm). 
Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 28 
inches (711 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves 
without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width 
of 28 inches (711 mm). The maximum width of a swinging 
door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of 
egress doors in an occupancy in Group 1-2 used for the move- 
ment of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 41.5 
inches (1054 mm). The height of doors shall not be less than 80 
inches (2032 mm). 



1 . The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to 
door openings that are not part of the required means 
of egress in occupancies in Groups R-2 and R-3 as ap- 
plicable in Section 1001.1. 

2. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square 
feet (0.93 m^) in area shall not be limited by the mini- 
mum width. 

3. Width of door leafs in revolving doors that comply 
with Section 1003.3.1.3.1 shall not be limited. 

4. Door openings within a dwelling unit shall not be less 
than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height. 

5. Exterior door openings in dwelling units, other than 
the required exit door, shall not be less than 76 inches 
(1930 mm) in height. 

6. Exit access doors serving a room not larger than 70 
square feet (6.5 m^) shall be not less than 24 inches 
(610 mm) in door width. 

1(II26.§ Opennmg force for doors. The opening force for inte- 
rior side- swinging doors without closers shall not exceed a 
5-pound (22 N) force. For other side-swinging, sliding and 
folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a 
force of not more than 15 pounds (66 N). The door shall be set 
in motion when subjected to a force not exceeding a 30-pound 
(133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open position 
when subjected to a force of not more than 50 pounds (222 N). 
Forces shall be applied to the latch side. 

1(D26.9 IRevolvimg doors. Revolving doors shall comply with 
the following: 

1. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of the foot or top of stairs or escalators. A dis- 
persal area shall be provided between the stairs or escala- 
tors and the revolving doors. 

2. The revolutions per minute for a revolving door shall not 
exceed those shown in Table 1026.9. 

3. Each revolving door shall have a conforming 
side-hinged swinging door in the same wall as the re- 
volving door and within 10 feet (3048 mm). 



1. A revolving door is permitted to be used without an 
adjacent swinging door for street floor elevator lob- 



2003 INTERNAUONAL FIRE CODE® 



129 



iVIEANS OF EGRESS 



bies provided a stairway, escalator or door from other 
parts of the building does not discharge through the 
lobby and the lobby does not have any occupancy or 
use other than as a means of travel between elevators 
and a street. 

2. Existing revolving doors where the number of revolv- 
ing doors does not exceed the number of swinging 
doors within 20 feet (6096 mm). 

TABLE 1026.9 
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS 



INSIDE DIAMETER 


POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE 

SPEED CONTROL 

(RPM) 


MANUAL-TYPE 

SPEED CONTROL 

(RPM) 


6'6" 


11 


12 


7'0" 


10 


11 


7 '6" 


9 


11 


8'0" 
8 '6" 


9 

8 


10 
9 


9'0" 


8 


9 


9 '6" 


7 


8 


lO'O" 


7 


8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

1026.9.1 Egress component. A revolving door used as a 
component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 
1026.9 and all of the following conditions: 

1 . Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more 
than 50 percent of the required egress capacity. 

2. Each revolving door shall be credited with not more 
than a 50-person capacity. 

3. Revolving doors shall be capable of being collapsed 
when a force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N) is 
applied within 3 inches (76 mm) of the outer edge of a 
wing. 

1026.10 Stair dimensions for existing stanrs. Existing stairs 
in buildings shall be permitted to remain if the rise does not ex- 
ceed 8.25 inches (210 mm) and the run is not less than 9 inches 
(229 mm). Existing stairs can be rebuilt. 

Exception: Other stairs approved by the fire code official. 

1026.10.1 Stair dimensions for replacement stairs. The 
replacement of an existing stairway in a structure shall not 
be required to comply with the new stairway requirements 
of Section 1009 where the existing space and construction 
will not allow a reduction in pitch or slope. 

1026.11 Winders. Existing winders shall be allowed to remain 
in use if they have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) 
and a minimum tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm) at a point 12 
inches (305 mm) from the narrowest edge. 

1026.12 Circular stairways. Existing circular stairs shall be 
allowed to continue in use provided the minimum depth of 



tread is 10 inches (254 mm) and the smallest radius shall not be 
less than twice the width of the stairway. 

1026.13 Stairway handrails. Stairways shall have handrails 
on at least one side. Handrails shall be located so that all por- 
tions of the stairway width required for egress capacity are 
within 44 inches (1118 mm) of a handrail. 

Exception: Aisle stairs provided with a center handrail are 
not required to have additional handrails. 

1026.13,1 Height. Handrail height, measured above stair 
tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less than 30 inches (762 
mm) and not more than 42 inches (1067 mm). 

1026.14 Slope of ramps. Ramp runs utilized as part of a means 
of egress shall have a running slope not steeper than one unit 
vertical in ten units horizontal (10-percent slope). The slope of 
other ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight 
units horizontal (12.5-percent slope). 

1026.15 Width of ramps. Existing ramps are permitted to have 
a minimum width of 30 inches (762 mm) but not less than the 
width required for the number of occupants served as deter- 
mined by Section 1005.1. 

1026.16 Fire escape stairs. Fire escape stairs shall comply 
with Sections 1026.16.1 through 1026.16.7. 

1026.16.1 Existing means of egress. Fire escape stairs shall 
be permitted in existing buildings but shall not constitute 
more than 50 percent of the required exit capacity. 

1026.16.2 Protection of openings. Openings within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of fire escape stairs shall be protected by fire as- 
semblies having a minimum 3/4-hour fire-resistance rating. 

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, opening protec- 
tion is not required. 

1026.16.3 Dimensions. Fire escape stairs shall meet the 
minimum width, capacity, riser height and tread depth as 
specified in Section 1026.10. 

1026.16.4 Access. Access to a fire escape from a corridor 
shall not be through an intervening room. Access to a fire es- 
cape stair shall be from a door or window meeting the crite- 
ria of Table 1005.1. Access to a fire escape stair shall be 
directly to a balcony, landing or platform. These shall be no 
higher than the floor or window sill level and no lower than 8 
inches (203 mm) below the floor level or 18 inches (457 
mm) below the window sill. 

1026.16.5 Materials and strength. Components of fire es- 
cape stairs shall be constructed of noncombustible materi- 
als. 

Fire escape stairs and balconies shall support the dead 
load plus a live load of not less than 100 pounds per square 
foot (4.78 kN/m^). Fire escape stairs and balconies shall be 
provided with a top and intermediate handrail on each side. 

The fire code official is authorized to require testing or 
other satisfactory evidence that an existing fire escape stair 
meets the requirements of this section. 



130 



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The lowest balcony shall not be 
more than 18 feet (5486 mm) from the ground. Fire escape 
stairs shall extend to the ground or be provided with counter- 
balanced stairs reaching the ground. 



m For fire escape stairs serving 10 or fewer oc- 
cupants, an approved fire escape ladder is allowed to 
serve as the termination for a fire escape stairs. 

1026,16.7 MalBiteimaiiice. Fire escapes shall be kept clear 
and unobstructed at all times and shall be maintained in 
good working order. 



1026ol7 ComdorSo Corridors serving an occupant load 
greater than 30 and the openings therein shall provide an effec- 
tive barrier to resist the movement of smoke. Transoms, lou- 
vers, doors and other openings shall be closed or be 
self-closing. 



1. Corridors in occupancies other than in Group H, 
which are equipped throughout with an approved au- 
tomatic sprinkler system. 

2. Patient room doors in corridors in occupancies in 
Group 1-2 where smoke barriers are provided in ac- 
cordance with the International Building Code. 

3. Corridors in occupancies in Group E where each 
room utilized for instruction or assembly has at least 
one-half of the required means of egress doors open- 
ing directly to the exterior of the building at ground 
level. 

4. Corridors that are in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

1026.17ol Comdor opemngs. Openings in corridor walls 
shall comply with the requirements of the International 
Building Code. 



1. Where 20-minute fire assemblies are required, 
solid wood doors at least 1 .75 inches (44 mm) thick 
or insulated steel doors are permitted. 

2. Openings protected with fixed wire glass set in 
steel frames. 

3. Openings covered with 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gyp- 
sum wallboard or 0.75-inch (19.1 mm) plywood on 
the room side. 

4. Opening protection is not required if the building is 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system. 

1®26.17.2 Dead emds. Where more than one exit or exit ac- 
cess doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged 
such that dead ends do not exceed the limits specified in Ta- 
ble 1026.17.2. 



m A dead-end passageway or corridor shall not 
be limited in length where the length of the dead-end pas- 
sageway or corridor is less than 2.5 times the least width 
of the dead-end passageway or corridor. 



1C1I26.17J Exit access travel distamce. Exits shall be lo- 
cated so that the maximum length of exit access travel, mea- 
sured from the most remote point to an approved exit along 
the natural and unobstructed path of egress travel, does not 
exceed the distances given in Table 1026.17.2. 

1026, 17o4 Commom path off egress travel. The common 
path of egress travel shall not exceed the distances given Ta- 
ble 1026.17.2. 

1026. 1§ Stairway disctoarge idemtiicatioini, A stairway in an 
exit enclosure which continues below the level of exit dis- 
charge shall be arranged and marked to make the direction of 
egress to a public way readily identifiable. 

Exception: Stairs that continue one-half story beyond the 
level of exit discharge need not be provided with barriers 
where the exit discharge is obvious. 

1026,19 Exterior stairway protectloim. Exterior exit stairs 
shall be separated from the interior of the building as required 
in Section 1022.6. Openings shall be hmited to those necessary 
for egress from normally occupied spaces. 

Exceptiomss 

1 . Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired for buildings that are two stories or less above 
grade where the level of exit discharge is the first story 
above grade. 

2. Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired where the exterior stairway is served by an ex- 
terior balcony that connects two remote exterior 
stairways or other approved exits, with a perimeter 
that is not less than 50 percent open. To be considered 
open, the opening shall be a minimum of 50 percent of 
the height of the enclosing wall, with the top of the 
opening not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the top 
of the balcony. 

3. Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired for an exterior stairway located in a building or 
structure that is permitted to have unenclosed interior 
stairways in accordance with Section 1019.1. 

4. Separation from the interior of the building is not re- 
quired for exterior stairways connected to open-ended 
corridors, provided that: 

4. 1 . The building, including corridors and stairs, is 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

4.2. The open-ended corridors comply with Sec- 
tion 1016. 

4.3. The open-ended corridors are connected on 
each end to an exterior exit stairway comply- 
ing with Section 1022.1. 

4.4. At any location in an open-ended corridor 
where a change of direction exceeding 45 de- 
grees occurs, a clear opening of not less than 
35 square feet (3 m^) or an exterior stairway 



2003 BNTERNATIOMAL FBRE CODE® 



131 



lEANS OF EGRESS 



shall be provided. Where clear openings are 
provided, they shall be located so as to mini- 
mize the accumulation of smoke or toxic 

gases. 

1026.20 Mimmum aisles width. The minimum clear width of 
aisles shall be: 

1. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for aisle stairs having seat- 
ing on each side. 

Exceptioe; Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle 
does not serve more than 50 seats. 

2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for stepped aisles having 
seating on only one side. 

Exception: Thirty inches (760 mm) for catchment areas 
serving not more than 60 seats. 



Twenty inches (508 mm) between a stepped aisle hand- 
rail or guard and seating when the aisle is subdivided by 
the handrail. 

Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for level or ramped aisles 
having seating on both sides. 

Exceptioo: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle 
does not serve more than 50 seats. 

Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for level or ramped aisles 
having seating on only one side. 

Exception: Thirty inches (760 mm) for catchment areas 
serving not more than 60 seats. 

Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between a stepped stair 
handrail and seating where an aisle does not serve more 
than five rows on one side. 



TABLE 1026.17.2 
COMMON PATH, DEAD-END AND TRAVEL D8STANCE UMnS (by occupancy) 




OCCUPANCY 


COWiMON PATH LllVilT 


DEAD-END LIMIT 


TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMIT 


Unsprinklered 
(feet) 


Sprinklered 
(feet) 


Unsprinklered 
(feet) 


Sprinklered 
(feet) 


Unsprinklered 
(feet) 


Sprinklered 
(feet) 


Group A 


20/75^ 


20/75^ 


20'' 


20'' 


200 


250 


Group B 


75 


100 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Group E 


75 


75 


20 


20 


200 


250 


Groups F- 1,8-1'* 


75 


100 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Groups F-2, S-2'' 


75 


100 


50 


50 


300 


400 


Group H-1 


25 


L 25 








75 


75 


Group H-2 


50 


100 








75 


100 


Group H-3 


50 


100 


20 


20 


100 


150 


Group H-4 


75 


75 


20 


20 


150 


175 


Group H-5 


75 


75 


20 


50 


150 


200 


Group I-l 


75 


75 


20 


20 


200 


250 


Group 1-2 (Health Care) 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


150 


200"^ 


Group 1-3 (Detention and 
Correctional — Use Conditions II, 
III, IV, V 


100 


100 


NR 


NR 


150^ 


200^ 


Group 1-4 (Day Care Centers) 


NR 


NR 


20 


20 


200 


250 


Group M (Covered Mall) 


75 


100 


50 


50 


200 


400 


Group M (Mercantile) 


75 


100 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Group R-1 (Hotels) 


75 


75 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Group R-2^ (Apartments) 


75 


75 


50 


50 


200 


250 


Group R-3^ (One- and 
Two-Family); Group R-4 
(Residential Care/Assisted Living) 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


Group U 


75 


75 


20 


20 


200 


250 



For SI: 1 foot =: 304.8 mm. 

a. 20 feet for common path serving more than 50 persons; 75 feet for common path serving 50 or fewer persons. 

b. See Section 1024.9.5 for dead-end aisles in Group A occupancies. 

c. This dimension is for the total travel distance, assuming incremental portions have fully utilized their allowable maximums. For travel distance within the room, 
and from the room exit access door to the exit, see the appropriate occupancy chapter. 

d. See the International Building Code for special requirements on spacing of doors in aircraft hangars. 

e. As applicable in Section 1001.1. 
NR = No requirements. 



132 



2003 INTERNATIONAL F5RE CODE® 



lEANS OF EGRESS 



1026«21 Stairway fflooir membeir sngiiis. Existing stairs shall be 
marked in accordance with Section 1019.1.7. 



SECTDOW 102? 
6iAINTENANCE ©F THE DViEANS OF EGRESS 

1027ol GeneraL The means of egress for buildings or portions 
thereof shall be maintained in accordance with this section. 



Required exit accesses, exits or exit dis- 
charges shall be continuously maintained free from obstruc- 
tions or impediments to full instant use in the case of fire or 
other emergency. Security devices affecting means of egress 
shall be subject to approval of the fire code official. 

W273 Obstrectioms, A means of egress shall be free from ob- 
structions that would prevent its use, including the accumula- 
tion of snow and ice. 

1027.4 Femislimgs amd decoratioms. Furnishings, decora- 
tions or other objects shall not be placed so as to obstruct exits, 
access thereto, egress therefrom, or visibility thereof. Hangings 
and draperies shall not be placed over exit doors or otherwise be 
located to conceal or obstruct an exit. Mirrors shall not be 
placed on exit doors. Mirrors shall not be placed in or adjacent 
to any exit in such a manner as to confuse the direction of exit. 

1027.5 Emergemcy escape opemmgs. Required emergency es- 
cape openings shall be maintained in accordance with the code 
in effect at the time of construction, and the following: Re- 

. quired emergency escape and rescue openings shall be opera- 
tional from the inside of the room without the use of keys or 
tools. Bars, grilles, grates or similar devices are allowed to be 
placed over emergency escape and rescue openings provided 
the minimum net clear opening size complies with the code that 
was in effect at the time of construction and such devices shall 
be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a 
key, tool or force greater than that which is required for normal 
operation of the escape and rescue opening. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 133 



1 34 2003 DNTERNATION AL FIRE CODE® 




CHAPTER 11 



SECTION 1101 
GENERAL 

1101.1 Scope. Airports, heliports, helistops and aircraft han- 
gars shall be in accordance with this chapter. 



not covered. Regulations not specifically 
contained herein pertaining to airports, aircraft maintenance, 
aircraft hangars and appurtenant operations shall be in accor- 
dance with nationally recognized standards. 

11(D)1.3 Permnts. For permits to operate aircraft-refuehng vehi- 
cles, application of flammable or combustible finishes, and hot 
work, see Section 105.6. 

SECTION 1102 
DEFINITIONS 

11(0)2.1 DeimMoms. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 



Any area used or 
intended for use for the parking, taxiing, takeoff, landing or 
other ground-based aircraft activity. 

AIMPORT. An area of land or structural surface that is used, or 
intended for use, for the landing and taking off of aircraft with 
an overall length greater than 39 feet (1 1 887 mm) and an over- 
all exterior fuselage width greater than 6.6 feet (2012 mm), and 
any appurtenant areas that are used or intended for use for air- 
port buildings and other airport facilities. 

HELIPORT, An area of land or water or a structural surface 
that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off of 
helicopters, and any appurtenant areas which are used, or in- 
tended for use, for heliport buildings and other hehport facili- 
ties. 

HELISTOP. The same as "Heliport," except that no fuehng, 
defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is per- 
mitted. 



ECTDON1103 



lldDS.l Soerces off igmitnom. Open flames, flame-producing de- 
vices and other sources of ignition shall not be permitted in a 
hangar, except in approved locations or in any location within 
50 feet (15 240 mm) of an aircraft-fueling operation. 

1103.2 SmokSmg, Smoking shall be prohibited in aircraft-refu- 
eling vehicles, aircraft hangars and aircraft operation areas 
used for cleaning, paint removal, painting operations or fuel- 
ing. "No Smoking" signs shall be provided in accordance with 
'Section 310. 

m Designated and approved smoking areas. 



jlmg. The aircraft operation area (AOA) and 
related areas shall be kept free from combustible debris at all 
times. 

1103.4 Fire departmemt access. Fire apparatus access roads 
shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Chapter 5 . 
Fire apparatus access roads and aircraft parking positions shall 
be designed in a manner so as to preclude the possibility of fire 
vehicles traveling under any portion of a parked aircraft. 

1103.5 Dispemsmg off lammaMe amd combmistiWe liquids. 
The dispensing, transferring and storage of flammable and 
combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this chapter 
and Chapter 34. Aircraft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing stations 
shall be in accordance with Chapter 22. 

1103.6 Comtastible storage. Combustible materials stored in 
aircraft hangars shall be stored in approved locations and con- 
tainers. 



^.7 Hazardous materiall storage. Hazardous materials 
shall be stored in accordance with Chapter 27. 



AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 



1104.1 Tramsfferrmg la 
Flammable and combustible liquids shall not be dispensed into 
or removed from a container, tank, vehicle or aircraft except in 
approved locations. 

1104.2 Appllcatlom off lammable amd comtoestltole llqiand 
imnshes. The application of flammable or Class II combustible 
liquid finishes is prohibited unless both of the following condi- 
tions are met: 

1 . The application of the liquid finish is accomphshed in an 
approved location. 

2. The application methods and procedures are in accor- 
dance with Chapter 15. 

1104.3 Cleammg parts. Class lA flammable hquids shall not 
be used to clean aircraft, aircraft parts or aircraft engines. 
Cleaning with other flammable and combustible liquids shall 
be in accordance with Section 3405.3.6. 

1104.4 Spills. This section shall apply to spills of flammable 
and combustible liquids and other hazardous materials. Fuel 
spill control shall also comply with Section 1106.11. 

1104.4ol CessatioE off work. Activities in the affected area 
not related to the mitigation of the spill shall cease until the 
spilled material has been removed or the hazard has been 
mitigated. 



Aircraft or other vehicles 
shall not be moved through the spill area until the spilled 
material has been removed or the hazard has been mitigated. 



2003 BNTERNAUOBMAL FtRE CODE® 



135 



AVIATION FACIUTIES 



L Spills shall be reported, documented 
and mitigated in accordance with the provisions of this 
chapter and Section 2703.3. 



engines. Aircraft engines shall not be run in 
aircraft hangars except in approved engine test areas. 

1104=6 Open flanie. Repairing of aircraft requiring the use of 
open flames, spark-producing devices or the heating of parts 
above 500°F (260°C) shall only be done outdoors or in an area 
complying with the provisions of the International Building 
Code for a Group F-1 occupancy. 



1105.1 General. Portable fire extinguishers suitable for flam- 
mable or combustible liquid and electrical-type fires shall be 
provided as specified in Sections 1105.2 through 1105.6 and 
Section 906. Extinguishers required by this section shall be in- 
spected and maintained in accordance with Section 906. 



])5o2 On towing vehicles. Vehicles used for towing aircraft 
shall be equipped with a minimum of one listed portable fire 
extinguisher complying with Section 906 and having a mini- 
mum rating of 20-B:C. 

1105.3 On welding apparatus. Welding apparatus shall be 
equipped with a minimum of one listed portable fire extin- 
guisher complying with Section 906 and having a minimum 
I ratingof2-A:20-B:C. 



-servicing tank veliicles. Aircraft 
fuel-servicing tank vehicles shall be equipped with a minimum 
of two listed portable fire extinguishers complying with Sec- 
tion 906, each having a minimum rating of 20-B:C. A portable 
fire extinguisher shall be readily accessible from either side of 
the vehicle. 



-servicing vehicles. Hydrant fuel- ser- 
vicing vehicles shall be equipped with a minimum of one listed 
portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906, and 
having a minimum rating of 20-B:C. 

1105.6 At fuel-dispensing stations. Portable fire 
extinguishers at fuel-dispensing stations shall be located such 
that pumps or dispensers are not more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
from one such extinguisher. Fire extinguishers shall be pro- 
vided as follows: 

1 . Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fuehng 
system is not more than 200 gallons per minute (13 L/s), 
a minimum of two listed portable fire extinguishers com- 
plying with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 
20-B:C shall be provided. 

2. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fuehng 
system is more than 200 gallons per minute (13 L/s) but 
not more than 350 gallons per minute (22 L/s), a mini- 
mum of one listed wheeled extinguisher complying with 
Section 906 and having a minimum extinguishing rating 
of 80-B:C, and a minimum agent capacity of 125 pounds 
(57 kg), shall be provided. 

3. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling 
system is more than 350 gallons per minute (22 L/s), a 
minimum of two listed wheeled extinguishers comply- 



ing with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 
80-B:C each, and a minimum capacity agent of 125 
pounds (57 kg) of each, shall be provided. 

1105.7 Fire extinguisher access. Portable fire extinguishers 
required by this chapter shall be accessible at all times. Where 
necessary, provisions shall be made to clear accumulations of 
snow, ice and other forms of weather-induced obstructions. 

1105.7.1 Cabinets. Cabinets and enclosed compartments 
used to house portable fire extinguishers shall be clearly 
marked with the words FIRE EXTINGUISHER in letters at 
least 2 inches (51 mm) high. Cabinets and compartments 
shall be readily accessible at all times. 

1 105.8 Reporting inse. Use of a fire extinguisher under any cir- 
cumstances shall be reported to the manager of the airport and 
the fire code official immediately after use. 



AIRCRAFT FUELING 

1106.1 Aircraft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing stations. Air- 
craft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing stations shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 22. 

1106.2 Airport fuel systems. Airport fuel systems shall be de- 
signed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 407. 



Estruction of aircraft-fueling vehicles and acces- 
sories. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall comply with this section 
and shall be designed and constructed in accordance with 
NFPA 407. 



5.3. 1 Transfer apparatus. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be equipped and maintained with an approved transfer 
apparatus. 



8.3,1.1 Internal combustion type. Where such 
transfer apparatus is operated by an individual unit of the 
internal-combustion-motor type, such power unit shall 
be located as remotely as practicable from pumps, pip- 
ing, meters, air eliminators, water separators, hose reels, 
and similar equipment, and shall be housed in a separate 
compartment from any of the aforementioned items. The 
fuel tank in connection therewith shall be suitably de- 
signed and installed, and the maximum fuel capacity 
shall not exceed 5 gallons (19 L) where the tank is in- 
stalled on the engine. The exhaust pipe, muffler and tail 
pipe shall be shielded. 



j.3.1.2 Gear operated. Where operated by gears or 
chains, the gears, chains, shafts, bearings, housing and 
all parts thereof shall be of an approved design and shall 
be installed and maintained in an approved manner. 

1106.3.1.3 Vibration isolation. Flexible connections for 
the purpose of eliminating vibration are allowed if the 
material used therein is designed, installed and main- 
tained in an approved manner, provided such connec- 
tions do not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) in length. 



>.3.2 Pumps. Pumps of a positive-displacement type 
shall be provided with a bypass relief valve set at a pressure 
of not more than 35 percent in excess of the normal working 
pressure of such unit. Such units shall be equipped and 



136 



2003 INTERNATIONAL F!RE CODE® 



AVIATION FACaLlTIES 



maintained with a pressure gauge on the discharge side of 
the pump. 

IW633 DispemsDEg liioses aed n&zzles. Hoses shall be de- 
signed for the transferring of hydrocarbon liquids and shall 
not be any longer than necessary to provide efficient fuel 
transfer operations. Hoses shall be equipped with an ap- 
proved shutoff nozzle. Fuel-transfer nozzles shall be 
self-closing and designed to be actuated by hand pressure 
only. Notches and other devices shall not be used for holding 
a nozzle valve handle in the open position. Nozzles shall be 
equipped with a bonding cable complete with proper attach- 
ment for aircraft to be serviced. 



L Electric wir- 
ing, switches, lights and other sources of ignition, when lo- 
cated in a compartment housing piping, pumps, air 
eliminators, water separators, hose reels or similar equip- 
ment, shall be enclosed in a vapor-tight housing. Electrical 
motors located in such a compartment shall be of a type ap- 
proved for use as specified in ICC Electrical Code. 

1106.3.5 Vemtlmg off equipmemt compartmemlts. Compart- 
ments housing piping, pumps, air eliminators, water separa- 
tors, hose reels and similar equipment shall be adequately 
ventilated at floor level or within the floor itself. 



Ladders, hose reels and 
similar accessory equipment shall be of an approved type 
and constructed substantially as follows: 

1 . Ladders constructed of noncombustible material are 
allowed to be used with or attached to aircraft-fueling 
vehicles, provided the manner of attachment or use of 
such ladders is approved and does not constitute an 
additional fire or accident hazard in the operation of 
such fuehng vehicles. 

2. Hose reels used in connection with fueling vehicles 
shall be constructed of noncombustible materials and 
shall be provided with a packing gland or other device 
which will preclude fuel leakage between reels and 
fuel manifolds. 

1106.3.7 Electrical toomdnimg provnstoms. Transfer appara- 
tus shall be metallically interconnected with tanks, chassis, 
axles and springs of aircraft- fueling vehicles. 

1106.3.7.1 Boedlng cables. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be provided and maintained with a substantial 
heavy-duty electrical cable of sufficient length to be 
bonded to the aircraft to be serviced. Such cable shall be 
metallically connected to the transfer apparatus or chas- 
sis of the aircraft-fueling vehicle on one end and shall be 
provided with a suitable metal clamp on the other end, to 
be fixed to the aircraft. 

1106.3.7.2 Bomdleg cable protectnom. The bonding ca- 
ble shall be bare or have a transparent protective sleeve 
and be stored on a reel or in a compartment provided for 
no other purpose. It shall be carried in such a manner that 
it will not be subjected to sharp kinks or accidental break- 
age under conditions of general use. 



5,3.8 Smoknmig, Smoking in aircraft-fuehng vehicles is 
prohibited. Signs to this effect shall be conspicuously 
posted in the driver's compartment of all fuehng vehicles. 



jmeeL Smoking equipment such 
as cigarette lighters and ash trays shall not be provided in 
aircraft-fueling vehicles. 



The operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fuel- 
ing vehicles shall be in accordance with Sections 1106.4 
through 1 106.4.4 and other applicable provisions of this chap- 
ter. 



,1 Proper maniniteiiainice. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
and all related equipment shall be properly maintained and 
kept in good repair. Accumulations of oil, grease, fuel and 
other flammable or combustible materials is prohibited. 
Maintenance and servicing of such equipment shall be ac- 
complished in approved areas. 



fo Tanks, pipes, hoses, valves and 
other fuel delivery equipment shall be maintained leak free 
at all times. 



service, Aircraft-fuehng vehicles 
and related equipment which are in violation of Section 
1 106.4.1 or 1 106.4.2 shall be immediately defueled and re- 
moved from service and shall not be returned to service until 
proper repairs have been made. 



tors. Aircraft-fueling vehicles that are op- 
erated by a person, firm or corporation other than the 
permittee or the permittee's authorized employee shall be 
provided with a legible sign visible from outside the vehicle 
showing the name of the person, firm or corporation operat- 
ing such unit. 



Dg. Aircraft-fueling and defueling 
operations shall be in accordance with Section 1106.5. 



,1 PosltnoimnEg of aircraft fiuiel=serv!cim£ 
Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall not be located, parked or per- 
mitted to stand in a position where such unit would obstruct 
egress from an aircraft should a fire occur during fuel-trans- 
fer operations. Tank vehicles shall not be located, parked or 
permitted to stand under any portion of an aircraft. 



.1.1 FMelnmg vehicle egress. A clear path shall be 
maintained for aircraft-fueling vehicles to provide for 
prompt and timely egress from the fueling area. 



.1.2 Aircrafft vemit opeminngs. A clear space of at 
least 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be maintained between air- 
craft fuel-system vent openings and any part or portion of 
an aircraft-fueling vehicle. 



,1.3 Parkimg, Prior to leaving the cab, the air- 
craft-fueling vehicle operator shall ensure that the park- 
ing brake has been set. At least two chock blocks not less 
than 5 inches by 5 inches by 12 inches (127 mm by 127 
mm by 305 mm) in size and dished to fit the contour of 
the tires shall be utilized and positioned in such a manner 
as to preclude movement of the vehicle in any direction. 



ng. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be electrically bonded to the aircraft being fueled or 
defueled. Bonding connections shall be made prior to mak- 
ing fueling connections and shall not be disconnected until 
the fuel-transfer operations are completed and the fueling 
connections have been removed. 



2003 mMTERMATlONAL FIRE CODE® 



137 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



Where a hydrant service vehicle or cart is used for fuel- 
ing, the hydrant coupler shall be connected to the hydrant 
system prior to bonding the fueling equipment to the air- 
craft. 

1106.5.2.1 Conductive tiose. In addition to the bonding 
cable required by Section 1106.5.2, conductive hose 
shall be used for all fueling operations. 

1106.5.2.2 Boodlng cooductors on transfer nozzles. 
Transfer nozzles shall be equipped with approved bond- 
ing conductors which shall be clipped or otherwise posi- 
tively engaged with the bonding attachment provided on 
the aircraft adjacent to the fuel tank cap prior to removal 
of the cap. 

Exception: In the case of overwing fueling where no 
appropriate bonding attachment adjacent to the fuel 
fill port has been provided on the aircraft, the fueling 
operator shall touch the fuel tank cap with the nozzle 
spout prior to removal of the cap. The nozzle shall be 
kept in contact with the fill port until fueling is com- 
pleted. 

1106.5.2.3 Funnels. Where required, metal funnels are 
allowed to be used during fueling operations. Direct con- 
tact between the fueling receptacle, the funnel and the 
fueling nozzle shall be maintained during the fueling op- 
eration. 

1106.5.3 Training, Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be at- 
tended and operated only by persons instructed in methods 
of proper use and operation and who are qualified to use 
such fueling vehicles in accordance with minimum safety 
requirements. 

1106.5.3.1 Fueling hazards. Fuel-servicing personnel 
shall know and understand the hazards associated with 
each type of fuel dispensed by the airport fueling-system 
operator. 

1106.5.3.2 Fire safety training. Employees of fuel 
agents who fuel aircraft, accept fuel shipments or other- 
wise handle fuel shall receive approved fire safety train- 
ing. 

1106.5.3.2.1 Fire extinguisher training. Fuel-ser- 
vicing personnel shall receive approved training in the 
operation of fire-extinguishing equipment. 



k5,3.2.2 Documentation. The airport fuel- 
ing-system operator shall maintain records of all train- 
ing administered to its employees. These records shall 
be made available to the fire code official on request. 

1106.5.4 Transfer personnel. During fuel-transfer opera- 
fions, a qualified person shall be in control of each transfer 
nozzle and another qualified person shall be in immediate 
control of the fuel-pumping equipment to shut off or other- 
wise control the flow of fuel from the time fueling opera- 
tions are begun until they are completed. 

Exceptions: 

1. For underwing refueling, the person stationed at 
the point of fuel intake is not required. 



2. For overwing refuehng, the person stationed at the 
fuel pumping equipment shall not be required 
where the person at the fuel dispensing device is 
within 75 feet (22 800 mm) of the emergency shut- 
off device, is not on the wing of the aircraft and has 
a clear and unencumbered path to the fuel pumping 
equipment; and, the fuel dispensing line does not 
exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm) in length. 

The fueling operator shall monitor the panel of the fueling 
equipment and the aircraft control panel during pressure fuel- 
ing or shall monitor the fill port during overwing fueling. 



k5.5 Fuel flow control. Fuel flow-control valves shall 
be operable only by the direct hand pressure of the operator. 
Removal of the operator's hand pressure shall cause an im- 
mediate cessation of the flow of fuel. 

1106.6 Emergency fuel shutoff. Emergency fuel shutoff con- 
trols and procedures shall comply with Sections 1106.6.1 
through 1106.6.4. 

1106.6.1 Accessibility. Emergency fuel shutoff controls 
shall be readily accessible at all times when the fueUng sys- 
tem is being operated. 

1106.6.2 Notification of the fire department. The fuel- 
ing-system operator shall establish a procedure by which the 
fire department will be notified in the event of an activation 
of an emergency fuel shutoff control. 



.6.3 Determining cause. Prior to reestablishment of 
normal fuel flow, the cause of fuel shutoff conditions shall 
be determined and corrected. 



j.6.4 Testing. Emergency fuel shutoff devices shall be 
operationally tested at intervals not exceeding three months. 
The fueling-system operator shall maintain suitable records 
of these tests. 



.7 Protection of hoses. Before an aircraft- fueling vehi- 
cle is moved, fuel transfer hoses shall be properly placed on 
the approved reel or in the compartment provided, or stored 
on the top decking of the fueling vehicle if proper height rail 
is provided for security and protection of such equipment. 
Fuel-transfer hose shall not be looped or draped over any 
part of the fueling vehicle, except as herein provided. 
Fuel-transfer hose shall not be dragged when such fueling 
vehicle is moved from one fueling position to another. 



.8 Loading and unloading. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be loaded only at an approved loading rack. Such load- 
ing racks shall be in accordance with Section 3406.5.1.12. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Aircraft-refueling units may be loaded from the fuel 
tanks of an aircraft during defueling operations. 

2. Fuel transfer between tank vehicles is allowed to 
be performed in accordance with Section 3406.6 
when the operation is at least 200 feet (60 960 mm) 
from an aircraft. 

The fuel cargo of such units shall be unloaded 
only by approved transfer apparatus into the fuel 
tanks of aircraft, underground storage tanks or ap- 
proved gravity storage tanks. 



138 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE(! 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



Passemgeirs. Passenger traffic is allowed during the 
time fuel transfer operations are in progress, provided the fol- 
lowing provisions are strictly enforced by the owner of the air- 
craft or the owner's authorized employee: 

1 . Smoking and producing an open flame in the cabin of the 
aircraft or the outside thereof within 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
of such aircraft shall be prohibited. 

A qualified employee of the aircraft owner shall be re- 
sponsible for seeing that the passengers are not allowed 
to smoke when remaining aboard the aircraft or while go- 
ing across the ramp from the gate to such aircraft, or vice 
versa. 

2. Passengers shall not be permitted to linger about the 
plane, but shall proceed directly between the loading gate 
and the aircraft. 

3. Passenger loading stands or walkways shall be left in 
loading position until all fuel transfer operations are 
completed. 

4. Fuel transfer operations shall not be performed on the 
main exit side of any aircraft containing passengers ex- 
cept when the owner of such aircraft or a capable and 
qualified employee of such owner remains inside the air- 
craft to direct and assist the escape of such passengers 
through regular and emergency exits in the event fire 
should occur during fuel transfer operations. 



oiF ngmltloinio Smoking and producing open 
flames within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a point where fuel is being 
transferred shall be prohibited. Electrical and motor-driven de- 
vices shall not be connected to or disconnected from an aircraft 
at any time fueling operations are in progress on such aircraft. 



lures. Fuel spill pre- 
vention and the procedures for handling spills shall comply 
with Sections 1106.11.1 through 1106.11.7. 

IIO60II0I Feel-servnce equilpmemlt malimteiniainice. Aircraft 
fuel-servicing equipment shall be maintained and kept free 
from leaks. Fuel-servicing equipment that malfunctions or 
leaks shall not be continued in service. 

1106oll,2 TramsportnnLg feel eozzles. Fuel nozzles shall be 
carried utilizing appropriate handles. Dragging fuel nozzles 
along the ground shall be prohibited. 



1106<,11«3 Brmm ffeellmg. Fueling from drums or other con- 
tainers having a capacity greater than 5 gallons (19 L) shall 
be accomplished with the use of an approved pump. 



ll®6cll.4 Feel spill procedereSo The fueling-system oper- 
ator shall establish procedures to follow in the event of a fuel 
spill. These procedures shall be comprehensive and shall 
provide for at least all of the following: 

1 . Upon observation of a fuel spill, the aircraft-fueling op- 
erator shall immediately stop the delivery of fuel by re- 
leasing hand pressure from the fuel flow-control valve. 

2. Failure of the fuel control valve to stop the continued 
spillage of fuel shall be cause for the activation of the 
appropriate emergency fuel shutoff device. 

3. A supervisor for the fueling-system operator shall re- 
spond to the fuel spill area immediately. 



L The fire de- 
partment shall be notified of any fuel spill which is consid- 
ered a hazard to people or property or which meets one or 
more of the following criteria: 

1. Any dimension of the spill is greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm). 

2. The spill area is greater than 50 square feet (4.65 m^). 

3. The fuel flow is continuous in nature. 



.11.(5 levestlgatlom reqeired. An investigation shall 
be conducted by the fueling-system operator of all spills re- 
quiring notification of the fire department. The investigation 
shall provide conclusive proof of the cause and verification 
of the appropriate use of emergency procedures. Where it is 
determined that corrective measures are necessary to pre- 
vent future incidents of the same nature, they shall be imple- 
mented immediately. 

ll(0)6oll.7 Meltiple fael delivery veliicles. Simultaneous 
delivery of fuel from more than one aircraft-fueling vehicle 
to a single aircraft-fueling manifold is prohibited unless 
proper backflow prevention devices are installed to prevent 
fuel flow into the tank vehicles. 



emgimes aed heaters. Operation of aircraft 
onboard engines and combustion heaters shall be terminated 
prior to commencing fuel service operations and shall remain 
off until the fuel-servicing operation is completed. 



In an emergency, a single jet engine is allowed 
to be operated during fuel servicing where all of the follow- 
ing conditions are met: 

1 . The emergency shall have resulted from an onboard 
failure of the aircraft's auxiliary power unit. 

2. Restoration of auxiliary power to the aircraft by 
ground support services is not available. 

3. The engine to be operated is either at the rear of the 
aircraft or on the opposite side of the aircraft from the 
fuel service operation. 

4. The emergency operation is in accordance with a 
written procedure approved by the fire code official. 

1106.13 Vehicle aed eqeipmemt restrictioms. During aircraft- 
fueling operations, only the equipment actively involved in the 
fueling operation is allowed within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the 
aircraft being fueled. Other equipment shall be prohibited in 
this area until the fueling operation is complete. 



tmni Aircraft-fueling operations utilizing sin- 
gle-point refueling with a sealed, mechanically locked fuel 
line connection and the fuel is not a Class I flammable liq- 
uid. 

A clear space of at least 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be main- 
tained between aircraft fuel-system vent openings and any part 
or portion of aircraft-servicing vehicles or equipment. 

1106,13.1 Overwimg ffuelimg. Vehicles or equipment shall 
not be allowed beneath the trailing edge of the wing when 
aircraft fueling takes place over the wing and the aircraft 
fuel-system vents are located on the upper surface of the 
wing. 



2003 IIMTERNATBOWAL FDRE CODE® 



139 



AVIATION FACILITIES 



1106.14 Electrical equipment. Electrical equipment, includ- 
ing but not limited to, battery chargers, ground or auxiliary 
power units, fans, compressors or tools, shall not be operated, 
nor shall they be connected or disconnected from their power 
source, during fuel service operations. 

1106.14.1 Other equipment. Electrical or other spark-pro- 
ducing equipment shall not be used within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of fueling equipment, aircraft fill or vent points, or spill 
areas unless that equipment is intrinsically safe and ap- 
proved for use in an explosive atmosphere. 

1106.15 Opera flames. Open flames and open-flame devices 
are prohibited within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of any aircraft 
fuel-servicing operation or fueling equipment. 

1106.15.1 Other areas. The fire code official is authorized 
to establish other locations where open flames and 
open-flame devices are prohibited. 

1106.15.2 Matches and lighters. Personnel assigned to and 
engaged in fuel-servicing operations shall not carry matches 
or lighters on or about their person. Matches or lighters shall 
be prohibited in, on or about aircraft-fueling equipment. 

1106.16 Lightning procedures. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require the airport authority and the fueling-system op- 
erator to establish written procedures to follow when lightning 
flashes are detected on or near the airport. These procedures 
shall establish criteria for the suspension and resumption of air- 
craft-fueling operations. 

1106.17 Fuel-transfer locations. Aircraft fuel-transfer opera- 
tions shall be prohibited indoors. 

Exception: In aircraft hangars built in accordance with the 
provisions of the International Building Code for Group F- 1 
occupancies, aircraft fuel-transfer operations are allowed 
where: 

1 . Necessary to accomplish aircraft fuel-system mainte- 
nance operations. Such operations shall be performed 
in accordance with nationally recognized standards; 
or 

2. The fuel being used has a flash point greater than 
100°F (37.8°C). 

1106.17.1 Position of aircraft. Aircraft being fueled shall 
be positioned such that any fuel system vents and other fuel 
tank openings are a minimum of: 

1 . Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) from buildings or struc- 
tures other than jet bridges; and 

2. Fifty feet (15 240 mm) from air intake vents for boiler, 
heater or incinerator rooms. 

1106.17.2 Fire equipment access. Access for fire service 
equipment to aircraft shall be maintained during fuel-ser- 
vicing operations. 



B Defueiing operations. The requirements for fueling 
operations contained in this section shall also apply to aircraft 
defueiing operations. Additional procedures shall be estab- 
lished by the fueling-system operator to prevent overfilling of 
the tank vehicle used in the defueiing operation. 



1106.19 Maintenance off aircraft-fueling hose. Aircraft-fuel- 
ing hoses shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 
1106.19.1 through 1106.19.4. 



tions. Hoses used to fuel or defuel aircraft 
shall be inspected periodically to ensure their serviceability 
and suitability for continued service. The fuel-service oper- 
ator shall maintain records of all tests and inspections per- 
formed on fueUng hoses. Hoses found to be defective or 
otherwise damaged shall be immediately removed from ser- 
vice. 



Si.l.l Daily inspection. Each hose shall be in- 
spected daily. This inspection shall include a complete 
visual scan of the exterior for evidence of damage, blis- 
tering or leakage. Each coupling shall be inspected for 
evidence of leaks, sUppage or misalignment. 



9,1.2 Monthly inspection, A more thorough in- 
spection, including pressure testing, shall be accom- 
plished for each hose on a monthly basis. This inspection 
shall include examination of the fuel delivery inlet screen 
for rubber particles, which indicates problems with the 
hose lining. 



d hose. Hose that has been subjected to 
severe abuse shall be immediately removed from service. 
Such hoses shall be hydrostatically tested prior to being re- 
turned to service. 



Hoses are allowed to be re- 
paired by removing the damaged portion and recoupling the 
undamaged end. When recoupling hoses, only couplings 
designed and approved for the size and type of hose in ques- 
tion shall be used. Hoses repaired in this manner shall be vi- 
sually inspected and hydrostatically tested prior to being 
placed back in service. 



^.4 New hose. New hose shall be visually inspected 
prior to being placed into service. 



-servicing vehicles parking. Unat- 
tended aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles shall be parked in areas 
that provide for both the unencumbered dispersal of vehicles in 
the event of an emergency and the control of leakage such that 
adjacent buildings and storm drains are not contaminated by 
leaking fuel. 



.20.1 Parking area design. Parking areas for tank ve- 
hicles shall be designed and utilized such that a clearance of 
10 feet (3048 mm) is maintained between each parked vehi- 
cle for fire department access. In addition, a minimum clear- 
ance of 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall be maintained between 
tank vehicles and parked aircraft and structures other than 
those used for the maintenance and/or garaging of aircraft 
fuel-servicing vehicles. 



5,21 Radar equipment. Aircraft fuel- servicing operations 
shall be prohibited while the weather-mapping radar of that air- 
craft is operating. 

Aircraft fuel-servicing or other operations in which flamma- 
ble hquids, vapors or mists may be present shall not be con- 
ducted within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of an operating aircraft 
surveillance radar. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 




Aircraft fuel-servicing operations shall not be conducted 
within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of airport flight traffic surveil- 
lance radar equipment. 

Aircraft fuel-servicing or other operations in which flamma- 
ble liquids, vapors or mists may be present shall not be con- 
ducted within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of airport ground traffic 
surveillance radar equipment. 

ll®6.21ol DirecMom off radar beams. The beam from 
ground radar equipment shall not be directed toward fuel 
storage or loading racks. 

Exceptioes; 

1 . Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 300 feet 
(9 1 440 mm) from airport flight traffic surveillance 
equipment. 

2. Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 100 feet 
(30 480 mm) from airport ground traffic surveil- 
lance equipment. 

SECTBOM1107 



11(0)7,1 GemeraL Helistops and hehports shall be maintained in 
accordance with Section 1107. Helistops and heliports on 
buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 



CkaramiceSo The touchdown area shall be surrounded 
on all sides by a clear area having minimum average width at 
roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but no width less than 5 feet 
(1524 mm). The clear area shall be maintained. 

11(0)7.3 Flammable audi Class II combmstiblle Inqmind spillage. 
Landing areas on structures shall be maintained so as to confine 
flammable or Class 11 combustible Uquid spillage to the landing 
area itself, and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage 
away from exits or stairways serving the helicopter landing 
area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway. 

11(07.4 Exits, Exits and stairways shall be maintained in accor- 
dance with Section 412.5 of the International Building Code. 

11(0)7.5 Stamdpnpe systems. Where a building with a rooftop 
helistop or heliport is equipped with a standpipe system, the 
system shall be extended to the roof level on which the helistop 
or heliport is located. All portions of the helistop and heliport 
area shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of a 2.5-inch (63.5 
mm) outlet on a Class I or III standpipe. 

11(0)7,6 Foam protection. Foam fire-protection capabilities 
shall be provided for rooftop heliports. Such systems shall be 
designed, installed and maintained in accordance with the ap- 
plicable provisions of Sections 903, 904 and 905. 

1107.7 Fire extiegmiisliers, A minimum of one portable fire ex- 
tinguisher having a minimum 80-B:C rating shall be provided 
for each permanent takeoff and landing area and for the aircraft 
parking areas. Installation, inspection and maintenance of 
these extinguishers shall be in accordance with Section 906. 

1107.8 Federal approval. Before operating helicopters from 
helistops and heliports, approval shall be obtained from the 
Federal Aviation Administration. 

2003 IMTEeWATDOWAL RRE CODE® 



1 42 2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER t 

^Y CLEAN 



SECTSON 1201 
GENERAL 

1201.1 Scope. Dry cleaning plants and their operations shall 
D comply with the requirements of this chapter. 

1201.2 Permit reqeired. Permits shall be required as set forth 
in Section 105.6. 



1202,1 DeffimitnoES. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

DEY CLEANING. The process of removing dirt, grease, 
paints and other stains from such items as wearing apparel, tex- 
tiles, fabrics and rugs by use of nonaqueous liquids (solvents). 

DRY CLEANING PLANT. A facihty in which dry cleaning 
and associated operations are conducted, including the office, 
receiving area and storage rooms. 

DRY CLEANING ROOM. An occupiable space within a 
building used for performing dry cleaning operations, the in- 
stallation of solvent-handling equipment or the storage of dry 
cleaning solvents. 

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. Machinery or equipment in 
which textiles are immersed or agitated in solvent or in which 
dry cleaning solvent is extracted from textiles. 

SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. A method 
for classifying solvents or liquids according to the following 
classes: 

Class I solveimlts. Liquids having a flash point below 100°F 
(38°C). 

Class II solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 
100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C). 

Class IIIA solvemts. Liquids having a flash point at or above 
140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C). 

Class IIIB solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 
200°F (93°C). 

Class IV solvents. Liquids classified as nonflammable. 

SECTDOW 1203 



1203.1 Solvent dassBScatiom, Dry cleaning solvents shall be 
classified according to their flash points as follows: 

1 . Class I solvents are liquids having a flash point below 
100°F (38°C). 

2. Class II solvents are liquids having a flash point at or 
above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C). 



3. Class IIIA solvents are hquids having a flash point at or 
above MOT (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C). 

4. Class IIIB solvents are liquids having a flash point at or 
above 200°F (93 °C). 

5 . Class IV solvents are liquids classified as nonflammable. 

1203.2 Classnficatiom of dry cleaning plants and systems. 
Dry cleaning plants and systems shall be classified based on the 
solvents used as follows: 

1. Type I — systems using Class I solvents. 

2. Type II — systems using Class II solvents. 

Type III- A — systems using Class IIIA solvents. 

Type III-B — systems using Class IIIB solvents. 

Type IV — systems using Class IV solvents in which dry 
cleaning is not conducted by the public. 

6. Type V — systems using Class IV solvents in which dry 
cleaning is conducted by the public. 

Spotting and pretreating operations conducted in accor- 
dance with Section 1206 shall not change the type of the dry 
cleaning plant. 

1203.2,1 Mnltiple solvemts. Dry cleaning plants using 
more than one class of solvent for dry cleaning shall be clas- 
sified based on the numerically lowest solvent class. 

1203.3 Design. The occupancy classification, design and con- 
struction of dry cleaning plants shall comply with the applica- 
ble requirements of the International Building Code. 



ECTD 



i; 



m 



1204.1 ProiiMted nse. Type I dry cleaning plants shall be pro- 
hibited. Limited quantities of Class I solvents stored and used 
in accordance with this section shall not be prohibited in dry 
cleaning plants. 

1204.2 Building services. Building services and systems shall 
be designed, installed and maintained in accordance with this 
section and Chapter 6. 

1204.2.1 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in ac- 
cordance with Section 502 of the International Mechanical 
Code and DOL 29 CFR Part 1910. 1000, where apphcable. 

1204.2.2 Heating, In Type II dry cleaning plants, heating 
shall be by indirect means using steam, hot water, or hot oil 
only. 

1204.2.3 Electrical wiring and eqraipmenL Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment in dry cleaning rooms or other locations 
subject to flammable vapors shall be installed in accordance 
with the ICC Electrical Code. 



1204.2,4 Bonding and grommding. Storage tanks, treat- 
ment tanks, filters, pumps, piping, ducts, dry cleaning units. 



2003 INTERMATDOIMAL FIRE CODE® 



M3 



DRY CLEANING 



Stills, tumblers, drying cabinets and other such equipment, 
where not inherently electrically conductive, shall be 
bonded together and grounded. Isolated equipment shall be 
grounded. 



SECTION 1205 
OPERATING REQUSREMENTS 

1205.1 General. The operation of dry cleaning systems shall 
comply with the requirements of this section. 

1205.1.1 Written instructions. Written instructions cover- 
ing the proper installation and safe operation and use of 
equipment and solvent shall be given to the buyer. 



1205.1.1.1 Type II, III-A, III-B and IV systems. In 
Type II, III-A, III-B and IV dry cleaning systems, ma- 
chines shall be operated in accordance with the operating 
instructions furnished by the machinery manufacturer. 
Employees shall be instructed as to the hazards involved 
in their departments and in the work they perform. 

1205.1.1.2 Type V systems. Operating instructions for 
customer use of Type V dry cleaning systems shall be 
conspicuously posted in a location near the dry cleaning 
unit. A telephone number shall be provided for emer- 
gency assistance. 



1205.1.2 Equipment identification. The manufacturer 
shall provide nameplates on dry cleaning machines indicat- 
ing the class of solvent for which each machine is designed. 

1205.1.3 Open systems prohibited. Dry cleaning by im- 
mersion and agitation in open vessels shall be prohibited. 

1205.1.4 Prohibited use of solvent. The use of solvents 
with a flash point below that for which a machine is de- 
signed or listed shall be prohibited. 

1205.1.5 Equipment maintenance and housekeeping. 
Proper maintenance and operating practices shall be ob- 
served in order to prevent the leakage of solvent or the accu- 
mulation of lint. The handling of waste material generated 
by dry cleaning operations and the maintenance of facilities 
shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

1205.1.5.1 Floors. Class I and II liquids shall not be used 
for cleaning floors. 

1205.1.5.2 Filters. Filter residue and other residues con- 
taining solvent shall be handled and disposed of in cov- 
ered metal containers. 

1205.1.5.3 Lint. Lint and refuse shall be removed from 
traps daily, deposited in approved waste cans, removed 
from the premises, and disposed of safely. At all other 
times, traps shall be held securely in place. 

1205.1.5.4 Customer areas. In Type V dry cleaning sys- 
tems, customer areas shall be kept clean. 

1205.2 Type II systems. Special operating requirements for 
Type II dry cleaning systems shall comply with the provisions 
of this section. 

1205.2.1 Inspection of materials. Materials to be dry 
cleaned shall be searched thoroughly and foreign materials. 



including matches and metallic substances, shall be re- 
moved. 

1205.2.2 Material transfer. In removing materials from the 
washer, provisions shall be made for minimizing the drip- 
ping of solvent on the floor. Where materials are transferred 
from a washer to a drain tub, a nonferrous metal drip apron 
shall be placed so that the apron rests on the drain tub and the 
cylinder of the washer. 



1205.2.3 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system 
which is designed to exhaust 1 cubic foot of air per minute 
for each square foot of floor area [0.0058 mV(s • m^)] shall 
be installed in dry cleaning rooms and in drying rooms. The 
ventilation system shall operate automatically when the dry 
cleaning equipment is in operation and shall have manual 
controls at an approved location. 

1205.3 Type IV and V systems. Type IV and V dry cleaning 
systems shall be provided with an automatically activated ex- 
haust ventilation system to maintain a minimum of 100 feet per 
minute (5 1 m/s) air velocity through the loading door when the 
door is opened. Such systems for dry cleaning equipment shall 
comply with the International Mechanical Code. 

Exception: Dry cleaning units are not required to be pro- 
vided with exhaust ventilation where an exhaust hood is in- 
stalled immediately outside of and above the loading door 
which operates at an airflow rate as follows: 



e=100xA,o 
where: 



(Equation 12-1) 



Q = flow rate exhausted through the hood, cubic feet per 
minute (mVs). 

A[^p = area of the loading door, square feet (m^). 



SECTION 1206 
SPOTTING AND PRETREATSNG 



1206.1 General. Spotting and pretreating operations and 
equipment shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

1206.2 Type I solvents. The maximum quantity of Type I sol- 
vents permitted at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). Class 
I solvents shall be stored in approved safety cans or in sealed 
DOTn-approved metal shipping containers of not more than 
1 -gallon (4 L) capacity. Dispensing shall be from approved 
safety cans. 



'. and III solvents. Scouring, brushing, and spot- 
ting and pretreating shall be conducted with Class II or III sol- 
vents. The maximum quantity of Type II or III solvents 
permitted at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). In other 
than a Group H-2 occupancy, the aggregate quantities of sol- 
vents shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity per 
control area for use-open system. 

1206.3.1 Spotting tables. Scouring, brushing or spotting ta- 
bles on which articles are soaked in solvent shall have a liq- 
uid-tight top with a curb on all sides not less than 1 inch (25 
mm) high. The top of the table shall be pitched to ensure 
thorough draining to a 1 .5-inch (38 mm) drain connected to 
an approved container. 



2003 8NTERNATI0NAL FIRE CODE® 




1206o3o2 Special lhamdliinig„ When approved, articles that 
cannot be washed in the usual washing machines are al- 
lowed to be cleaned in scrubbing tubs. Scrubbing tubs shall 
comply with the following: 

1 . Only Class II or III liquids shall be used. 

2. The total amount of solvent used in such open con- 
tainers shall not exceed 3 gallons (1 1 L). 

3. Scrubbing tubs shall be secured to the floor. 



Scrubbing tubs shall be provided with permanent 1 .5- 
inch (38 mm) drains. Such drain shall be provided 
with a trap and shall be connected to an approved con- 
tainer. 



4. 



, Scrubbing tubs, scouring, brushing or 
spotting operations shall be located such that solvent vapors 
are captured and exhausted by the ventilating system. 

120i6«3.4 Bomding sand groeEdieg. Metal scouring, brush- 
ing and spotting tables and scrubbing tubs shall be perma- 
nently and effectively bonded and grounded. 

1206.4 Type IV systems., Flammable and combustible liquids 
used for spotting operations shall be stored in approved safety 
cans or in sealed DOTn-approved metal shipping containers of 
not more than 1 gallon (4 L) in capacity. Dispensing shall be 
from approved safety cans. Aggregate amounts shall not ex- 
ceed 10 gallons (38 L). 



1206.5 Type V systems. Spotting operations using flanrmiable 
or combustible liquids are prohibited in Type V dry cleaning 
systems. 



i: 



DRY CLEAi 



lYSTI 



1207.1 Geeeral eqeipmemt reqiinremeinits. Dry cleaning sys- 
tems, including dry cleaning units, washing machines, stills, 
drying cabinets, tumblers, and their appurtenances, including 
pumps, piping, valves, filters and solvent coolers, shall be in- 
stalled and maintained in accordance with NFPA 32. The con- 
struction of buildings in which such systems are located shall 
comply with the requirements of this section and the Interna- 
tional Building Code. B:C portable fire extinguishers shall be 
provided near the doors inside dry cleaning rooms containing 
Type II, Type III-A and Type III-B dry cleaning systems. 



1207.2 Type II systems. Type II dry cleaning and solvent tank 
storage rooms shall not be located below grade or above the 
lowest floor level of the building and shall comply with Sec- 
tions 1207.2.1 through 1207.2.3. 

Exceptioes Solvent storage tanks installed underground, in 
vaults or in special enclosures in accordance with Chapter 
34. 



1207.2,1 Fire=figMninig access. Type II dry cleaning plants 
shall be located so that access is provided and maintained 
from one side for fire-fighting and fire control purposes in 
accordance with Section 503. 



1207,2,2 Number ©f meaes of egress. Type II dry cleaning 
rooms shall have not less than two means of egress doors lo- 
cated at opposite ends of the room, at least one of which 
shall lead directly to the outside. 



1207.2,3 Spill 
Curbs, drains, or other provisions for spill control and sec- 
ondary containment shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 2704.2 to collect solvent leakage and fire protection 
water and direct it to a safe location. 

1207.3 Solvemt storage taeks. Solvent storage tanks for Class 
II, IIIA and IIIB liquids shall conform to the requirements of 
Chapter 34 and be located underground or outside, above 
ground. 



II : As provided in NFPA 32 for inside storage or 
treatment tanks. 



1208 
FDIRE PROTECTBON 

1208.1 GemeraL Where required by this section, fire protec- 
tion systems, devices and equipment shall be installed, in- 
spected, tested and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9. 

1208.2 Amtomatk sprmMer system. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 
throughout dry cleaning plants containing Type II, Type III-A 
or Type III-B dry cleaning systems. 

1208.3 Aetomatic lFlre=extimge!§hiinig systems. Type 11 dry 
cleaning units, washer-extractors, and drying tumblers in Type 
II dry cleaning plants shall be provided with an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system installed and maintained in ac- 
cordance with Chapter 9. 



ii; Where approved, a manual steam jet not less 
than 0.75 inch (19 mm) with a continuously available steam 
supply at a pressure not less than 15 pounds per square inch 
gauge (psig) (103 kPa) is allowed to be substituted for the 
automatic fire-extinguishing system. 

1208.4 Portable fire extimgelshers. Portable fire extinguish- 
ers shall be selected, installed and maintained in accordance 
with this section and Section 906. A minimum of two 
2-A:10-B:C portable fire extinguishers shall be provided near 
the doors inside dry cleaning rooms containing Type II, Type 
III-A and Type III-B dry cleaning systems. 



2003 SNTERNATIOMAL FJRE CODE® 



145 




146 2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 




CHAPTERS 

lySTBBLE DUST^PRODI 



)FEeATIl©MI 



SECTBOW 13011 
OEWE^AL 

J. The equipment, processes and operations in- 
volving dust explosion hazards shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this chapter. 

1301,2 Permnte. Permits shall be required for combustible 
dust-producing operations as set forth in Section 105.6. 



SECTION 1302 
DEFINmONS 

1302.1 DelmntioE, The following word and term shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meaning shown herein. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST, Finely divided solid material which 
is 420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in 
air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark 
or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through 
a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve. 



ICimU 1303 



TABLE 1304.1 
EXPLOSJON PROTECTION STANDARDS 



1303.1 Sources off ngmitlon. Smoking or the use of heating or 
other devices employing an open flame, or the use of spark- 
producing equipment is prohibited in areas where combustible 
dust is generated, stored, manufactured, processed or handled. 

1303.2 Hoinsekeepmg. Accumulation of combustible dust 
shall be kept to a minimum in the interior of buildings. Accu- 
mulated combustible dust shall be collected by vacuum clean- 
ing or other means that will not place combustible dust into 
suspension in air. Forced air or similar methods shall not be 
used to remove dust from surfaces. 



STANDARD 


SUBJECT 


NFPA 61 


Agricultural and Food Products 


NFPA 69 


Explosion Prevention 


NFPA 85 


Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards 


NFPA 120 


Coal Preparation Plants 


NFPA 480 


Magnesium Solids and Powders 


NFPA 481 


Titanium 


NFPA 482 


Zirconium 


NFPA 650 


Conveying Combustible Particulate Solids 


NFPA 651 


Aluminum Powder 


NFPA 654 


Manufacturing, Processing and Handling of 
Combustible Particulate Solids 


NFPA 655 


Sulfur 


NFPA 664 


Prevention of Fires and Explosions in Wood 
Processing and Woodworking Facilities 


ICC Electrical Code 


Electrical Installations 



SEGTDON 1304 
EXPLOSION FROTEGTSOW 

1304.1 Stemdards. The fire code official is authorized to en- 
force applicable provisions of the codes and standards listed in 
Table 1304.1 to prevent and control dust explosions. 



2003 IMTERNATIONAL FDRE CODE® 



M7 



1 48 2003 IfSJTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 14 

»NSTRUCTBOM AMB DESiOLBTSOM 



SECTBOW 1401 
- GEMERAL 

1401ol Scope. This chapter shall apply to structures in the 
course of construction, alteration, or demolition, including 
those in underground locations. Compliance with NFPA 241 is 
required for items not specifically addressed herein. 

1401.2 Perpose. This chapter prescribes minimum safeguards 
for construction, alteration, and demolition operations to pro- 
vide reasonable safety to life and property from fire during such 
operations. 

SECTION 1402 



1402.1 Terms defined m Chapter 2, Words and terms used in 
this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as defined therein. 



SECTION 1403 
TEi/iPORAKY HEMDNG EQUIPMENT 

LI Listed. Temporary heating devices shall be listed and 
labeled in accordance with the International Mechanical Code 
or the International Fuel Gas Code. Installation, maintenance 
and use of temporary heating devices shall be in accordance 
with the terms of the listing. 

Iheaters. Oil-fired heaters shall comply with 



Section 603. 



I LP=gas heaters. Fuel supplies for liquefied- petroleum 
[| gas-fired heaters shall comply with Chapter 38 and the Interna- 
tional Fuel Gas Code. 



ig. Refueling operations shall be conducted in 
accordance with Section 3405. The appliance shall be allowed 
to cool prior to refueling. 

1403.S lEstallatsoE. Clearance to combustibles from tempo- 
rary heating devices shall be maintained in accordance with the 
labeled equipment. When in operation, temporary heating de- 
vices shall be fixed in place and protected from damage, 
dislodgement or overturning in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions. 



The use of temporary heating devices 
shall be supervised and maintained only by competent person- 
nel. 



PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 

1404.1 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited except in ap- 
proved areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Section 
310. In approved areas where smoking is permitted, approved 
ashtrays shall be provided in accordance with Section 310. 



Waste disposal. Combustible debris shall not be accu- 
mulated within buildings. Combustible debris, rubbish and 
waste material shall be removed from buildings at the end of 
each shift of work. Combustible debris, rubbish and waste ma- 
terial shall not be disposed of by burning on the site unless ap- 
proved. 

1404.3 Open taming. Open burning shall comply with Sec- 
tion 307. 



, Materials susceptible to sponta- 
neous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a listed dis- 
posal container. 

1404.5 Fire watch. When required by the fire code official for 
building demolition that is hazardous in nature, qualified per- 
sonnel shall be provided to serve as an on-site fire watch. Fire 
watch personnel shall be provided with at least one approved 
means for notification of the fire department and their sole duty 
shall be to perform constant patrols and watch for the occur- 
rence of fire. 



ng. Operations involving the use of 
cutting and welding shall be done in accordance with Chapter 
26. 



.7 Electrical. Temporary wiring for electrical power and 
lighting installations used in connection with the construction, 
alteration or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or 
similar activities shall comply with the ICC Electrical Code. 



SECTION 1405 
FLAfiiliABLE AND COSiBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 

1405.1 Storage of tommaWe and comtastaMe liquids. Stor- 
age of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 3404. 

1405.2 Cllass I and Class II Mqwids. The storage, use and han- 
dling of flammable and combustible liquids at construction 
sites shall be in accordance with Section 3406.2. Ventilation 
shall be provided for operations involving the application of 
materials containing flammable solvents. 



MEg. Flammable and combustible liquid 
storage areas shall be maintained clear of combustible vegeta- 
fion and waste materials. Such storage areas shall not be used 
for the storage of combustible materials. 

1405.4 Precantnons against ire. Sources of ignition and 
smoking shall be prohibited in flammable and combustible hq- 
uid storage areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Sec- 
tion 310. 



use. Class I and II liquids 
shall be kept in approved safety containers. 

1405,6 Leakage amd spills. Leaking vessels shall be immedi- 
ately repaired or taken out of service and spills shall be cleaned 
up and disposed of properly. 



2003 IMTERNATBONAL FBRE CODE® 



FIRE SAFETY DUR!^SG CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLSTBON 



SECTSON 1406 
FLASVilVlABLE GASES 

1406.1 Storage and handling. The storage, use and handling 
of flammable gases shall comply with Chapter 35. 



SECTION 140' 
EXPLOSIVE MATE 

1407.1 Storage and handling. Explosive materials shall be 
stored, used and handled in accordance with Chapter 33. 

1407.2 Supervision. Blasting operations shall be conducted in 
accordance with Chapter 33. 

1407.3 Demolition using explosives. Approved fire hoses for 
use by demohtion personnel shall be maintained at the demoh- 
tion site whenever explosives are used for demolition. Such fire 
hoses shall be connected to an approved water supply and shall 
be capable of being brought to bear on post-detonation fires 
anywhere on the site of the demolition operation. 



OWNER'S RESPONSIBILITY FOR FIRE 
PROTECTSON 

1 Program superintendent. The owner shall designate a 
person to be the Fire Prevention Program Superintendent who 
shall be responsible for the fire prevention program and ensure 
that it is carried out through completion of the project. The fire 
prevention program superintendent shall have the authority to 
enforce the provisions of this chapter and other provisions as 
necessary to secure the intent of this chapter. Where guard ser- 
vice is provided, the superintendent shall be responsible for the 
guard service. 

1408.2 Prefire plans. The fire prevention program superinten- 
dent shall develop and maintain an approved prefire plan in co- 
operation with the fire chief. The fire chief and the fire code 
official shall be notified of changes affecting the utilization of 
information contained in such prefire plans. 

1408.3 Training. Training of responsible personnel in the use 
of fire protection equipment shall be the responsibility of the 
fire prevention program superintendent. 

1408.4 Fire protection devices. The fire prevention program 
superintendent shall determine that all fire protection equip- 
ment is maintained and serviced in accordance with this code. 
The quantity and type of fire protection equipment shall be ap- 
proved. 

1408.5 Hot work operations. The superintendent shall be re- 
sponsible for supervising the permit system for hot work opera- 
tions in accordance with Chapter 26. 

1408.6 Impairment of fire protection systems. Impairments 
to any fire protection system shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 901. 

1408.7 Temporary covering of fire protection devices. Cov- 
erings placed on or over fire protection devices to protect them 
from damage during construction processes shall be immedi- 
ately removed upon the compledon of the construction pro- 
cesses in the room or area in which the devices are installed. 



SECTION 1409 
FIRE ALAR^ REPORTING 

1409.1 Emergency telephone. Readily accessible emergency 
telephone facilities shall be provided in an approved location at 
the construction site. The street address of the construction site 
and the emergency telephone number of the fire department 
shall be posted adjacent to the telephone. 



SECTION 1410 
ACCESS FOR FIRE FIGHTING 



access. Approved vehicle access for fire 
fighting shall be provided to all construction or demohtion 
sites. Vehicle access shall be provided to within 100 feet (30 
480 mm) of temporary or permanent fire depiartment connec- 
tions. Vehicle access shall be provided by either temporary or 
permanent roads, capable of supporting vehicle loading under 
all weather conditions. Vehicle access shall be maintained until 
permanent fire apparatus access roads are available. 

1410.2 Key boxes. Key boxes shall be provided as required by 
Chapter 5. 



IViEANS OF EGRESS 

[B] 1411.1 Stairvi'ays required. Where a building has been 
constructed to a height greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) or four 
stories, or where an existing building exceeding 50 feet (15 240 
mm) in height is altered, at least one temporary lighted stairway 
shall be provided unless one or more of the permanent stair- 
ways are erected as the construction progresses. 

1411.2 Maintenance. Required means of egress shall be main- 
tained during construction and demolition, remodeling or alter- 
adons and additions to any building. 

Exception: Approved temporary means of egress systems 
and facilities. 



SECTION 1412 
WATER SUPPLY FOR FIRE PROTECTION 

1412.1 When required. An approved water supply for fire pro- 
tection, either temporary or permanent, shall be made available 
as soon as combustible material arrives on the site. 



STANDPIPES 

1413.1 Where required. Buildings four or more stories in 
height shall be provided with not less than one standpipe for use 
during construction. Such standpipes shall be installed when 
the progress of construction is not more than 40 feet (12 192 
mm) in height above the lowest level of fire department access. 
Such standpipe shall be provided with fire department hose 
connections at accessible locations adjacent to usable stairs. 
Such standpipes shall be extended as construction progresses 
to within one floor of the highest point of construction having 
secured decking or flooring. 



150 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



PURE SAFETY DURING COMSTRUCTION AMD DEiWOLmOM 




Where a building is be- 
ing demolished and a standpipe is existing within such a build- 
ing, such standpipe shall be maintained in an operable 
condition so as to be available for use by the fire department. 
Such standpipe shall be demoUshed with the building but shall 
not be demolished more than one floor below the floor being 
demolished. 

1413.3 Dettanledl reqeiremeets. Standpipes shall be installed 
in accordance with the provisions of Section 905. 



mi Standpipes shall be either temporary or perma- 
nent in nature, and with or without a water supply, provided 
that such standpipes comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 905 as to capacity, outlets and materials. 



^ 



miQMMm SPRIWICLER SYSTEfiVi 

1414,1 Completiom Ibefore occepamcy. In buildings where an 
automatic sprinkler system is required by this code or the Inter- 
national Building Code, it shall be unlawful to occupy any por- 
tion of a building or structure until the automatic sprinkler 
system installation has been tested and approved, except as pro- 
vided in Section 105.3.3. 



jSo Operation of sprinkler control 
valves shall be allowed only by properly authorized personnel 
and shall be accompanied by notification of duly designated 
parties. When the sprinkler protection is being regularly turned 
off and on to facilitate connection of newly completed seg- 
ments, the sprinkler control valves shall be checked at the end 
of each work period to ascertain that protection is in service. 



4. Fuel for equipment shall be stored in an approved area 
outside of the building. 



1417ol GemeraL Roofing operations utilizing heat-producing 
systems or other ignition sources shall be performed by a con- 
tractor licensed and bonded for the type of roofing process to be 
performed. 

1417.2 Asphalt amd ttar kettles. Asphalt and tar kettles shall 
be operated in accordance with Section 303. 

1417.3 Fire extlmganlsliers for rocDlEg operations. Fire 
extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with Section 906. 
There shall be not less than one multi-purpose portable fire ex- 
tinguisher with a minimum 3-A 40-B:C rating on the roof being 
covered or repaired. 



poRmei 



ECTIOM 1415 

FBRE EXTINOUGSHERS 

1415,1 Where reqeired. Structures under construction, alter- 
ation or demolition shall be provided with not less than one ap- 
proved portable fire extinguisher in accordance with Section 
906 and sized for not less than ordinary hazard as follows: 

1 . At each stairway on all floor levels where combustible 
materials have accumulated. 

2. In every storage and construction shed. 

3. Additional portable fire extinguishers shall be provided 
where special hazards exist including, but not limited to, 
the storage and use of flammable and combustible liq- 
uids. 



iEWT 

,1 ComdntioES of ese, Intemal-combustion-powered con- 
struction equipment shall be used in accordance with all of the 
following conditions: 

1. Equipment shall be located so that exhausts do not dis- 
charge against combustible material. 

2. Exhausts shall be piped to the outside of the building. 

3. Equipment shall not be refueled while in operation. 



2003 DNTERiSSATlOMAL FIRE CODE® 



151 




1 52 2003 1NTER^SAT80N AL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 



FLAM 



11 



ISOl.l Scope, This chapter shall apply to locations or areas 
where any of the following activities are conducted: 

1 . The application of flammable or combustible paint, var- 
nish, lacquer, stain, fiberglass resins or other flammable 
or combustible liquid applied by means of spray appara- 
tus in continuous or intermittent processes. 

2. Dip-tank operations in which articles or materials are 
passed through contents of tanks, vats or containers of 
flammable or combustible liquids, including coating, 
finishing, treatment and similar processes. 

3. The application of combustible powders when applied 
by powder spray guns, electrostatic powder spray guns, 
fluidized beds or electrostatic fluidized beds. 

4. Floor surfacing or finishing operations in areas exceed- 
ing 350 square feet (32.5 m^). 

5 . The application of dual-component coatings or Class I or 
II liquids when applied by brush or roller in quantities ex- 
ceeding 1 gallon (4 L). 

6. Spraying and dipping operations. 

1S(D)1.2 PermitSo Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tions 105.6 and 105.7. 



1S®2J DeimitioES. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 



A process for rapidly removing excess wet 
coating material from a dipped or coated object or material by 
passing it through an electrostatic field. 

DIP TANK. A tank, vat or container of flammable or combus- 
tible liquid in which articles or materials are immersed for the 
purpose of coating, finishing, treating and similar processes. 

ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED, A container holding 
powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to 
form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material which 
is electrically charged with a charge opposite to the charge of 
the object to be coated. Such object is transported through the 
container immediately above the charged and aerated materials 
in order to be coated. 

FLAMMABLE FINISHES. Material coatings in which the 
material being applied is a flammable liquid, combustible liq- 
uid, combustible powder or flammable or combustible gel coat- 
ings. 



FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating ma- 
terial that is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported 
expanded cloud of such material through which the preheated 
object to be coated is immersed and transported. 

LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE, An area in which spraying 
operations for touch-up or spot painting of a surface area of 9 
square feet (0.84 m^) or less are conducted. 

RESIN APPLICATION AMEA, An area where reinforced 
plastics are used to manufacture products by hand lay-up or 
spray-fabrication methods. 

MOLL COATING, The process of coating, spreading and im- 
pregnating fabrics, paper or other materials as they are passed 
directly through a tank or trough containing flammable or com- 
bustible liquids, or over the surface of a roller revolving par- 
tially submerged in a flammable or combustible liquid. 

SPRAY AREA, An area in which dangerous quantities of 
flammable vapors or combustible residues, dusts or deposits 
are present because of the operation of spraying processes. It 
shall include the interior of spray booths, the interior of ducts 
exhausting from spraying processes, or any area in the direct 
path of spray or any area containing dangerous quantities of 
air-suspended powder, combustible residue, dust, deposits, va- 
por or mists as a result of spraying operations. The fire code of- 
ficial is authorized to define the spray area in any specific case. 



A mechanically ventilated appliance of 
varying dimensions and construction provided to enclose or ac- 
commodate a spraying operation and to confine and limit the 
escape of spray vapor and residue and to exhaust it safely. 

SPRAY ROOM, A room designed to accommodate spraying 
operations constructed in accordance with the International 
Building Code and separated from the remainder of the build- 
ing by a minimum 1-hour fire barrier. 

VAPOR AMEA. An area containing flammable vapors in the 
vicinity of dip tanks, drain boards or associated drying, convey- 
ing or other equipment during operation or shutdown periods. 
The fire code official is authorized to determine the extent of 
the vapor area, taking into consideration the characteristics of 
the liquid, the degree of sustained ventilation and the nature of 
the operations. 



15®3,1 Gemeral, Operations covered by this chapter shall be 
protected as required by this section. 

1503.2 Soflirces of ngmntioE, Protection against sources of igni- 
tion shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1503.2.1 
through 1503.2.8. 



153 



FLAWilViABLE FSNISHES 



1503.2.1 Electrical wiring and equipment Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment shall comply with this chapter and the 
ICC Electrical Code. 



or vapor areas and shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 
mm) of such areas unless separated by a permanent parti- 
tion. 



vapor areas. Electrical 
wiring and equipment in spray spaces and vapor areas 
shall be of an explosion-proof type approved for use in 
such hazardous locations. Such areas shall be considered 
to be Class I, Division 1 or Class II, Division 1 hazardous 
locations in accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. 

1503.2.1.2 Electrical wiring and equipment in resin 
application areas. Electrical wiring and equipment lo- 
cated in resin application areas shall be in accordance 
with the ICC Electrical Code. 

1503.2.1.3 Areas subject to deposits of residues. Elec- 
trical equipment in the vicinity of spray areas and dip 
tanks or associated drain boards or drying operations 
which are subject to splashing or dripping of liquids shall 
be specifically approved for locations containing depos- 
its of readily ignitable residue and explosive vapors. 



1 . This provision shall not apply to wiring in rigid 
conduit, threaded boxes or fittings not contain- 
ing taps, splices or terminal connections. 

2. This provision shall not apply to electrostatic 
equipment allowed by Section 1506. 

In resin application areas, electrical wiring and equip- 
ment that is subject to deposits of combustible residues 
shall be listed for such exposure and shall be installed as 
required for hazardous (classified) locations. Electrical 
wiring and equipment not subject to deposits of combus- 
tible residues shall be installed as required for ordinary 
hazard locations. 



IS adjacent to spray Dootns. Electrical 
wiring and equipment located outside of, but within 5 
feet (1524 mm) horizontally and 3 feet (914 mm) verti- 
cally of openings in a spray booth or a spray room shall 
be approved for Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 
hazardous locations, whichever is applicable. 

1503.2.1.5 Areas subject to overspray deposits. Elec- 
trical equipment in spraying areas located such that de- 
posits of combustible residues could readily accumulate 
thereon shall be specifically approved for locations con- 
taining deposits of readily ignitable residue and explo- 
sive vapors in accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. 

ions: 

1 . Wiring in rigid conduit. 

2. Boxes or fittings not containing taps, splices or 
terminal connections. 

3. Equipment allowed by Sections 1504 and 1506 
and Chapter 21. 

1503.2.1.6 Flexible power cords. The use of flexible 
power cords shall be in accordance with the ICC Electri- 
cal Code. 

1503.2.2 Open flames and sparks. Open flames and 
spark-producing devices shall not be located in spray spaces 



fi: Drying and baking apparatus complying 
with Section 1504.7.2. 

1503.2.3 Hot surfaces. Heated surfaces having a tempera- 
ture sufficient to ignite vapors shall not be located in vapor 
areas. Space-heafing appliances, steam pipes or hot surfaces 
in a spraying area or a resin application area shall be located 
such that they are not subject to accumulation of deposits of 
combustible residues. 

Exception: Drying apparatus complying with Section 
1504.7.2. 

1503.2.4 Equipment enclosures. Equipment or apparatus 
that is capable of producing sparks or particles of hot metal 
that would fall into a spray space or vapor area shall be to- 
tally enclosed. 

1503.2.5 Grounding. Metal parts of spray booths, exhaust 
ducts and piping systems conveying Class I or II hquids 
shall be electrically grounded in accordance with the ICC 
Electrical Code. Metallic parts located in resin application 
areas, including but not limited to exhaust ducts, ventilation 
fans, spray applicadon equipment, workpieces and piping, 
shall be electrically grounded. 

1503.2.6 Smoking prohibited. Smoking shall be prohib- 
ited in spray spaces or vapor areas. "No Smoking" signs 
complying with Section 310 shall be conspicuously posted 
in such areas. 

1503.2.7 Welding warning signs. Welding, cutting and 
similar spark-producing operations shall not be conducted 
in or adjacent to spray areas or dipping or coating operations 
unless precautions have been taken to provide safety. Con- 
spicuous signs with the following warning shall be posted in 
the vicinity of spraying areas, dipping operations and paint 
storage rooms: 

NO WELDING 

THE USE OF WELDING OR CUTTING 

EQUIPMENT IN OR NEAR THIS AREA 

IS DANGEROUS BECAUSE OF FIRE 

AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS. WELDING 

AND CUTTING SHALL BE DONE ONLY 

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE 

PERSON IN CHARGE. 

1503.2.8 Powered Industrial trucks. Powered industrial 
trucks used in electrically classified areas shall be listed for 
such use. 

1503.3 Storage, use and handling of flammable and com- 
bustible liquids. The storage, use and handling of flammable 
and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this section 
and Chapter 34. 

1503.3.1 Use. Containers supplying spray nozzles shall be 
of a closed type or provided with metal covers which are 
kept closed. Containers not resting on floors shall be on 
noncombustible supports or suspended by wire cables. Con- 
tainers supplying spray nozzles by gravity flow shall not ex- 
ceed 10 gallons (37.9 L) in capacity. 



154 



2003 ShSTERMATIONAL F!RE CODE® 



^BLE F8NISHES 



1503.3.2 Valves. Containers and piping to which a hose or 
flexible connection is attached shall be provided with a shut- 
off valve at the connection. Such valves shall be kept shut 
when hoses are not in use. 

1503.3.3 Pemped Mqeidl supplies. Where flammable or 
combustible liquids are supplied to spray nozzles by posi- 
tive displacement pumps, pump discharge lines shall be pro- 
vided with an approved relief valve discharging to pump 
suction or a safe detached location. 



1503.3.4 Lnqeldl tramisfeir. Where a flammable mixture is 
transferred from one portable container to another, a bond 
shall be provided between the two containers. At least one 
container shall be grounded. Piping systems for Class I and 
Class II liquids shall be permanently grounded. 

1503.3.5 Class I InqiuiEds as soIveMs. Class I liquids used as 
solvents shall be used in spray gun and equipment cleaning 
machines which have been listed and approved for the pur- 
pose or shall be used in spray booths or spray rooms in ac- 
cordance with Sections 1503.3.5.1 and 1503.3.5.2. 

1503.3.5.1 Listed devices. Cleaning machines for spray 
guns and equipment shall not be located in areas open to 
the public and shall be separated from ignition sources in 
accordance with their hstings or by a distance of 3 feet 
(914 mm), whichever is greater. The quantity of solvent 
used in a machine shall not exceed the design capacity of 
the machine. 

1503.3.5.2 Witoim spray foooitfliis amd spray rooms. 
When solvents are used for cleaning spray nozzles and 
auxiliary equipment within spray booths and spray 
rooms, the ventilating equipment shall be operated dur- 
ing cleaning. 

1503.3.6 Class 11 aed Class III iqoids. Solvents used out- 
side of spray booths, spray rooms or listed and approved 
spray gun and equipment cleaning machines shall be re- 
stricted to Class II and Class III liquids. 

1503,4 Operatioms aod maieteiniainice. Spraying areas, ex- 
haust fan blades and exhaust ducts shall be kept free from the 
accumulation of deposits of combustible residues. Where ex- 
cessive residue accumulates in booths, ducts, or discharge 
points or other spraying areas, spraying operations shall be dis- 
continued until conditions are corrected. 

1503,4.1 Tools. Scrapers, spuds and other tools used for 
cleaning purposes shall be constructed of nonsparking ma- 
terials. 



Residues removed during cleaning and 
debris contaminated with residue shall be immediately re- 
moved from the premises and properly disposed. 



1503.4.3 Waste cams. Approved metal waste cans equipped 
with self-closing lids shall be provided wherever rags or 
waste are impregnated with finishing material. Such rags 
and waste shall be deposited therein immediately after being 
utihzed. The contents of waste cans shall be properly dis- 
posed of at least once daily and at the end of each shift. 

1503.4.4 Solvemt recycling. Solvent distillation equipment 
used to recycle and clean dirty solvents shall comply with 
Section 3405.4. 



SECTION 1504 
SPRAY FINISHING 

1504,1 Locatlom of spray-flnisliimg operatioms. Spray-finish- 
ing operations conducted in buildings used for Group A, E, I or 
R occupancies shall be located in a spray room protected with 
an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 and separated vertically and hori- 
zontally from other areas in accordance with the International 
Building Code. In other occupancies, spray-finishing opera- 
tions shall be conducted in a spray room, spray booth or limited 
spraying space approved for such use. 

1504.1.1 Spray rooms. Spray rooms shall be constructed 
and designed in accordance with this section and the Inter- 
national Building Code, and shall comply with Sections 
1504.2, 1504.3, 1504.4, 1504.5 and 1504.6. 



1504.1.1.1 Floor, Combustible floor construction in 
spray rooms shall be covered by approved, 
noncombustible, nonsparking material, except where 
combustible coverings, such as thin paper or plastic and 
strippable coatings are utilized over noncombustible ma- 
terials to facilitate cleaning operations in spray rooms. 

1504.1.2 Spray Ibootlhs. The design and construction of 
spray booths shall be in accordance with Sections 
1504.1.2.1 through 1504.1.2.6, Sections 1504.2 through 
1504.6, and NFPA 33. 

1504,1.2.1 Comstrecltiom. Spray booths shall be con- 
structed of approved noncombustible materials. Alumi- 
num shall not be used. 

Where walls or ceiling assemblies are constructed of 
sheet metal, single-skin assemblies shall be no thinner 
than 0.0478 inch (18 gage) (1.2 mm) and each sheet of 
double-skin assemblies shall be no thinner than 0.0359 
inch (20 gage) (0.9 mm). 

Structural sections of spray booths are allowed to be 
sealed with latex-based or similar caulks and sealants. 



1504.1.2.2 Serfaces. The interior surfaces of spray 
booths shall be smooth and shall be constructed so as to 
permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the 
interior and to facilitate washing and cleaning, and shall 
be designed to confine residues within the booth. Alumi- 
num shall not be used. 



1504.1.2.3 Floor, Combustible floor construction in 
spray booths shall be covered by approved, 
noncombustible, nonsparking material, except where 
combustible coverings, such as thin paper or plastic and 
strippable coatings are utilized over noncombustible ma- 
terials to facilitate cleaning operations in spray booths. 

1504.1.2.4 Means of egress. Means of egress shall be 
provided in accordance with Chapter 10. 

Exceptiomi: Means of egress doors from 
premanufactured spray booths shall not be less than 
30 inches (762 mm) in width by 80 inches (2032 mm) 
in height. 

1504.1.2.5 Clear space. Spray booths shall be installed 
so that all parts of the booth are readily accessible for 
cleaning. A clear space of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) 



2003 IMTERNAUOIMAL FIRE CODE® 



J 55 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



shall be maintained on all sides of the spray booth. This 
clear space shall be kept free of any storage or combusti- 
ble construction. 

Exceptions: 

1 . This requirement shall not prohibit locating a 
spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to or di- 
rectly against an interior partition, wall or 
floor/ceiling assembly, that has a fire-resis- 
tance- rating of not less than 1 hour, provided 
the spray booth can be adequately maintained 
and cleaned. 

2. This requirement shall not prohibit locating a 
spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to an 
exterior wall or a roof assembly provided the 
wall or roof is constructed of noncombustible 
material and provided the spray booth can be 
adequately maintained and cleaned. 

1504.1.2.6 Size. The aggregate area of spray booths in a 
building shall not exceed the lesser of 10 percent of the 
area of any floor of a building or the basic area allowed 
for a Group H-2 occupancy without area increases, as set 
forth in the International Building Code. 

The area of an individual spray booth in a building 
shall not exceed the lesser of the aggregate size limit or 
1,500 square feet (139 m2). 

Exception: One individual booth not exceeding 500 
square feet (46 m^). 

1504.1.3 Spraying spaces. Spraying spaces shall be de- 
signed and constructed in accordance with the International 
Building Code and Sections 1504.1.3.1, 1504.2, 1504.3, 
1504.4, 1504.5 and 1504.6 of this code. 

1504.1.3.1 Floor. Combustible floor construction in 
spraying spaces shall be covered by approved, non com- 
bustible, nonsparking material, except where combusti- 
ble coverings, such as thin paper or plastic and strippable 
coatings are utilized over noncombustible materials to 
facilitate cleaning operations in spraying spaces. 

1504.1.4 Limited spraying spaces. Limited spraying 
spaces shall comply with Sections 1504.1.4.1 through 
1504.1.4.4. 

1504.1.4.1 Job size. The aggregate surface area to be 
sprayed shall not exceed 9 square feet (0.84 m^). 

1504.1.4.2 Frequency. Spraying operations shall not be 
of a continuous nature. 

1504.1.4.3 Ventilation. Positive mechanical ventilation 
providing a minimum of six complete air changes per 
hour shall be installed. Such system shall meet the re- 
quirements of this code for handhng flammable vapors. 
Explosion venting is not required. 

1504.1.4.4 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring within 
10 feet (3048 mm) of the floor and 20 feet (6096 mm) 
horizontally of the limited spraying space shall be de- 
signed for Class I, Division 2 locations in accordance 
with the ICC Electrical Code. 



1504.2 Ventilation. Mechanical ventilation of spraying areas 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 510 of the Inter- 
national Mechanical Code. 

1504.2.1 Operation. Mechanical ventilation shall be kept 
in operation at all times while spraying operations are being 
conducted and for a sufficient time thereafter to allow va- 
pors from drying coated articles and finishing material resi- 
due to be exhausted. Spraying equipment shall be 
interlocked with the ventilation of the spraying area such 
that spraying operations cannot be conducted unless the 
ventilation system is in operation. 

1504.2.2 Recirculation. Air exhausted from spraying oper- 
ations shall not be recirculated. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Air exhausted from spraying operations is allowed 
to be recirculated as makeup air for unmanned 
spray operations provided that: 

1.1. The solid particulate has been removed. 

1.2. The vapor concentration is less than 25 
percent of the LFL. 

1.3. Approved equipment is used to monitor 
the vapor concentration. 

1 .4. When the vapor concentration exceeds 25 
percent of the LFL, the following shall oc- 
cur: 

a. An alarm shall sound; and 

b. Spray operations shall automatically 
shut down. 

1.5. In the event of shutdown of the vapor con- 
centration monitor, 100 percent of the air 
volume specified in Section 1504.2 is au- 
tomatically exhausted. 

2. Air exhausted from spraying operations is allowed 
to be recirculated as makeup air to manned spraying 
operations where all of the conditions provided in 
Exception 1 are included in the installation and doc- 
uments have been prepared to show that the installa- 
tion does not pose a life safety hazard to personnel 
inside the spray booth, spray space or spray room. 

1504.2.3 Air velocity. Ventilation systems shall be de- 
signed, installed and maintained such that the average air 
velocity over the open face of the booth, or booth cross sec- 
tional in the direction of airflow during spraying operations, 
shall not be less than 100 feet per minute (0.51 m/s). 

1504.2.4 Ventilation obstruction. Articles being sprayed 
shall be positioned in a manner that does not obstruct collec- 
tion of overspray. 

1504.2.5 Independent ducts. Each spray booth and spray 
room shall have an independent exhaust duct system dis- 
charging to the outside. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Multiple spray booths having a combined frontal 
area of 1 8 square feet (1 .67 m^) or less are allowed 
to have a common exhaust when identical 
spray-finishing material is used in each booth. If 




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more than one fan serves one booth, fans shall be in- 
terconnected such that all fans operate simulta- 
neously. 

2. Where treatment of exhaust is necessary for air 
pollution control or for energy conservation, ducts 
shall be allowed to be manifolded if all of the fol- 
lowing conditions are met: 

2. 1 . The sprayed materials used are compatible 
and will not react or cause ignition of the 
residue in the ducts. 

2.2. Nitrocellulose-based finishing material 
shall not be used. 

2.3. A filtering system shall be provided to re- 
duce the amount of overspray carried into 
the duct manifold. 

2.4. Automatic sprinkler protection shall be 
provided at the junction of each booth ex- 
haust with the manifold, in addition to the 
protection required by this chapter. 

1504.2.6 TermimatnoE pomto The termination point for ex- 
haust ducts discharging to the atmosphere shall not be less 
than the following distances: 

1. Ducts conveying explosive or flammable vapors, 
fumes or dusts: 30 feet (9144 mm) from the property 
line; 10 feet (3048 mm) from openings into the build- 
ing; 6 feet (1829 mm) from exterior walls and roofs; 
30 feet (9144 mm) from combustible walls or open- 
ings into the building which are in the direction of the 
exhaust discharge; 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoin- 
ing grade. 

2. Other product-conveying outlets: 10 feet (3048 mm) 
from the property line; 3 feet (914 mm) from exterior 
walls and roofs; 10 feet (3048 mm) from openings 
into the building; 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining 
grade. 

3 . Environmental air duct exhaust: 3 feet (914 mm) from 
the property line; 3 feet (914 mm) from openings into 
the building. 

1504.2.7 Fan motors aed belts. Electric motors driving ex- 
haust fans shall not be placed inside booths or ducts. Fan ro- 
tating elements shall be nonferrous or nonsparking or the 
casing shall consist of, or be lined with, such material. Belts 
shall not enter the duct or booth unless the belt and pulley 
within the duct are tightly enclosed. 



15043 Filters. Air intake filters that are part of a wall or ceiling 
assembly shall be listed as Class I or Class II in accordance with 
UL 900. Exhaust filters shall be required. 

1504.3.1 Supporte, Supports and holders for filters shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials. 



1504.3.2 AtocHimeiniL Overspray collection filters shall be 
readily removable and accessible for cleaning or replace- 
ment. 



Visible gauges, audible 
alarms or pressure-activated devices shall be installed to in- 
dicate or ensure that the required air velocity is maintained. 



1504.3.4 Filter rolls. Spray booths equipped with a filter 
roll that is automatically advanced when the air velocity is 
reduced to less than 100 feet per minute (0.51 m/s) shall be 
arranged to shut down the spraying operation if the filter roll 
fails to advance automatically. 



Discarded filter pads shall be im- 
mediately removed to a safe, detached location or placed in 
a noncombustible container with a tight-fitting lid and dis- 
posed of properly. 



1504.3.6 Spoimtainieoes igmitioim. Spray booths using dry fil- 
ters shall not be used for spraying materials that are highly 
susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition. Filters 
shall be changed prior to spraying materials that could react 
with other materials previously collected. Examples of po- 
tentially reactive combinations include lacquer when com- 
bined with varnishes, stains or primers. 



1504.3.7 Waterwaslii spray bootlhs. Waterwash spray 
booths shall be of an approved design so as to prevent exces- 
sive accumulation of deposits in ducts and residue at duct 
outlets. Such booths shall be arranged so that air and 
overspray are drawn through a continuously flowing water 
curtain before entering an exhaust duct to the building exte- 
rior 



1504.4 Dnfferemit coaHiegs. Spray booths, spray rooms and 
spray spaces shall not be alternately utilized for different types 
of coating materials where the combination of materials is con- 
ducive to spontaneous ignition, unless all deposits of one mate- 
rial are removed from the booth, room or space and exhaust 
ducts prior to spraying with a different material. 



1504.5 Htomiinialtiop. Where spraying spaces, spray rooms or 
spray booths are illuminated through glass panels or other 
transparent materials, only fixed hghting units shall be utilized 
as a source of illumination. 



1504.5.1 Glass pamels. Panels for light fixtures or for obser- 
vation shall be of heat-treated glass, wired glass or ham- 
mered-wire glass and shall be sealed to confine vapors, 
mists, residues, dusts and deposits to the spraying area. 
Panels for light fixtures shall be separated from the fixture 
to prevent the surface temperature of the panel from exceed- 
ing 200° F (93° C). 

1504.5.2 Exterior ff5xtares. Light fixtures attached to the 
walls or ceilings of a spraying area, but which are outside of 
any classified area and are separated from the spraying area 
by vapor-tight glass panels, shall be suitable for use in ordi- 
nary hazard locations. Such fixtures shall be serviced from 
outside the spraying area. 



1504.5.3 Integral l^xtiuires. Light fixtures that are an integral 
part of the walls or ceihng of a spraying area are allowed to be 
separated from the spraying area by glass panels that are an 
integral part of the fixture. Such fixtures shall be listed for use 
in Class I, Division 2 or Class 11, Division 2 locations, which- 
ever is applicable, and also shall be suitable for accumula- 
tions of deposits of combustible residues. Such fixtures are 
allowed to be serviced from inside the spraying area. 



imps. Portable electric lamps 
shall not be used in spraying areas during spraying opera- 
tions. Portable electric lamps used during cleaning or re- 



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pairing operations shall be of a type approved for hazardous 
locations. 

1504.6 Fire protection. Spray booths and spray rooms shall be 
protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system 
complying with Chapter 9 which shall also protect exhaust ple- 
nums, exhaust ducts and both sides of dry filters when such fil- 
ters are used. 

1504.6.1 Protection of sprinklers. Automatic sprinklers 
installed in spraying areas shall be protected from accumu- 
lation of residue from spraying operations in an approved 
manner. Bags used as a protective covering shall be 
0.003-inch-thick (0.076 mm) polyethylene or cellophane or 
shall be thin paper. Automatic sprinklers contaminated by 
overspray particles shall be replaced with new automatic 
sprinklers. 

1504.6.2 Automated spray application operations. 
Where protecting automated spray application operations, 
automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be equipped 
with an approved interlock feature that will, upon discharge 
of the system, automatically stop the operation of spraying 
operations and workpiece conveyors into and out of the 
spraying area. Where the building is equipped with a fire 
alarm system, discharge of the automatic fire-extinguishing 
system shall also activate the building alarm notification ap- 
pliances. 

1504.6.2.1 Alarm station. A manual fire alarm and 
emergency system shutdown station shall be installed to 
serve each spraying area. When activated, the station 
shall accomplish the functions indicated in Section 
1504.6.2. At least one such station shall be readily acces- 
sible to operating personnel. Where access to this station 
is likely to involve exposure to danger, an additional sta- 
tion shall be located adjacent to an exit from the area. 

1504.6.3 Ventilation interlock prohibited. Air makeup 
and spraying area exhaust systems shall not be interlocked 
with the fire alarm system and shall remain in operation dur- 
ing a fire alarm condition. 

Exception: Where the type of fire-extinguishing system 
used requires that ventilation be discontinued, air 
makeup and exhaust systems shall shut down and damp- 
ers shall close. 

1504.6.4 Fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers 
complying with Section 906 shall be provided for spraying 
areas in accordance with the requirements for an extra 
(high) hazard occupancy. 

1504.7 Drying operations. Spray booths and spray rooms 
shall not be alternately used for the purpose of drying by ar- 
rangements which could cause an increase in the surface tem- 
perature of the spray booth or spray room except in accordance 
with Sections 1504.7.1 through 1504.7.2.3. 

1504.7.1 Spraying procedure. The spraying procedure 
shall use low-volume spray application. 

1504.7.2 Drying apparatus. Fixed drying apparatus shall 
comply with this chapter and the applicable provisions of 
Chapter 21. When recirculation ventilation is provided in 
accordance with Section 1504.2.2, the heating system shall 
not be within the recirculation air path. 



1504.7.2.1 Interlocks. The spraying apparatus, drying 
apparatus and ventilating system for the spray booth or 
spray room shall be equipped with interlocks arranged 
to: 

1 . Prevent operation of spraying appju-atus while dry- 
ing operations are in progress. 

2. Purge spray vapors from the spray booth or spray 
room for a period of not less than 3 minutes before 
drying apparatus is rendered operable. 

3. Have the ventilating system maintain a safe atmo- 
sphere within the spray booth or spray room during 
the drying process and automatically shut off dry- 
ing apparatus in the event of a failure of the venti- 
lating system. 

4. Shut off the drying apparatus automatically if the 
air temperature within the booth exceeds 200 °F 
(93°C). 

1504.7.2.2 Portable infrared apparatus. When porta- 
ble infrared drying apparatus is used, electrical wiring 
and portable infrared drying equipment shall comply 
with the ICC Electrical Code. Electrical equipment lo- 
cated within 18 inches (457 mm) of floor level shall be 
approved for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations. 
Metallic parts of drying apparatus shall be electrically 
bonded and grounded. During spraying operations, por- 
table drying apparatus and electrical connections and 
wiring thereto shall not be located within spray booths, 
spray rooms or other areas where spray residue would be 
deposited thereon. 

1504.7.2.3 Sources of ignition. Except as specifically 
provided in this section, drying or baking units utilizing a 
heating system having open flames or which are capable 
of producing sparks, shall not be installed in a spraying 
area. 



n 1505 
DiPPlNG 0PERAT80NS 

1505.1 Location of dip-tank operations. Dip-tank operations 
conducted in buildings used for Group A, I or R occupancies 
shall be located in a room designed for that purpose, equipped 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system, and separated 
vertically and horizontally from other areas in accordance with 
the International Building Code. 

1505.2 Ventilation of vapor areas. Vapor areas shall be pro- 
vided with mechanical ventilation adequate to prevent the dan- 
gerous accumulation of vapors. Required ventilation systems 
shall be arranged such that the failure of any ventilating fan 
shall automatically stop the dipping conveyor system. 

1505.3 Construction of dip tanks. Dip tanks shall be con- 
structed in accordance with this section and NFPA 34. Dip 
tanks, including drain boards, shall be constructed of 
noncombustible material and their supports shall be of heavy 
metal, reinforced concrete or masonry. 

1505.3.1 Overflow. Dip tanks greater than 150 gallons (568 
L) in capacity or 10 square feet (0.93 m^) in liquid surface 
area shall be equipped with a trapped overflow pipe leading 
to an approved location outside the building. The bottom of 



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the overflow connection shall not be less than 6 inches (152 
mm) below the top of the tank. 



1505o3.2 Bottom draies. Dip tanks greater than 500 gallons 
(1893 L) in liquid capacity shall be equipped with bottom 
drains that are arranged to automatically and manually drain 
the tank quickly in the event of a fire unless the viscosity of 
the Hquid at normal atmospheric temperature makes this im- 
practical. Manual operation shall be from a safe, accessible 
location. Where gravity flow is not practicable, automatic 
pumps shall be provided. Such drains shall be trapped and 
discharge to a closed, vented salvage tank or to an approved 
outside location. 



mi Dip tanks containing Class IIIB combustible 
liquids where the liquids are not heated above room tem- 
perature, and the process area is protected by automatic 
sprinklers. 

1505.3.3 Dippnmg MqeM temperatare coeitroL Protection 
against the accumulation of vapors, self-ignition and exces- 
sively high temperatures shall be provided for dipping liq- 
uids that are heated directly or heated by the surfaces of the 
object being dipped. 

1505.4 Ccmiveyors. Dip tanks utilizing a conveyor system shall 
be arranged such that in the event of fire, the conveyor system 
shall automatically cease motion and the required tank bottom 
drains shall open. 



1505.5 Portatole ire extnmgeislhers. Areas in the vicinity of 
dip tanks shall be provided with portable fire extinguishers 
complying with Section 906 and suitable for flammable and 
combustible liquid fires as specified for extra (high) hazard oc- 
cupancies. 

1505.6 Fixed Sre-extnEgenslhninig eqelpmemt. An approved au- 
tomatic fire-extinguishing system or dip tank covers in accor- 
dance with Section 1505.7 shall be provided for the following 
dip tanks: 

1 . Dip tanks less than 150 gallons (568 L) in capacity or 
10 square feet (0.93 m^) in hquid surface area. 

2. Dip tanks containing a liquid with a flash point below 
110°F (43 °C), used in such manner that the liquid 
temperature could equal or be greater than its flash 
point from artificial or natural causes, and having both 
a capacity of more than 10 gallons (37.9 L) and a liq- 
uid surface area of more than 4 square feet (0.37 m^). 



1505.6.1 Fire-extmginnslhmg system. An approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system shall be provided for dip 
tanks with a 150-gallon (568 L) or more capacity, or 10 
square feet (0.93 m^) or larger in a liquid surface area. 
Fire-extinguishing system design shall be in accordance 
with NFPA 34. 

1505.7 Dip tamk covers. Dip tank covers allowed by Section 
1505.6 shall be capable of manual operation and shall be auto- 
matic-closing by approved automatic-closing devices designed 
to operate in the event of fire. 

1505.7.1 Comstractioin!, Covers shall be constructed of 
noncombustible material or be of a tin-clad type with en- 
closing metal applied with locked joints. 



1505.7.2 Supports. Chain or wire rope shall be utihzed for 
cover supports or operating mechanisms. 

1505.7.3 Closed covers. Covers shall be kept closed when 
tanks are not in use. 

1505.8 Hardeinimg aed temperimg taeks. Hardening and tem- 
pering tanks shall comply with Sections 1505.3 through 1505.5 
but shall be exempt from other provisions of Secdon 1505. 

1505.8.1 Locatioim. Tanks shall be located as far as practical 
from furnaces and shall not be located on or near combusti- 
ble floors. 



1505.8.2 Hoods. Tanks shall be provided with a 
noncombustible hood and vent or other approved venting 
means, terminating outside of the structure to serve as a vent 
in case of a fire. Such vent ducts shall be treated as flues, and 
proper clearances shall be maintained from combustible 
materials. 

1505.8.3 Alarms. Tanks shall be equipped with a high-tem- 
perature limit switch arranged to sound an alarm when the 
temperature of the quenching medium reaches 50°F (10°C) 
below the flash point. 

1505.8.4 Fire protectnom. Hardening and tempering tanks 
greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) in capacity or 25 square 
feet (2.3 m^) in liquid surface area shall be protected by an 
approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying 
with Chapter 9. 

1505.8.5 Use of air pressere. Air under pressure shall not 
be used to fill or agitate oil in tanks. 

1505.9 FIow=coatieg operatnoms. Flow-coating operations 
shall comply with the requirements for dip tanks. The area of 
the sump and any areas on which paint flows shall be consid- 
ered to be the area of a dip tank. 

1505,9,1 Palmt seppSy, Paint shall be supplied by a gravity 
tank not exceeding 10 gallons (37.9 L) in capacity or by di- 
rect low-pressure pumps arranged to shut down automati- 
cally in case of fire by means of approved heat-actuated 
devices. 



1505.10 IRoM-coatiinig operatnoms. Roll-coating operations 
shall comply with Section 1505.9. In roll-coating operations 
utiHzing flammable or combustible liquids, sparks from static 
electricity shall be prevented by electrically bonding and 
grounding all metallic rotating and other parts of machinery 
and equipment and by the installation of static collectors or by 
maintaining a conductive atmosphere such as a high relative 
humidity. 



iCTDON 1506 



ELECTRC 

1506.1 General. Electrostatic apparatus and devices used in 
connection with paint-spraying and paint-detearing operations 
shall be of an approved type. 

1506.2 Locainom, Transformers, power packs, control appara- 
tus and all other electrical portions of the equipment, except 
high-voltage grids and electrostatic atomizing heads and con- 
nections, shall be located outside of the spraying or vapor ar- 
eas, or shall comply with Section 1503.2. 



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1506.3 Construction of equipment. Electrodes and electro- 
static atomizing heads shall be of approved construction, rig- 
idly supported in permanent locations and effectively insulated 
from ground. Insulators shall be nonporous and non- 
combustible. 

1506.4 Clear space. A space of at least twice the sparking dis- 
tance shall be maintained between goods being painted or 
deteared and electrodes, electrostatic atomizing heads or con- 
ductors. A sign stating the sparking distance shall be conspicu- 
ously posted near the assembly. 

1506.5 Emergency shutdown. Electrostatic apparatus shall be 
equipped with automatic controls operating without time delay 
to disconnect the power supply to the high-voltage transformer 
and signal the operator under any of the following conditions: 

1. Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating 
equipment from any cause. 

2. Stoppage of the conveyor carrying articles past the 
high-voltage grid. 

3. Occurrence of a ground or an imminent ground at any 
point of the high- voltage system. 

4. Reduction of clearance below that required in Section 
1506.4. 

1506.6 Ventilation interlock. Hand electrostatic equipment 
shall be interlocked with the ventilation system for the spraying 
area so that the equipment cannot be operated unless the venti- 
lating system is in operation. 

1506.7 Protection for automated liquid electrostatic spray 
application equipment. Automated liquid electrostatic spray 
application equipment shall be protected by the installation of 
an approved, supervised flame detection apparatus that shall, in 
the event of ignition, react to the presence of flame within 0.5 
second and shall accomplish all of the following: 

1 . Activation of a local alarm in the vicinity of the spraying 
operation and activation of the building alarm system, if 
such system is provided. 

2. Shutting down of the coating material delivery system. 

3. Termination of all spray application operations. 

4. Stopping of conveyors into and out of the spraying area. 

5. Disconnection of power to the high- voltage elements in 
the spraying area and disconnection of power to the sys- 
tem. 

1506.8 Barriers. Booths, fencing, railings or guards shall be 
placed about the equipment such that either by their location or 
character, or both, isolation of the process is maintained from 
plant storage and personnel. Railings, fencing and guards shall 
be of conductive material, adequately grounded, and shall be at 
least 5 feet (1524 mm) from processing equipment. 

1506.9 Signs. Signs shall be posted to provide the following in- 
formation: 

1 . Designate the process zone as dangerous with respect to 
fire and accident. 

2. Identify the grounding requirements for all electrically 
conductive objects in the spray area, including persons. 

3. Restrict access to qualified personnel only. 



1506.10 Ventilation. The spraying area shall be ventilated in 
accordance with Section 1504.2. 

1506.11 Maintenance. Insulators shall be kept clean and dry. 
Drip plates and screens subject to paint deposits shall be re- 
movable and taken to a safe place for cleaning. 

1506.12 Fire protection. Areas used for electrostatic spray fin- 
ishing with fixed equipment shall be protected with an ap- 
proved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with 
Chapter 9. 



SECTION 1507 
POWDER COATING 

1507.1 General. Operations using finely ground particles of 
protective finishing material applied in dry powder form by 
fluidized bed, electrostatic fluidized bed, powder spray guns or 
electrostatic powder spray guns shall comply with this section. 

1507.2 Location and construction of powder coating rooms 
and booths. Powder coating operations shall be conducted in 
enclosed rooms constructed of noncombustible materials, en- 
closed powder coating facihties which are ventilated, or venti- 
lated spray booths complying with Section 1504.1.2. 

Exception: Listed spray-booth assembUes that are con- 
structed of other materials shall be allowed. 

1507.3 Sources of ignition. When parts are heated prior to 
coating, the temperature of the parts shall not exceed the igni- 
tion temperature of the powder to be used. 

Precautions shall be taken to minimize the possibility of ig- 
nition by static electrical sparks through static bonding and 
grounding, where possible, of powder transport, application 
and recovery equipment. 

1507.4 Ventilation. Exhaust ventilation shall be sufficient to 
maintain the atmosphere below one-half the n:iinimum explo- 
sive concentration for the material being applied. Non- 
deposited, air- suspended powders shall be removed through 
exhaust ducts to the powder recovery system. 

1507.5 Drying, curing and fusion equipment. Drying, curing 
and fusion equipment shall comply with Chapter 2 1 . 

1507.6 Operation and maintenance. Powder coating areas 
shall be kept free from the accumulation of powder coating 
dusts, including horizontal surfaces such as ledges, beams, 
pipes, hoods, booths and floors. 

1507.6.1 Cleaning. Surfaces shall be cleaned in such a man- 
ner so as to avoid scattering dusts to other places or creating 
dust clouds. Vacuum sweeping equipment shall be of a type 
approved for use in hazardous location. 

1507.6.2 Spark-producing metals. Iron or spark-produc- 
ing metals shall be prevented from being introduced into the 
powders being applied by magnetic separators, filter- type 
separators, or by other approved means. 

1507.6.3 Smoking. "No Smoking" signs complying with 
Section 310 shall be conspicuously posted at all powder 
coating areas and powder storage rooms. 



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1507o7 Fjxed ekcltrositatk-sprayseg eqinipmemit In addition 
to Section 1507, Section 1506 shall apply to fixed electrostatic 
equipment used in powder coating operations. 

1507.8 Fire protect!©!!. Areas used for powder coating shall be 
protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system 
complying with Chapter 9. 



1507.9 AddMomal protecMoe iPor ixed systems. Automated 
powder apphcation equipment shall be protected by the instal- 
lation of an approved, supervised flame detection apparatus 
that shall react to the presence of flame within 0.5 second and 
shall accomplish all of the following: 

1 . Shutting down of energy supplies (electrical and com- 
pressed air) to conveyor, ventilation, application, transfer 
and powder collection equipment. 

2. Closing of segregation dampers in associated ductwork 
to interrupt airflows from application equipment to pow- 
der collectors. 

3. Activation of an alarm that is audible throughout the 
powder coating room or booth. 

1507.10 Fnre exitmgaiiflsfiers. Portable fire extinguishers com- 
plying with Section 906 shall be provided for areas used for 
powder coating in accordance with the requirements for extra 
hazard occupancy. 



SECTION 11508 
MTOiyflOBDLE UNDERC 

1508.1 Gemeral. Automobile undercoating spray operations 
conducted in areas with approved natural or mechanical venti- 
lation shall be exempt from the provisions of Section 1504 
when approved and where utilizing Class IIIA or IIIB combus- 
tible liquids. 



1509.1 ComtemBEattom prevemtnomi. Organic peroxide initia- 
tors shall not be contaminated with foreign substances. 



1509.2 EqeSpmeeH;. Spray guns and related handhng equip- 
ment used with organic peroxides shall be of a type manufac- 
tured for such use. 



1509.3 Pressere tomks. Separate pressure vessels and inserts 
specifically for the application shall be used for the resin and 
for the organic peroxide, and shall not be interchanged. Or- 
ganic peroxide pressure tank inserts shall be constructed of 
stainless steel or polyethylene. 



Materials shall not be contaminated 
by dusts and overspray residues resulting from the sanding or 
spraying of finishing materials containing organic peroxides. 



1509.5 Spilledl material. Spilled organic peroxides shall be 
promptly removed so there are no residues. Spilled material ab- 
sorbed by using a noncombustibJe absorbent shall be promptly 
disposed of in accordance with the manufacturer's recommen- 
dation. 



1509.6 Use of orgamk peroxide coatings. Spraying opera- 
tions involving the use of organic peroxides and other 
dual-component coatings shall be conducted in approved 
sprinklered spray booths complying with Section 1504.1.2. 

1509.7 Storage. The storage of organic peroxides shall comply 
with Chapter 39. 

1509.8 Hamdlimg. Handling of organic peroxides shall be con- 
ducted in a manner that avoids shock and friction that produces 
decomposition and violent reaction hazards. 

1509.9 Mixing. Organic peroxides shall not be mixed directly 
with accelerators or promoters. 

1509.10 Sources off igmition. Smoking shall be prohibited and 
"No Smoking" signs complying with Section 310 shall be 
prominently displayed. Only nonsparking tools shall be used in 
areas where organic peroxides are stored, mixed or applied. 

1509.11 Persomeel qealifficatioiiis. Personnel working with or- 
ganic peroxides and dual-component coatings shall be specifi- 
cally trained to work with these materials. 



FLOOR SURFACDNG AND FiNISHllNG OPE 

1510.1 Scope. Floor surfacing and finishing operations ex- 
ceeding 350 square feet (33 m^) and using Class I or Class II liq- 
uids shall comply with Sections 1510.2 through 1510.5. 

1510.2 Besieess operation. Floor surfacing and finishing op- 
erations shall not be conducted while an establishment is open 
to the public. 



1510.3 Ventilatiom. To prevent the accumulation of flammable 
vapors, mechanical ventilation at a minimum rate of 1 cubic 
foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 mV(s x m^)] of area 
being finished shall be provided. Such exhaust shall be by ap- 
proved temporary or portable means. Vapors shall be exhausted 
to the exterior of the building. 

1510.4 Mechamical system operatioe. Heating, ventilation 
and air-conditioning systems shall not be operated during re- 
surfacing or refinishing operations or within 4 hours of the ap- 
plication of flammable or combustible liquids. 

1510.5 Ignitnom sources. The power to all electrical devices 
shall be shut down to all electrical sources of ignition within the 
vapor area, unless those devices are classified for use in Class I, 
Division 1 hazardous locations. 



1S11 
iCTUF 



1511.1 General. Indoor manufacturing processes involving 
spray or hand application of reinforced plastics and using more 
than 5 gallons (19 L) of resin in a 24-hour period shall be in ac- 
cordance with this section. 



1511.2 Resin application equipment. Equipment used for 
spray application of resin shall be installed and used in accor- 
dance with Sections 1509 and 1511. 

1511.3 Fire protection. Resin application areas shall be pro- 
tected by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system 



2003 (INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



FLAI\/liVIABLE FINiSMES 



design shall not be less than that required for Ordinary Hazard, 
Group 2, with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 
m^). Where the materials or storage arrangements are required 
by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprin- 
kler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system pro- 
tection shall be provided. 

1511.4 Sources of Ignition in resin application areas. 
Sources of ignition in resin application areas shall comply with 
Section 1503.2. 

1511.5 Ventilation. Mechanical ventilation shall be provided 
throughout resin application areas in accordance with Sections 
1504.2 and 1504.3. The ventilation rate shall be adequate to 
maintain the concentration of flammable vapors in the resin ap- 
plication area at or below 25 percent of the lower flammable 
limit (LFL). 

Exception'. Mechanical ventilation is not required for 
buildings that are unenclosed for at least 75 percent of the 
perimeter. 

1511.5,1 Local ventilation. Local ventilation shall be pro- 
vided inside of workpieces where personnel will be under or 
inside of the workpiece. 

1511.6 Storage and use of hazardous materials. Storage and 
use of organic peroxides shall be in accordance with Section 
1509 and Chapter 39. Storage and use of flammable and com- 
bustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 34. Storage 
and use of unstable (reactive) materials shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 43. 

1511.7 Handling of excess catalyzed resin. A 
noncombustible, open-top container shall be provided for dis- 
posal of excess catalyzed resin. Excess catalyzed resin shall be 
drained into the container while still in the liquid state. Enough 
water shall be provided in the container to maintain a minimum 
2-inch (51 mm) water layer over contained resin. 

1511.8 Control of overchop. In areas where chopper guns are 
used, exposed wall and floor surfaces shall be covered with pa- 
per, polyethylene film, or other approved material to allow for 
removal of overchop. Overchop shall be allowed to cure for not 
less than 4 hours prior to removal. 

1511.8.1 Disposal. Following removal, used wall and floor 
covering materials required by Section 1511.8 shall be 
placed in a noncombustible container and removed from the 
facility. 



162 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTE[^1S 

F^UDT AMD CROP mPEMil 



1CTI10W 1801 



.1 Scope. Ripening processes where ethylene gas is intro- 
duced into a room to promote the ripening of fruits, vegetables 
and other crops shall comply with this chapter. 

Exceptloim; Mixtures of ethylene and one or more inert 
gases in concentrations which prevent the gas from reaching 
greater than 25 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) 
when released to the atmosphere. 

1601.2 Permnts. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 



Etlhyleime geimerators. Approved ethylene generators 
shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Section 
1606. 



i§. Heating shall be by indirect means utilizing 
low-pressure steam, hot water, or warm air. 

Exceptnoe; Electric or fuel-fired heaters approved for use in 
hazardous (classified) locations which are installed and op- 
erated in accordance with the applicable provisions of the 
ICC Electrical Code, the International Mechanical Code or 
the International Fuel Gas Code. 



mcimn mm 

lUSTDiLE WASTE 

ag. Empty boxes, cartons, pallets and other 
combustible waste shall be removed from ripening rooms or 
enclosures and disposed of at regular intervals in accordance 
with Chapter 3. 



ECTDOM 160^ 



ECTDOW 1606 



1602.1 Terms deHmedl in Chapter 2, Words and terms used in 
this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as defined therein. 



SECTION 1603 
ETHYLENE QAS 

.1 LocatioDH. Ethylene gas shall be discharged only into 
approved rooms or enclosures designed and constructed for 
this purpose. 

1603.2 DnspemsEinig. Valves controlling discharge of ethylene 
shall provide positive and fail-closed control of flow and shall 
be set to limit the concentration of gas in air below 1 ,000 parts 
per million (ppm). 

SECTDON 1604 



.1 IgeMom prevemtnoM. Sources of ignition shall be con- 
trolled or protected in accordance with this section and Chapter 
3. 



Electrical wiring 
and equipment, including lighting fixtures, shall be approved 
for use in Class I, Division 2, Group C hazardous (classified) 
locations. 



.3 SHaltk electrkMy. Containers, piping and equipment 
used to dispense ethylene shall be bonded and grounded to pre- 
vent the discharge of static sparks or arcs. 

1604.4 Lflglhiimg. Lighting shall be by approved electric lamps 
or fixtures only. 



.1 EtttiyleEe generators. Ethylene generators shall be 
listed and labeled by an approved testing laboratory, approved 
by the fire code official and used only in approved rooms in ac- 
cordance with the ethylene generator manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. The listing evaluation shall include documentation that 
the concentration of ethylene gas does not exceed 25 percent of 
the lower explosive limit (LEL). 

1606.2 Etliyleinie gemerator rooms. Ethylene generators shall 
be used in rooms having a volume of not less than 1,000 cubic 
feet (28 m^). Rooms shall have air circulation to ensure even 
distribution of ethylene gas and shall be free from sparks, open 
flames or other ignition sources. 



WARNING 



1( 



,1 Whem reqelred. Approved warning signs indicating 
the danger involved and necessary precautions shall be posted 
on all doors and entrances to the premises. 



2003 INTERNATlOiMAL FIRE CODE® 



163 



1 54 2003 INTERMATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



FUMiGME 



DTE 



hL iMSECTB( 



WAL ¥©i 



ICTiOW 1701 



Scope, Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging 
operations within structures shall comply with this chapter. 

1701.2 PermitSo Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 



SECTDON 1702 
DEFDWmOWS 

17(0)2.1 Deimntfloes. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FUMIGANT. A substance which by itself or in combination 
with any other substance emits or liberates a gas, fume or vapor 
utilized for the destruction or control of insects, fungi, vermin, 
germs, rats or other pests, and shall be distinguished from in- 
secticides and disinfectants which are essentially effective in 
the solid or liquid phases. Examples are methyl bromide, ethyl- 
ene dibromide, hydrogen cyanide, carbon disulfide and 
sulfuryl fluoride. 



The utihzation within an enclosed space of a 
fumigant in concentrations that are hazardous or acutely toxic 
to humans. 

THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. The utilization 
of insecticidal liquids passed through thermal fog-generating 
units where, by means of heat, pressure and turbulence, such 
liquids are transformed and discharged in the form of fog or 
mist blown into an area to be treated. 



lAFETY Bl 



m 



ol Gemeral. Structures in which fumigation and thermal 
insecticidal fogging operations are conducted shall comply 
with the fire protection and safety requirements of Sections 
1703.2 through 1703.7. 



joerces off ngmntiom. Fires, open flames and similar 
sources of ignition shall be eliminated from the space under fu- 
migation or thermal insecticidal fogging. Heating, where 
needed, shall be of an approved type. 

.1 Ekctrknty. Electricity shall be shut off. 

Circulating fans that have been specifically 
designed for utilization in hazardous atmospheres and in- 
stalled in accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. 



Bo The fire code official and fire chief shall 
be notified in writing at least 24 hours before the structure is to 
be closed in connection with the utihzation of any toxic or 
flammable fumigant. Notification shall give the location of the 
enclosed space to be fumigated or fogged, the occupancy, the 



fumigants or insecticides to be utilized, the person or persons 
responsible for the operation, and the date and time at which the 
operation will begin. Notice of any fumigation or thermal in- 
secticidal fogging shall be served with sufficient advance no- 
tice to the occupants of the enclosed space involved to enable 
the occupants to evacuate the premises. 

17©3.3.1 Waromg sigms. Approved warning signs indicat- 
ing the danger, type of chemical involved and necessary pre- 
cautions shall be posted on all doors and entrances to the 
premises and upon all gangplanks and ladders from the 
deck, pier or land to the ship. Such notices shall be printed in 
red ink on a white background. Letters in the headlines shall 
be at least 2 inches (5 1 mm) in height and shall state the date 
and time of the operation, the name and address of the per- 
son, the name of the operator in charge, and a warning stat- 
ing that the occupied premises shall be vacated at least 1 
hour before the operation begins and shall not be reentered 
until the danger signs have been removed by the proper au- 
thorities. 



as. Persons engaged in the 
business of fumigation or thermal insecticidal fogging shall 
maintain and have available approved protective breathing 
apparatus. 



During the period fumigation 
is in progress, except when fumigation is conducted in a 
gas-tight vault or tank, a capable, alert watcher shall remain 
on duty at the entrance or entrances to the enclosed fumi- 
gated space until after the fumigation is completed and the 
premises properly ventilated and safe for occupancy. Suffi- 
cient watchers shall be provided to prevent persons from en- 
tering the enclosed space under fumigation without being 
observed. 



iggmg inquMs. Thermal insec- 
ticidal fogging liquids with a flash point below 100°F (38°C) 
shall not be utiHzed. 



Sealnmg of benldninigs. Paper and other similar materials 
that are not flame resistant shall not be used to wrap or cover a 
building in excess of that required for the sealing of cracks, 
casements and similar openings. 

1703.6 VemtjMg amd cleammip. At the end of the exposure pe- 
riod, fumigators shall safely and properly ventilate the pre- 
mises and contents; properly dispose of fumigant containers, 
residues, debris and other materials used for such fumigation; 
and clear obstructions from gas-fired appliance vents. 

1703.7 Flammable ffmimBgasTilts resHrkted, The use of carbon 
disulfide and hydrogen cyanide shall be restricted to agricul- 
tural fumigation. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



165 



1 66 2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 1i 



m 



mClLlTfil 



SECT80M 1801 
GENERAL 

1801.1 Scope. Semiconductor fabrication facilities and com- 
parable research and development areas classified as Group 
H-5 shall comply with this chapter and the International Build- 
ing Code. The use, storage and handling of hazardous materials 
in Group H-5 shall comply with this chapter, other applicable 
provisions of this code and the International Building Code. 

lB01c2 Applkatnomi. The requirements set forth in this chapter 
are requirements specific only to Group H-5 and shall be ap- 
plied as exceptions or additions to applicable requirements set 
forth elsewhere in this code. 



Is, Where a material poses multiple 
hazards, all hazards shall be addressed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2701.1. 



1801.4 Exisltnmi^ 
Existing buildings and existing fabrication areas shall comply 
with this chapter, except that transportation and handling of 
HPM in exit access corridors and exit enclosures shall be al- 
lowed when in compliance with Section 1 805 .3.2 and the Inter- 
national Building Code. 

1801.5 Permits, Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 



1802.1 Deflmitioiis. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas detec- 
tion system where the analytical instrument is maintained in 
continuous operation and sampling is performed without inter- 
ruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical basis 
at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes. 

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION, An approved loca- 
tion on the premises where signals from emergency equipment 
are received and which is staffed by trained personnel. 

FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fab- 
rication facility and related research and development areas in 
which there are processes using hazardous production materi- 
als. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas 
such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to 
the fabrication area processes. 

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A 
solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufactur- 
ing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or 
reactivity of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFFA 704 and which is 
used directly in research, laboratory or production processes 
which have as their end product materials that are not hazard- 
ous. 



HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID, An HPM hquid that is de- 
fined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or Class 
IIIA combustible liquid. 

HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a 
Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and which 
is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy. 

PASS=THROUGH. An enclosure installed in a wall with a 
door on each side that allows chemicals, HPM, equipment, and 
parts to be transferred from one side of the wall to the other. 

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY, A 
building or a portion of a building in which electrical circuits or 
devices are created on solid crystalline substances having elec- 
trical conductivity greater than insulators but less than conduc- 
tors. These circuits or devices are commonly known as 
semiconductors. 



A fully enclosed passage used for 
transporting HPM and purposes other than required means of 
egress. 

TOOL, A device, storage container, workstation, or process 
machine used in a fabrication area. 



KSTATION, A defined space or an independent princi- 
pal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area 
where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research ac- 
tivity occurs. Approved or Usted hazardous materials storage 
cabinets, flammable hquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets 
serving a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A 
workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire 
protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and 
other processing and scientific equipment. 



SECTION 1803 
GENERAL SAFETY PBOVflSBONS 

1803.1 Emergemcy control staMoni. An emergency control 
station shall be provided on the premises at an approved loca- 
tion outside of the fabrication area, and shall be continuously 
staffed by trained personnel. The emergency control station 
shall receive signals from emergency equipment and alarm and 
detection systems. Such emergency equipment and alarm and 
detection systems shall include, but not be limited to, the fol- 
lowing where such equipment or systems are required to be 
provided either in this chapter or elsewhere in this code: 

1 . Automatic sprinkler system alarm and monitoring sys- 
tems. 

2. Manual fire alarm systems. 

3. Emergency alarm systems. 

4. Continuous-gas detection systems. 

5. Smoke detection systems. 

6. Emergency power system. 



2003 IIIMTERSSSATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



1 67 



SEWIICONDUCTOR FABRICATSON FACSLBTIES 



1803.2 Systems, equtpmeiit and processes. Systems, equip- 
ment and processes including, but not limited to, containers, 
cylinders, tanks, piping, tubing, valves and fittings and shall 
comply with this section. Section 2703.2, other applicable pro- 
visions of this code, the International Building Code and the 
International Mechanical Code. 

1803.2.1 Additional regulations for HPM supply pip- 
ing and tubing. The requirements set forth in Section 
2703.2.2.2 shall apply to supply piping and tubing for 
HPM gases and liquids. Supply piping and tubing for 
HPM gases and Uquids having a health-hazard ranking of 
3 or 4 shall be welded throughout, except for connections 
located within a ventilated enclosure if the material is a 
gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment is 
provided for connections if the material is a liquid. 

1803.3 Construction requirements. Construction of semi- 
conductor fabrication facilities shall be in accordance with 
Sections 1803.3.1 through 1803.3.8. 

1803.3.1 Fabrication areas. Construction and location of 
fabrication areas shall comply with the International Build- 
ing Code. 

1803.3.2 Pass-throughs in exit access corridors. 
Pass-throughs in exit access corridors shall be constructed 
in accordance with the International Building Code. 

1803.3.3 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid storage rooms 
shall comply with Chapter 34 and the International Build- 
ing Code. 

1803.3.4 HPM rooms. HPM rooms shall comply with the 
International Building Code. 

1803.3.5 Gas cabinets. Gas cabinets shall comply with 
Section 2703.8.6. 

1803.3.6 Exhausted enclosures. Exhausted enclosures 
shall comply with Section 2703.8.5. 

1803.3.7 Gas rooms. Gas rooms shall comply with Section 
2703.8.4. 

1803.3.8 Service corridors. Service corridors shall comply 
with Section 1805.3 and the International Building Code. 

1803.4 Emergency plan. An emergency plan shall be estab- 
lished as set forth in Section 408.4. 

1803.5 Maintenance of equipment, machinery and pro- 
cesses. Maintenance of equipment, machinery and processes 
shall comply with Section 2703.2.6. 

1803.6 Security of areas. Areas shall be secured in accordance 
with Section 2703.9.2. 

1803.7 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring 
and equipment in HPM facilities shall comply with Sections 
1803.7.1 through 1803.7.3. 

1803.7.1 Fabrication areas. Electrical wiring and equip- 
ment in fabrication areas shall comply with the ICC Electri- 
cal Code. 



1803.7.2 Workstations. Electrical equipment and devices 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of workstations in which flamma- 
ble or pyrophoric gases or flammable liquids are used shall 
comply with the ICC Electrical Code for Class I, Division 2 
hazardous locations. Workstations shall not be energized 
without adequate exhaust ventilation in accordance with 
Section 1803.14. 

Exception: Class I, Division 2 hazardous electrical 
equipment is not required when the air removal from the 
workstation or dilution will prevent the accumulation of 
flammable vapors and fumes on a continuous basis. 

1803.7.3 Hazardous production material (HPM) rooms, 
gas rooms and liquid storage rooms. Electrical wiring and 
equipment in HPM rooms, gas rooms and hquid storage 
rooms shall comply with the ICC Electrical Code. 

1803.8 Exit access corridors and exit enclosures. Hazardous 
materials shall not be used or stored in exit access corridors or 
exit access enclosures. 

1803.9 Service corridors. Hazardous materials shall not be 
used in an open-system use condition in service corridors. 

1803.10 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
1803.10.1 through 1803.10.5 and Chapter 9. 

1803.10,1 Workstations and tools. The design of the sprin- 
kler system in the area shall take into consideration the spray 
pattern and the effect on the equipment. 

1803.10.1,1 Combustible workstations. A sprinkler 
head shall be installed within each branch exhaust con- 
nection or individual plenums of workstations of com- 
bustible construction. The sprinkler head in the exhaust 
connection or plenum shall be located not more than 2 
feet (610 mm) from the point of the duct connection or 
the connection to the plenum. When necessary to prevent 
corrosion, the sprinkler head and connecting piping in 
the duct shall be coated with approved or listed corro- 
sion-resistant materials. The sprinkler head shall be ac- 
cessible for periodic inspection. 

Exceptions: 

1. Approved alternative automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems are allowed. Activation of 
such systems shall deactivate the related pro- 
cessing equipment. 

2. Process equipment which operates at tempera- 
tures exceeding 932°F (500°C) and is provided 
with automatic shutdown capabilities for haz- 
ardous materials. 

3. Exhaust ducts 10 inches (254 mm) or less in di- 
ameter from flammable gas storage cabinets 
that are part of a workstation. 

4. Ducts listed or approved for use without inter- 
nal automatic sprinkler protection. 



<• 



168 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



SEMlllCONDUCTOR FABRlCATDOiVI FACILITIES 



l§€)3ol®J.2 Comtastnlbk tooISo Where the horizontal 
surface of a combustible tool is obstructed from ceiling 
sprinkler discharge, automatic sprinkler protection that 
covers the horizontal surface of the tool shall be pro- 
vided. 



1 . An automatic gaseous fire-extinguishing local 
surface application system shall be allowed as 
an alternative to sprinklers. Gaseous-extin- 
guishing systems shall be actuated by infrared 
(IR) or ultraviolet/infrared (UVIR) optical de- 
tectors. 

2. Tools constructed of materials that are listed or 
approved for use without internal fire extin- 
guishing system protection. 

18®3.1(D)o2 Gas cabnmelts amd exhaested emclosmres. An ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in gas 
cabinets and exhausted enclosures containing HPM com- 
pressed gases. 

ExceptEoe; Gas cabinets located in an HPM room other 
than those cabinets containing pyrophoric gases. 



18®3.1(I])o3 Pass-tlhiroMglTis m existlmg exit access cord- 
dors. Pass-throughs in existing exit access corridors shall be 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. 



18©3J(0).4 ExhaMst dects for HPM. An approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be provided in exhaust ducts 
conveying vapors, fumes, mists or dusts generated from 
HPM in accordance with this section and the International 
Mechanical Code. 

1§®3.1(D.4.1 MetelMc amd momcomlbiLisilntok mommetal- 
Mc exfliaeslt decits. An approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided in metallic and noncombustible 
nonmetallic exhaust ducts when all of the following con- 
ditions apply: 

1 . When the largest cross-sectional diameter is equal 
to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. The ducts are within the building. 

3. The ducts are conveying flammable vapors or 
fumes. 

1M3MA.2 Comlbimstnlbk moemeftallk exhaust dmclts. 
An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be pro- 
vided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts when the 
largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is equal to or 
greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 



1. Ducts listed or approved for applications with- 
out automatic sprinkler system protection. 

2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in 
length installed below ceiling level. 



1803.10,4.: 

comlbiLiistnbk workstataoims. Automatic fire-extinguish- 
ing system protection for exhaust connections and ple- 
nums of combustible workstations shall comply with 
Section 1803.14.1. 



1803.10.4.4 Exlhaesi!: duct sprnmkkr system reqefre- 
memts. Automatic sprinklers installed in exhaust duct 
systems shall be hydraulically designed to provide 0.5 
gallons per minute (gpm) (1.9 L/min) over an area de- 
rived by multiplying the distance between the sprinklers 
in a horizontal duct by the width of the duct. Minimum 
discharge shall be 20 gpm (76 L/min) per sprinkler from 
the five hydraulically most remote sprinklers. 

1803.10.4.4.1 Sprnmkkr head locatloms. Automatic 
sprinklers shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 mm) in- 
tervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. 
In vertical runs, automatic sprinklers shall be installed 
at the top and at alternate floor levels. 



1803.10.4.4.2 Control valve. A separate indicating 
control valve shall be provided for sprinklers installed 
in exhaust ducts. 



1803.10.4.4.3 Draimage. Drainage shall be provided 
to remove sprinkler water discharged in exhaust 
ducts. 

1803.10.4.4.4 Corrosive atmosplheres. Where cor- 
rosive atmospheres exist, exhaust duct sprinklers and 
pipe fittings shall be manufactured of corrosion- re- 
sistant materials or coated with approved materials. 

1803.10.4.4.5 Malmtemainice and Smspectlon, Sprin- 
klers in exhaust ducts shall be accessible for periodic 
inspection and maintenance. 

1803,10.5 Sprlmikkr alarms amd siBpervnsiomi, Automatic 
sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised and pro- 
vided with alarms in accordance with Chapter 9. Automatic 
sprinkler system alarm and supervisory signals shall be 
transmitted to the emergency control station. 

1803.11 MamiLnal Tw& alarm system. A manual fire alarm sys- 
tem shall be installed throughout buildings containing a Group 
H-5 occupancy. Activation of the alarm system shall initiate a 
local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control sta- 
tion. Manual fire alarm systems shall be designed and installed 
in accordance with Section 907. 

1803.12 Emergency alarm system. Emergency alarm sys- 
tems shall be provided in accordance with this section, Section 
2704.9 and Section 2705.4.4. The maximum allowable quan- 
tity per control area provisions of Section 2704.1 shall not ap- 
ply to emergency alarm systems required for HPM. 

1803.12.1 Where required. Emergency alarm systems 
shall be provided in the areas indicated in Sections 
1803.12.1.1 through 1803.12.1.3. 

1803.12.1.1 Service corridors. An approved emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, with 
at least one alarm device in the service corridor. 

1803.12.1.2 Exit access corridors and exit einclosMres, 
Emergency alarms for exit access corridors and exit en- 
closures shall comply with Section 2705.4.4. 

1803.12.1.3 Liqaiid storage rooms, HPM rooms amd 
gas rooms. Emergency alarms for liquid storage rooms, 
HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with Section 
2704.9. 



2003 INTERNATBOMAL FIRE CODE® 



169 



SER/IICONDUCTOR FABRSCATSON FAC1UT!ES 



1803.12.2 Alarm-Initiating devices. An approved emer- 
gency telephone system, local alarm manual pull stations, or 
other approved alarm-initiating devices are allowed to be 
used as emergency alarm-initiating devices. 

1803.12.3 Alarm signals. Activation of the emergency 
alarm system shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal 
to the emergency control station. 

1803.13 Continuous gas detectiom systems. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided for HPM gases when the 
physiological warning properties of the gas are at a higher level 
than the accepted permissible exposure limit (PEL) for the gas 
and for flammable gases in accordance with this section. 

1803.13.1 Where required. A continuous gas detection 
system shall be provided in the areas identified in Sections 
1803.13.1.1 through 1803.13.1.4. 

1803.13.1.1 Fabrication areas. A continuous gas detec- 
tion system shall be provided in fabrication areas when 
gas is used in the fabrication area. 

1803.13.1.2 HPM rooms. A continuous gas detection 
system shall be provided in HPM rooms when gas is used 
in the room. 



1803.13.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures and 
gas rooms. A continuous gas detection system shall be 
provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures. A 
continuous gas detection system shall be provided in gas 
rooms when gases are not located in gas cabinets or ex- 
hausted enclosures. 

1803.13.1.4 Exit access corridors. When gases are 
transported in piping placed within the space defined by 
the walls of an exit access corridor and the floor or roof 
above the exit access corridor, a continuous gas detection 
system shall be provided where piping is located and in 
the exit access corridor. 

Exception: A continuous gas detection system is not 
required for occasional transverse crossings of the 
corridors by supply piping which is enclosed in a fer- 
rous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor. 

1803.13.2 Gas detection system operation. The continu- 
ous gas detection system shall be capable of monitoring the 
room, area or equipment in which the gas is located at or be- 
low the permissible exposure limit (PEL) or ceiling limit of 
the gas for which detection is provided. For flammable 
gases, the monitoring detection threshold level shall be va- 
por concentrations in excess of 20 percent of the lower flam- 
mable hmit (LFL). Monitoring for highly toxic and toxic 
gases shall also comply with Chapter 37. 

1803.13.2.1 Alarms. The gas detection system shall ini- 
tiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency 
control station when a short-term hazard condition is de- 
tected. The alarm shall be both visual and audible and 
shall provide warning both inside and outside the area 



where the gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be dis- 
tinct from all other alarms. 

1803.13.2.2 Shut off of gas supply. The gas detection 
system shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the 
source on gas supply piping and tubing related to the sys- 
tem being monitored for which gas is detected when a 
short-term hazard condition is detected. Automatic clo- 
sure of shutoff valves shall comply with the following: 

1 . Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff 
valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure 
for the specific gas detected shall automatically 
close. 

2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
room and compressed gas containers are not in 
gas cabinets or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff 
valves on all gas lines for the specific gas de- 
tected shall automatically close. 

3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
piping distribution manifold enclosure, the 
shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the 
compressed gas container of the specific gas de- 
tected shall automatically close. 

Exception: Where the gas-detection sampling point 
initiating the gas detection system alarm is at the use 
location or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch 
line downstream of a piping distribution manifold, the 
shutoff valve for the branch hne located in the piping 
distribution manifold enclosure shall automatically 
close. 

1803.14 Exhaust ventilation systems for HPM. Exhaust ven- 
tilation systems and materials for exhaust ducts utilized for the 
exhaust of HPM shall comply with this section, other applica- 
ble provisions of this code, the International Building Code 
and the International Mechanical Code. 

1803.14.1 Where required. Exhaust ventilation systems 
shall be provided in the following locations in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the International 
Building Code: 

1. Fabrication areas: Exhaust ventilation for fabrication 
areas shall comply with the International Building 
Code. The fire code official is authorized to require 
additional manual control switches. 

2. Workstations: A ventilation system shall be provided 
to capture and exhaust fumes and vapors at 
workstations. 

3. Liquid storage rooms: Exhaust ventilation for liquid 
storage rooms shall comply with Section 2704.3.1 
and the International Building Code. 



170 



2003 SNTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



4. HPM rooms: Exhaust ventilation for HPM rooms 
shall comply with Section 2704.3.1 and the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

5. Gas cabinets: Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets 
shall comply with Section 2703.8.6.2. The gas cabinet 
ventilation system is allowed to connect to a worksta- 
tion ventilation system. Exhaust ventilation for gas 
cabinets containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall 
also comply with Chapter 37. 

6. Exhausted enclosures: Exhaust ventilation for ex- 
hausted enclosures shall comply with Section 
2703.8.5.2. Exhaust ventilation for exhausted enclo- 
sures containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall also 
comply with Chapter 37. 

7. Gas rooms: Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall 
comply with Section 2703.8.4.2. Exhaust ventilation 
for gas cabinets containing highly toxic or toxic gases 
shall also comply with Chapter 37. 

18(93.14.2 PemetrationiSo Exhaust ducts penetrating fire bar- 
rier assemblies shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent 
fire-resistance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not 
penetrate fire walls. Fire dampers shall not be installed in 
exhaust ducts. 

1803.143 Treatmemt systems. Treatment systems for 
highly toxic and toxic gases shall comply with Chapter 37. 

1803.15 Emergeinicy power system. An emergency power sys- 
tem shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies where re- 
quired by Section 604. The emergency power system shall be 
designed to supply power automatically to required electrical 
systems when the normal supply system is interrupted. 

1803.15.1 Meqeired elecltrkal systems. Emergency power 
shall be provided for electrically operated equipment and 
connected control circuits for the following systems: 

1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems. 

2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems. 

3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems. 

4. HPM gas room ventilation systems. 

5. HPM gas detection systems. 

6. Emergency alarm systems. 

7. Manual fire alarm systems. 

8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and alarm 
systems. 

9. Electrically operated systems required elsewhere in 
this code or in the International Building Code appli- 
cable to the use, storage or handling of HPM. 

1803.15.2 Exhaest veEtllatiOE systems. Exhaust ventila- 
tion systems are allowed to be designed to operate at not less 
than one-half the normal fan speed on the emergency power 
system when it is demonstrated that the level of exhaust will 
maintain a safe atmosphere. 



SECTION 1804 
STORAGE 

1804.1 Gemeral. Storage of hazardous materials shall comply 
with Section 1803 and this section and other applicable provi- 
sions of this code. 



1804.2 Fabrkatiom areas. Storage of HPM in fabrication ar- 
eas shall be within approved or listed storage cabinets, gas cab- 
inets or within a workstation. 

Flammable and combustible liquid storage cabinets shall 
comply with Chapter 34. 

Hazardous materials storage cabinets shall comply with 
Section 2703.8.7. 

Gas cabinets shall comply with Section 2703.8.6. Gas cabi- 
nets for highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with 
Chapter 37. 

Workstations shall comply with Section 1805.2.2. 

1804.2.1 Maximum aggregate quanitltnes. The aggregate 
quantities of hazardous materials stored and used in a single 
fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities set forth in 
Table 1804.2.1. 



lioim; Fabrication areas containing quantities of 
hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allow- 
able quantities per control area established by Chapters 
27 and 34. 



1804.2.2 MaximiLDm qeairtfltks off HPM. The maximum 
quantities of HPM stored in a single fabrication area shall 
not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control 
area estabhshed by Chapters 27 and 34. 

1804.3 Storage rooms. The storage of HPM in quantities 
greater than those listed in Chapters 27 and 34 shall be in a 
room complying with the requirements of the International 
Building Code and this code for a liquid storage room, HPM 
room or gas room as appropriate for the materials stored. The 
storage of other hazardous materials shall comply with Chapter 
27 and other applicable provisions of this code. 

1804.3.1 Separatlom off imcompatilble Ihazardoes matern- 
als. Incompatible hazardous materials in storage shall be 
separated from each other in accordance with Section 
2703.9.8. 



SECTION 1805 
USE AND HANDUNG 

1805.1 General. The use and handling of hazardous materials 
shall comply with this section, Section 1803 and other applica- 
ble provisions of this code. 

1805.2 Fabrkatnomi areas. Hazardous production materials lo- 
cated in fabrication areas shall be within approved or listed 
storage cabinets, gas cabinets or within a workstation. 



1805.2.1 Maximinm aggregate qeamtMes. The aggregate 
quantities of hazardous materials in a single fabrication area 
shall comply with Sections 1804.2.1 and 1804.2.2, and Ta- 
ble 1804.2.1. The quantity of HPM in use at a workstation 
shall not exceed the quantities listed in Table 1805.2.1. 



2003 INTERiMATIlOINlAL FIRE CODE® 



1711 



SER/ilCONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



TABLE 1804.2.1 
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5^ 


HAZARD CATEGORY 


SOLIDS 
(pounds/square foot) 


LIQUIDS 
(gallons/square foot) 


GAS 
(cubic foot@NTP/square foot) 


PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Combustible dust 


Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible fiber 
Loose 
Baled 


Noteb 
Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible liquid 
Class II 
Class IIIA 
Class IIIB 
Combination Class I, II and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.01 

0.02 

Not Limited 

0.04 


Not Applicable 


Cryogenic gas 
Flammable 
Oxidizing 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Notec 
1.25 


Explosives 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Flammable gas 
Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Notec 
Notec 


Flammable liquid 
Class lA 
Class IB 
Class IC 

Combination Class lA, IB and IC 
Combination Class I, II and IIIA 


Not 
Applicable 


0.0025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.04 


Not Applicable 


Flammable solid 


0.001 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Organic peroxide 

Unclassified detonable 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 


Noteb 

Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizing gas 
Gaseous 
Liquefied 
Combination of Gaseous and Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


1.25 
1.25 
1.25 


Oxidizer 
Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 
Combination oxidizer Class 1, 2, 3 


Noteb 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Noteb 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 


Not 
Applicable 


Pyrophoric 


Noteb 


0.00125 


Notes c and d 


Unstable reactive 
Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class I 


Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

0.0025 

0.01 

Not Limited 


Note b 

Note b 

Noteb 

Not Limited 


Water reactive 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.25 

Not Limited 


0.00125 

0.025 

Not Limited 


Not 
Applicable 



(continued) 



172 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE^ 



TABLE 1804.2.1— cootioued 
QUANTITY LlWilTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SSNGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5^ 


HAZARD CATEGORY 


SOLIDS 
(pounds/square foot) 


LIQUIDS 
(gallons/square foot) 


GAS 
(cubic foot@NTP/square foot) 


HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Corrosives 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Highly toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Notec 


Toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Notec 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m^, 1 gallon per square foot = 0.025 L/m^, 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m^ ©NTP/m^, 
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m^. 

a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities. 

b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 2703 . 1 . 1 ( 1 ) and 2703 . 1 . 1 (2). 

c. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP. 
D d. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 2703.8.2. 

TABLE 1805.2.1 1805o2.2 WorkstatnoES. Workstations in fabrication areas 

WlAXiWlUM QUANTITIES OF HPM AT A WORKSTATION^ ^^all be constructed of materials compatible with the mate- 

rials used and stored at the workstation. The portion of the 
workstation that serves as a cabinet for HPM gases and 
flammable liquids shall be noncombustible and, if of metal, 
shall be not less than 0.0478-inch (18 gage) (1.2 mm) steel. 



HPWi CLASSIFICATION 


STATE 


MAXIWiUWi QUANTITY 


Flammable, highly toxic, 
pyrophoric and toxic combined 


Gas 


3 cylinders 


Flammable 


Liquid 
Solid 


15 gallons"' I'' *= 
5 pounds''' ^ 


Corrosive 


Gas 
Liquid 

SoUd 


3 cyhnders 
Use-Open System 

25 gallons"-'^ 

Use-Closed System: 

150 gallons"''^'^ 

20 pounds''''^ 


Highly toxic 


Liquid 
Solid 


15 gallons"''' 
5 pounds'' 


Oxidizer 


Gas 
Liquid 
Solid 


3 cyhnders 
12 gallons""''^ 
20 pounds''' = 


Pyrophoric 


Liquid 
Solid 


0.5 gallon'' 
See Table 1804.2.1 


Toxic 


Liquid 
Solid 


15 gallons"''''^ 
5 pounds''' ^ 


Unstable reactive Class 3 


Liquid 
Solid 


0.5 gallon''- = 
5 pounds''' '^ 


Water-reactive Class 3 


Liquid 
Solid 


0.5 gallon'' 
See Table 1804.2.1 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. DOT shipping containers with capacities of greater than 5.3 gallons shall not 
be located within a workstation. 

b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent for closed 
systems operations. When Note c also applies, the increase for both notes 
shall be allowed. 

c. Quantities shall be allowed to be increased 100 percent when workstations 
are internally protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing or 
suppression system complying with Chapter 9. When Note b also applies, 
the increase for both notes shall be allowed. When Note f also applies, the 
maximum increase allowed for both Notes c and f shall not exceed 100 per- 
cent. 

d. Allowed only in workstations that are internally protected with an approved 
automatic fire-extinguishing or suppression system complying with Chap- 
ter 9. 

e. The quantity limits apply only to materials classified as HPM. 

f. Quantities shall be allowed to be increased 100 percent for nonflammable, 
noncombustible corrosive liquids when the materials of construction for 
workstations are listed or approved for use without internal fire extinguishing 
or suppression system protection. When Note c also appUes, the maximum in- 
crease allowed for both Notes c and f shall not exceed 100 percent. 



1805.2.2.1 Protectlom of vessels. Vessels containing 
HPM located in or connected to a workstation shall be 
protected from physical damage and shall not project 
from the workstation. Hazardous gas and liquid vessels 
located within a workstation shall be protected from seis- 
mic forces in an approved manner in accordance with the 
International Building Code. Protection for HPM com- 
pressed gases shall also comply with Chapter 30. 

1805.2.2.2 Draimage aedl comtoimimeinit for HPM llq- 
ends. Each workstation utihzing HPM liquids shall have 
all of the following: 

1 . Drainage piping systems connected to a compati- 
ble system for disposition of such liquids. 

2. The work surface provided with a slope or other 
means for directing spilled materials to the con- 
tainment or drainage system. 

3. An approved means of containing or directing 
spilled or leaked liquids to the drainage system. 

1805.2.2.3 Clearances. Workstations where HPM is 
used shall be provided with horizontal servicing clear- 
ances of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) for electrical 
equipment, gas cylinder connections and similar hazard- 
ous conditions. These clearances shall apply only to nor- 
mal operational procedures and not to repair or 
maintenance-related work. 

1805.3 TraEsportatnoE aEd haEdltng. The transportation and 
handling of hazardous materials shall comply with this section 
and other applicable provisions of this code. 

180S.3.1 Exilt corridors access amd exit emcloseres. Exit 
access corridors and exit enclosures in new buildings or 
serving new fabrication areas shall not contain HPM except 
as permitted for exit access corridors by Section 415.9.6.3 
of the International Building Code. 



When existing fabrication areas are altered or modified in 
existing buildings, HPM is allowed to be transported in ex- 



2003 INTEIRNATDONAL FIRE CODE® 



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SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



isting exit access corridors when such exit access corridors 
comply with the International Building Code. Transporta- 
tion in exit access corridors shall comply with Section 
2703.10. 

1805.33 Service corridors. When a new fabrication area is 
constructed, a service corridor shall be provided where it is 
necessary to transport HPM from a liquid storage room, 
HPM room, gas room or from the outside of a building to the 
perimeter wall of a fabrication area. Service corridors shall 
be designed and constructed in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

18(DS.3.4 Carts and trucks. Carts and trucks used to trans- 
port HPM in exit acess corridors and exit enclosures in ex- 
isting buildings shall comply with Section 2703.10.3. 

1805.3.4.1 Identsficatloii, Carts and trucks shall be 
marked to indicate the contents. 




• 



1 74 2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



LUI 



©H AFTER 19 

YARDS AMB WOQmNQBKmG FAODLDTIi 



SECTCOW 19011 
GEWERAL 

I.l Scope» The storage, manufacturing and processing of 
timber, lumber, plywood, veneers and byproducts shall be in 
accordance with this chapter. 

1901o2 Permito Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 
105.6. 



ICTiON 1902 



19(D2.1 ©eiiniiltnoeSo The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

COLD DECK. A pile of unfinished cut logs. 

FINES. Small pieces or splinters of wood byproducts that will 
pass through a 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) screen. 

HOGGED MATERIALS. Wood waste materials produced 
from the lumber production process. 

PLYWOOD and VENEER MILLS. Facilities where raw 
wood products are processed into finished wood products, in- 
cluding waferboard, oriented strandboard, fiberboard, com- 
posite wood panels and plywood. 

IRAW PRODUCT. A mixture of natural materials such as tree, 
brush trimmings, or waste logs and stumps. 

STATIC PILES. Piles in which processed wood product is 
mounded and is not being turned or moved. 

TIMBER amd LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES. 
Facilities where raw wood products are processed into finished 
wood products. 



SECTDOW 1903 
GENERAL REQUiREfil/ 



m 



19®3.1 Opem yards. Open yards required by the International 
Building Code shall be maintained around structures. 

1903.2 Duaslt comtroL Equipment or machinery located inside 
buildings which generates or emits combustible dust shall be 
provided with an approved dust collection and exhaust system 
installed in accordance with Chapter 13 and the International 
Mechanical Code. Equipment or systems that are used to col- 
lect, process or convey combustible dusts shall be provided 
with an approved explosion control system. 



19©3.2.1 ExpBosioini vemtmg. Where a dust explosion haz- 
ard exists in equipment rooms, buildings or other enclo- 
sures, such areas shall be provided with explosion 
(deflagration) venting or an approved explosion suppres- 
sion system complying with Section 911. 

Waste removal. Sawmills, planning mills and other 
woodworking plants shall be equipped with a waste removal 
system that will collect and remove sawdust and shavings. 
Such systems shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 13 
and the International Mechanical Code. 



US Manual waste removal when approved. 

HoMsekeepBinig. Provisions shall be made for a sys- 
tematic and thorough cleaning of the entire plant at suffi- 
cient intervals to prevent the accumulations of combustible 
dust and spilled combustible or flammable liquids. 

19(0)3.3.2 Metal scrap. Provision shall be made for sepa- 
rately collecting and disposing of any metal scrap so that 
such scrap will not enter the wood handling or processing 
equipment. 



L Electrical wiring and equip- 
ment shall comply with the ICC Electrical Code. 

1903.5 Control of igmtion sources. Protection from ignition 
sources shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1903.5. 1 
through 1903.5.3. 

g. Cutting and welding shall 

Static electricity shall be pre- 
vented from accumulating on machines and equipment sub- 
ject to static electricity buildup by permanent grounding and 
bonding wires or other approved means. D 



.1 Crattlm^ 
comply with Chapter 26 



jg. Where smoking constitutes a fire haz- 
ard, the fire code official is authorized to order the owner or 
occupant to post approved "No Smoking" signs complying 
with Section 310. The fire code official is authorized to des- 
ignate specific locations where smoking is allowed. 

IS access roads. Fire apparatus access 
roads shall be provided for buildings and facilities in accor- 
dance with Section 503. 



.7 Access plam. Where storage pile configurations could 
change because of changes in product operations and process- 
ing, the access plan shall be submitted for approval when re- 
quired by the fire code official. 



2003 iWTERNATlONAL FIRE CODE® 



175 



LUlViBER YARDS AMD WOODWORKING FACSLITSES 



1906.3 End stops. Log and pole piles shall be stabilized by ap- 
proved means. 



1904.1 Fire alarms. An approved means for transmitting 
alarms to the fire department shall be provided in timber and 
lumber production mills and plywood and veneer mills. 

1904.1.1 Manual fire alarms. A manual fire alarm system 
complying with Section 907.2 shall be installed in areas of 
timber and lumber production mills and for plywood and ve- 
neer mills that contain product dryers. 

Exception I Where dryers or other sources of ignition are 
protected by a supervised automatic sprinkler system 
complying with Section 903. 

1904.2 Portable fire extinguisliers and hose. Portable fire 
extinguishers or standpipes and hose supplied from an ap- 
proved water system shall be provided within 50 feet (15 240 
mm) of travel distance to any machine producing shavings or 
sawdust. Extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 906 for extra-high hazards. 

1904.3 Automatic sprinkler systems.' Automatic sprinkler 
systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 



)5,1 General. Plant operations of plywood, veneer and 
composite board mills shall comply with this section. 

1905.2 Dryer protection. Dryers shall be protected through- 
out by an approved, automatic deluge water-spray suppression 
system complying with Chapter 9. Deluge heads shall be in- 
spected quarterly for pitch buildup. Deluge heads shall be 
flushed during regular maintenance for functional operation. 
Manual activation valves shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 
mm) of the drying equipment. 

1905.3 Thermal oil-heating systems. Facilities that use heat 
transfer fluids to provide process equipment heat through 
piped, indirect heating systems shall comply with this code and 
NFPA 664. 



LOG STORAGE AREAS 

1906.1 General. Log storage areas shall comply with this sec- 
tion. 

1906.2 Cold decks. Cold decks shall not exceed 500 feet 
(152.4 m) in length, 300 feet (91 440 mm) in width and 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in height. Cold decks shall be separated from adja- 
cent cold decks or other exposures by a minimum of 100 feet 
(30 480 mm). 

Exception." The size of cold decks shall be determined by 
the fire code official where the decks are protected by spe- 
cial fire protection including, but not limited to, additional 
fire flow, portable turrets and deluge sets, and hydrant hose 
houses equipped with approved fire-fighting equipment ca- 
pable of reaching the entire storage area in accordance with 
Chapter 9. 



SECTBON 1907 

STORAGE OF WOOD CHIPS AND HOGGED 

f\/IATER!AL ASSOCBATED WITH TIMBER AND 

LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES 

1907.1 Gemeral. The storage of wood chips and hogged mate- 
rials associated with timber and lumber production facihties 
shall comply with this section. 

1907.2 Size of piles. Piles shall not exceed 60 feet ( 1 8 288 mm) 
in height, 300 feet (91 440 mm) in width and 500 feet (152 m) in 
length. Piles shall be separated from adjacent piles or other ex- 
posures by approved fire apparatus access roads. 



mi The fire code official is authorized to allow the 
pile size to be increased when additional fire protection is 
provided in accordance with Chapter 9. The increase shall 
be based on the capabilities of the system installed. 

1907.3 Pile fire protection. Automatic sprinkler protection 
shall be provided in conveyor tunnels and combustible enclo- 
sures that pass under a pile. Combustible or enclosed conveyor 
systems shall be equipped with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system. 



Approved mate- 
rial-handling equipment shall be readily available for moving 
wood chips and hogged material. 

1907.5 Emergency plan. The owner or operator shall develop 
a plan for monitoring, controlling and extinguishing spot fires. 
The plan shall be submitted to the fire code official for review 
and approval. 



SECTION 1908 
3RAGE AND PROCESSING OF WOOD CHIPS, 
aGED iVlATERIAL, FINES, COMPOST AND RAW 
SDUCT ASSOCIATED WITH YARD WASTE AND 

RECYCLING FACILITIES 

)8.1 General. The storage and processing of wood chips, 
hogged materials, fines, compost and raw product produced 
from yard waste, debris and recycling facilities shall comply 
with this section. 

1908.2 Storage site. Storage sites shall be level and on sohd 
ground or other all-weather surface. Sites shall be thoroughly 
cleaned before transferring wood products to the site. 

1908.3 Size of piles. Piles shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) 
in height, 150 feet (45 720 mm) in width and 250 feet (76 200 
mm) in length. 

Exception; The fire code official is authorized to allow the 
pile size to be increased when additional fire protection is 
provided in accordance with Chapter 9. The increase shall 
be based upon the capabihties of the system installed. 

1908.4 Pile separation. Piles shall be separated from adjacent 
piles by approved fire apparatus access roads. 



!76 



2003 JNTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



LUMBER YARDS AND WOODWORKING FACILITIES 



A!' 



7snste. The storage, accumulation and 
andling of combustible materials and control of vegetation 
shall comply with Chapter 3. 

190)8.6 Stalk pie protectioE. Static piles shall be monitored 
by an approved means to measure temperatures within the 
static piles. Internal pile temperatures shall be monitored and 
recorded weekly. Records shall be kept on file at the facility and 
made available for inspection. An operational plan indicating 
procedures and schedules for the inspection, monitoring and 
restricting of excessive internal temperatures in static piles 
shall be submitted to the fire code official for review and ap- 
proval. 

1908.7 Pile lire protecMom. Automatic sprinkler protection 
shall be provided in conveyor tunnels and combustible enclo- 
sures that pass under a pile. Combustible conveyor systems and 
enclosed conveyor systems shall be equipped with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system. 

1908.8 Fnre exltiimgiuilslhiers. Portable fire extinguishers com- 
plying with Section 906 and with a minimum rating of 

□ 4-A:60-B:C shall be provided on all vehicles and equipment 
operating on piles and at all processing equipment. 



Approved mate- 
rial-handling equipment shall be available for moving wood 
chips, hogged material, wood fines and raw product during 
fire-fighting operafions. 



lemcy pEae. The owner or operator shall develop 
la plan for monitoring, controlling and extinguishing spot fires 
and submit the plan to the fire code official for review and ap- 
proval. 



SECTiOW 1909 

EXTERIOR STORAGE OF FDNISHED 

LOCVflBER PRODUCTS 

hi GemeraL Exterior storage of finished lumber products 
shall comply with this section. 

1909.2 Size off piles. Exterior lumber storage shall be arranged 
to form stable piles with a maximum height of 20 feet (6096 
mm). Piles shall not exceed 150,000 cubic feet (4248 m^) in 
volume. 



access roads. Fire apparatus access 
roads in accordance with Section 503 shall be located so that a 
maximum grid system unit of 50 feet by 150 feet (15 240 mm 
by 45 720 mm) is estabhshed. 

1909.4 Security, Permanent lumber storage areas shall be sur- 
rounded with an approved fence. Fences shall be a minimum of 
6 feet (1829 mm) in height. 

Excepliomj Lumber piles inside of buildings and produc- 
tion mills for lumber, plywood and veneer. 

1909.5 Fire protectiom. An approved hydrant and hose system 
or portable fire-extinguishing equipment suitable for the fire 
hazard involved shall be provided for open storage yards. Hy- 
drant and hose systems shall be installed in accordance with 
NFPA 24. Portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 
906 shall be located so that the travel distance to the nearest unit 
does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). 

2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 1 77 




1 78 2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



2001.1 Scope. Organic coating manufacturing processes shall 
comply with this chapter except that this chapter shall not apply 
to processes manufacturing nonflammable or water-thinned 
coatings or to operations applying coating materials. 

2001.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 



[3 Malntenaece. Structures and their service equipment 
shall be maintained in accordance with this code and NFPA 35. 



2002.1 Delnltioe, The following word and term shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meaning shown herein. 

ORGANIC COATING. A liquid mixture of binders such as 
alkyd, nitrocellulose, acrylic or oil, and flammable and com- 
bustible solvents such as hydrocarbon, ester, ketone or alcohol, 
I which, when spread in a thin film, convert to a durable protec- 
tive and decorative finish. 



L8 Power equipment Power-operated equipment and in- 
dustrial trucks shall be of a type approved for the location. 

2003.9 Tamk mamtemaEce, The cleaning of tanks and vessels 
that have contained flammable or combustible hquids shall be 
performed under the supervision of persons knowledgeable of 
the fire and explosion potential. 

2003.9.1 Repairs. Where necessary to make repairs involv- 
ing "hot work," the work shall be authorized by the responsi- 
ble individual before the work begins. 

2003.9.2 Empty coetaimers. Empty flammable or combus- 
tible liquid containers shall be removed to a detached, out- 
side location and, if not cleaned on the premises, the empty 
containers shall be removed from the plant as soon as practi- 
cal. 

2003.10 Drainage. Drainage facihties shall be provided to di- 
rect flammable and combustible liquid leakage and fire protec- 
tion water to an approved location away from the building, any 
other structure, storage area or adjoining premises. 

2003.11 Alarm system. An approved fire alarm system shall 
be provided in accordance with Secdon 907. 



.1 Building features. Manufacturing of organic coatings 
shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or base- 
ments. 



2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing operations 
and operations incidental to or connected with organic coating 
manufacturing shall not be located in buildings having other 
occupancies. 

2003.3 Fire-fighting access. Organic coating manufacturing 
operations shall be accessible from at least one side for the pur- 
pose of fire control. Approved aisles shall be maintained for the 
unobstructed movement of personnel and fire suppression 
equipment. 

2003.4 Fire protection systems. Fire protection systems shall 
be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in 
accordance with Chapter 9. 

2003.5 Portable fire extinguishers, A minimum of one porta- 
ble fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 for extra haz- 
ard shall be provided in organic coating areas, 

2003.6 Open flames. Open flames and direct-fired heating de- 
vices shall be prohibited in areas where flammable vapor-air 
mixtures exist. 



1.1 Wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equip- 
ment shall comply with this chapter and shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with the ICC Electrical Code. 



IS, Where Class I liquids are ex- 
posed to the air, the design of equipment and ventilation of 
structures shall be such as to hmit the Class I, Division 1, loca- 
tions to the following: 

1. Piping trenches. 

2. The interior of equipment. 

3. The immediate vicinity of pumps or equipment loca- 
tions, such as dispensing stations, open centrifuges, plate 
and frame filters, opened vacuum filters, change cans 
and the surfaces of open equipment. The immediate vi- 
cinity shall include a zone extending from the vapor lib- 
eration point 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally in all 
directions and vertically from the floor to a level 3 feet 
(914 mm) above the highest point of vapor liberation. 

2004,2,1 Other locations. Locations within the confines of 
the manufacturing room where Class I liquids are handled 
shall be Class I, Division 2 except locations indicated in 
Section 2004.2. 



7 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited in accordance 
with Section 310. 



.2.2 Ordinary equipment. Ordinary electrical equip- 
ment, including switchgear, shall be prohibited except 
where installed in a room maintained under positive pres- 
sure with respect to the hazardous area. The air or other me- 



2003 ISSITER^SAT[ONAL FIRE CODE® 



179 



1ANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS 



dia utilized for pressurization shall be obtained from a 
source that will not cause any amount or type of flammable 
vapor to be introduced into the room. 

2004.3 Bonding. Equipment including, but not limited to, 
tanks, machinery and piping, shall be bonded and connected to 
a ground where an ignitable mixture is capable of being pres- 
ent. 

2004.3.1 Piping. Electrically isolated sections of metallic 
piping or equipment shall be grounded or bonded to the 
other grounded portions of the system. 

2004.3.2 Vehicles. Tank vehicles loaded or unloaded 
through open connections shall be grounded and bonded to 
the receiving system. 

2004.3.3 Containers. Where a flammable mixture is trans- 
ferred from one portable container to another, a bond shall 
be provided between the two containers, and one shall be 
grounded. 

2004.4 Ground. Metal framing of buildings shall be grounded 
with resistance of not more than 5 ohms. 



SECTION 2005 
PROCESS STRUCTURES 

2005.1 Design. Process structures shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with the International Building Code. 

2005.2 Fire apparatus access. Fire apparatus access comply- 
ing with Section 503 shall be provided for the purpose of fire 
control to at least one side of organic coating manufacturing 
operations. 

2005.3 Drainage. Drainage facilities shall be provided in ac- 
cordance with Section 2003.10 where topographical condi- 
tions are such that flammable and combustible liquids are 
capable of flowing from the organic coating manufacturing op- 
eration so as to constitute a fire hazard to other premises. 

2005.4 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided 
in areas subject to potential deflagration hazards as indicated in 
NFPA 35. Explosion control shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 911. 

2005.5 Ventilation. Enclosed structures in which Class I 
liquids are processed or handled shall be ventilated at a rate of 
not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (0.00508 
mV s • m^) of sohd floor area. Ventilation shall be accomphshed 
by exhaust fans that take suction at floor levels and discharge to 
a safe location outside the structure. Noncontaminated intake 
air shall be introduced in such a manner that all portions of solid 
floor areas are provided with continuous uniformly distributed 
air movement. 

2005.6 Heating. Heating provided in hazardous areas shall be 
by indirect means. Ignition sources such as open flames or elec- 
trical heating elements, except as provided for in Section 2004, 
shall not be permitted within the structure. 



SECTION 2006 
PROCESS MBLLS AND KETTLES 

2006.1 Mills. Mills, operating with close clearances, which 
process flammable and heat-sensitive materials, such as 
nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached building or in a 
noncombustible structure without other occupancies. The 
amount of nitrocellulose or other flammable material brought 
into the area shall not be more than the amount required for a 
batch. 




i.2 Mixers. Mixers shall be of the enclosed type or, where 
of the open type, shall be provided with properly fitted covers. 
Where flow is by gravity, a shutoff valve shall be installed as 
close as practical to the mixer, and a control valve shall be pro- 
vided near the end of the fill pipe. 

2006.3 Open kettles. Open kettles shall be located in an out- 
side area provided with a protective roof; in a separate structure 
of noncombustible construction; or separated from other areas 
by a noncombustible wall having a fire-resistance rating of at 
least 2 hours. 

2006.4 Closed kettles. Contact-heated ketdes containing sol- 
vents shall be equipped with safety devices that, in case of a 
fire, will turn off the process heat, turn on the cooling medium 
and inject inert gas into the kettle. 

2006.4.1 Vaporizer location. The vaporizer section of 
heat-transfer systems that heat closed kettles containing sol- 
vents shall be remotely located. 

2006.5 Kettle controls. The kettle and thin-down tank shall be 
instrumented, controlled and interlocked so that any failure of 
the controls will result in a safe condition. The kettle shall be 
provided with a pressure-rupture disc in addition to the primary 
vent. The vent piping from the rupture disc shall be of mini- 
mum length and shall discharge to an approved location. The 
thin-down tank shall be adequately vented. Thinning opera- 
tions shall be provided with an adequate vapor removal system. 

SECTION 2007 
PROCESS PIPING 

2007.1 Design. All piping, valves and fittings shall be designed 
for the working pressures and structural stresses to which the 
piping, valves and fittings will be subjected, and shall be of 
steel or other material approved for the service intended. 

2007.2 Valves. Valves shall be of an indicating type. Terminal 
valves on remote pumping systems shall be of the dead-man 
type, shutting off both the pump and the flow of solvent. 

2007.3 Support. Piping systems shall be supported adequately 
and protected against physical damage. Piping shall be pitched 
to avoid unintentional trapping of liquids, or approved drains 
shall be provided. 

2007.4 Connectors. Approved flexible connectors shall be in- 
stalled where vibradon exists or frequent movement is neces- 
sary. Hose at dispensing stations shall be of an approved type. 

2007.5 Tests. Before being placed in service, all piping shall be 
free of leaks when tested for a minimum of 30 minutes at not 
less than 1 .5 times the working pressure or a minimum of 5 
pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (35 kPa) at the highest 
point in the system. 



180 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



mWUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS 



The amount of nitrocellulose 
brought into the operating area shall not exceed the amount re- 
quired for a work shift. Nitrocellulose spillage shall be 
promptly swept up and disposed of properly. 

2008.2 Orgamk peroxides qwaetnty. Organic peroxides 
brought into the operating area shall be in the original shipping 
container. When in the operating area, the organic peroxide 
shall not be placed in locations exposed to ignition sources, 
heat or mechanical shocks. 



hSA Ske. The size of the package containing organic 
peroxide shall be selected so that, as nearly as practical, full 
packages are utilized at one time. Spilled peroxide shall be 
promptly cleaned up and disposed of as specified by the sup- 
plier. 

).6 Fimished prodects. Finished products that are flamma- 
ble or combustible liquids shall be stored outside of structures, 
in a separate structure, or in a room separated from the process- 
ing area in accordance with the International Building Code. 
The storage of finished products shall be in tanks or closed con- 
tainers in accordance with Chapter 34. 



lAW ilATERIALS AMD FINISHED PRODUCTS 

,1 General. The storage, handling and use of flammable 
and combustible liquids in process areas shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 34. 

2009o2 Tank storage. Tank storage for flammable and com- 
bustible liquids located inside of structures shall be limited to 
storage areas at or above grade which are separated from the 
processing area in accordance with the International Building 
Code. Processing equipment containing flammable and com- 
bustible liquids and storage in quantities essential to the conti- 
nuity of the operations shall not be prohibited in the processing 
area. 



.3 Tank velikle. Tank car and tank vehicle loading and 
' unloading stations for Class I liquids shall be separated from 
the processing area, other plant structures, nearest lot line of 
property that can be built upon or public thoroughfare by a min- 
imum clear distance of 25 feet (7620 mm). 



.3.1 Loading. Loading and unloading structures and 
platforms for flammable and combustible liquids shall be 
designed and installed in accordance with Chapter 34. 

2009.3.2 Safety, Tank cars for flanmiable liquids shall be 
unloaded such that the safety to persons and property is en- 
sured. Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids 
shall be loaded and unloaded in accordance with Chapter 
34. 

2009.4 Nitrocellulose storage. Nitrocellulose storage shall be 
located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or a room 
enclosed in accordance with the International Building Code. 
The nitrocellulose storage area shall not be utilized for any 
other purpose. Electrical wiring and equipment installed in 
storage areas adjacent to process areas shall comply with Sec- 
tion 2004.2. 



,4,1 Contaimers. Nitrocellulose shall be stored in 
closed containers. Barrels shall be stored on end and not 
more than two tiers high. Barrels or other containers of 
nitrocellulose shall not be opened in the main storage struc- 
ture but at the point of use or other location intended for that 
purpose. 

2009.4.2 Spills. Spilled nitrocellulose shall be promptly 
wetted with water and disposed of by use or burning in the 
open at an approved detached location. 

2009.5 Organic peroxide storage. The storage of organic per- 
oxides shall be in accordance with Chapter 39. 



2003 INTERNATIOIVSAL FIRE CODE® 



1 82 2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 21 



2101.1 Scope. This chapter shall apply to the installation and 
operation of industrial ovens and furnaces. Industrial ovens and 
furnaces shall comply with the applicable provisions of NFPA 
86, the International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical 
Code and this chapter. The terms "ovens" and "furnaces" are 
used interchangeably in this chapter. 

2101.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tions 105.6 and 105.7. 



SECTION 2102 
DEFINiTflONS 

i. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FURNACE CLASS A. An oven or furnace that has heat utili- 
zation equipment operating at approximately atmospheric 
pressure wherein there is a potential explosion or fire hazard 
that could be occasioned by the presence of flammable 
volatiles or combustible materials processed or heated in the 
furnace. 



Such flammable volatiles or combustible materials 
can, for instance, originate from the following: 

1. Paints, powders, inks, and adhesives from finishing 
processes, such as dipped, coated, sprayed and im- 
pregnated materials. 

2. The substrate material. 

3. Wood, paper and plastic pallets, spacers or packaging 
materials. 

4. Polymerization or other molecular rearrangements. 

Potentially flammable materials, such as quench oil, wa- 
ter-borne finishes, cooling oil or cooking oils, that present a 
hazard are ventilated according to Class A standards. 



5 B. An oven or furnace that has heat utili- 
zation equipment operating at approximately atmospheric 
pressure wherein there are no flammable volatiles or combusti- 
ble materials being heated. 

FURNACE CLASS C. An oven or furnace that has a potential 
hazard due to a flammable or other special atmosphere being 
used for treatment of material in process. This type of furnace 
can use any type of heating system and includes a special atmo- 
sphere supply system. Also included in the Class C classifica- 
tion are integral quench furnaces and molten salt bath furnaces. 

FURNACE CLASS D. An oven or furnace that operates at 
temperatures from above ambient to over 5,000°F (2760°C) 
and at pressures normally below atmospheric using any type of 
heating system. These furnaces can include the use of special 
processing atmospheres. 



SiCTIOW2103 
LOCMIOW 

Enclosed rooms or basements containing 
industrial ovens or furnaces shall be provided with combustion 
air in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and 
the International Fuel Gas Code, and with ventilation air in ac- 
cordance with the International Mechanical Code. 



josure. When locating ovens, oven heaters and re- 
lated equipment, the possibility of fire resulting from overheat- 
ing or from the escape of fuel gas or fuel oil and the possibility 
of damage to the building and injury to persons resulting from 
explosion shall be considered. 

2103.3 Igmltioe soerce. Industrial ovens and furnaces shall be 
located so as not to pose an ignition hazard to flammable vapors 
or mists or combusfible dusts. 

2103.4 Temperatures. Roofs and floors of ovens shall be insu- 
lated and ventilated to prevent temperatures at combustible 
ceilings and floors from exceeding 160°F (71°C). 



2104.1 Feel-gas plplmg. Fuel-gas piping serving industrial ov- 
ens shall comply with the International Fuel Gas Code. Piping 
for other fuel sources shall comply with this section. 

2104.2 Shetofff valves. Each industrial oven or furnace shall be 
provided with an approved manual fuel shutoff valve in accor- 
dance with the International Mechanical Code or the Interna- 
tional Fuel Gas Code. 



2104.2,1 Fuel supply lines. Valves for fuel supply lines 
shall be located within 6 feet (1829 mm) of the appliance 
served. 



n: When approved and the valve is located in 
the same general area as the appliance served. 

3 Valve positiomi. The design of manual fuel shutoff 
valves shall incorporate a permanent feature which visually in- 
dicates the open or closed position of the valve. Manual fuel 
shutoff valves shall not be equipped with removable handles or 
wrenches unless the handle or wrench can only be installed par- 
allel with the fuel line when the valve is in the open position. 



SECTa©W210S 
INTERLOCKS 

a. Interlocks shall be provided for Class A ov- 
ens so that conveyors or sources of flammable or combustible 
materials shall shut down if either the exhaust or recirculation 
air supply fails. 



2003 IhSTERNATJONAL FIRE CODE® 



183 



INDUSTRIAL OVENS 



SECTION 2106 
FIRE PROTECTION 

2106.1 Required protection. Class A and B ovens which con- 
tain, or are utihzed for the processing of, combustible materials 
shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing 
system complying with Chapter 9. 

2106.2 Fixed fire-extinguishing systems. Fixed fire-extin- 
guishing systems shall be provided for Class C or D ovens to 
protect against such hazards as overheating, spillage of molten 
salts or metals, quench tanks, ignidon of hydrauHc oil and es- 
cape of fuel. It shall be the user's responsibility to consult with 
the fire code official concerning the necessary requirements for 
such protection. 

2106.3 Fire extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers com- 
plying with Section 906 shall be provided not closer than 15 
feet (4572 mm) or a maximum of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 10. This shall apply to the oven and re- 
lated equipment. 



SECTION 2107 
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 

2107.1 Furnace system information. An approved, clearly 
worded, and prominently displayed safety design data form or 
manufacturer's nameplate shall be provided stating the safe op- 
erating condition for which the furnace system was designed, 
built, altered or extended. 

2107.2 Oven nameplate. Safety data for Class A solvent atmo- 
sphere ovens shall be furnished on the manufacturer's name- 
plate. The nameplate shall provide the following design data: 

1. The solvent used. 

2. The number of gallons (liters) used per batch or per hour 
of solvent entering the oven. 

3. The required purge time. 

4. The oven operating temperature. 

5. The exhaust blower rating for the number of gallons (li- 
ters) of solvent per hour or batch at the maximum operat- 
ing temperature. 

Exception: For low-oxygen ovens, the maximum al- 
lowable oxygen concentration shall be included in 
place of the exhaust blower ratings. 

2107.3 Training. Operating, maintenance and supervisory 
personnel shall be thoroughly instructed and trained in the op- 
eration of ovens or furnaces. 

2107.4 Equipment maintenance. Equipment shall be main- 
tained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 




lOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



SECTION 2201 
GENERAL 

Automotive motor fuel-dispensing facilities, 
marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities, fleet vehicle motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages shall be in accor- 
dance with this chapter and the International Building Code, 
International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical 
Code. Such operations shall include both operations that are ac- 
cessible to the public and private operations. 

2201.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

2201.3 CoestrectioE docememts. Construction documents 
shall be submitted for review and approval prior to the installa- 
tion or construction of automotive, marine or fleet vehicle mo- 
tor fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages in accordance 
with Section 105.4. 



4 



n 



Motor 

fuel-dispensing facilities located inside buildings shall comply 
with the International Building Code and NFPA 30A. 

2201.4.1 Protection off floor openiKgs im Indoor motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities. Where motor fuel-dispensing fa- 
cilities are located inside buildings and the dispensers are lo- 
cated above spaces within the building, openings beneath 
dispensers shall be sealed to prevent the flow of leaked fuel 
to lower building spaces. 

2201.5 Electrical. Electrical wiring and equipment shall be 
suitable for the locations in which they are installed and shall 
comply with Section 605, NFPA 30A and the ICC Electrical 
Code. 

2201.6 Heat=producleg appliances. Heat-producing appli- 
ances shall be suitable for the locations in which they are in- 
stalled and shall comply with NFPA 30A and the International 
Fuel Gas Code or the International Mechanical Code. 



2202.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL=DISPENSING FACIL= 
ITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible 
liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed 
from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles. 

DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. A dispens- 
ing device that consists of one or more individual units intended 
for installation in conjunction with each other, mounted above 
a dispensing area typically within the motor fuel-dispensing fa- 
ciUty canopy structure, and characterized by the use of an over- 
head hose reel. 



FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FA- Q 
CILITY. That portion of a commercial, industrial, governmen- 
tal or manufacturing property where liquids used as fuels are 
stored and dispensed into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles that 
are used in connection with such businesses, by persons within 
the employ of such businesses. 

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). A fluid in the liquid S 
state composed predominantly of methane and which may con- 
tain minor quantities of ethane, propane, nitrogen or other com- 
ponents normally found in natural gas. 

MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That 
portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or 
gases used as fuel for watercraft are stored and dispensed from 
fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, floats or barges into 
the fuel tanks of watercraft and shall include all other facilities 
used in connection therewith. 



GARAGE. A building, structure or portion thereof 
used for servicing or repairing motor vehicles. 

SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACIL- 
ITY. That portion of motor fuel-dispensing facility where liq- 
uid motor fuels are dispensed from fixed approved dispensing 
equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles by persons 
other than a motor fuel-dispensing facility attendant. 



LOCATiOW OF DtSFENSING DEVICES 

2203.1 Location off dispensing devices. Dispensing devices 
shall be located as follows: 

1 . Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from lot lines. 

2. Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from buildings having com- 
bustible exterior wall surfaces or buildings having 
noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not part of 
a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or buildings hav- 
ing combustible overhangs. 

Exception; Canopies constructed in accordance with 
the International Building Code providing weather 
protection for the fuel islands. 

3. Such that all portions of the vehicle being fueled will be 
on the premises of the motor fuel-dispensing facility. 

4. Such that the nozzle, when the hose is fully extended, 
will not reach within 5 feet (1524 mm) of building open- 
ings. 

5 . Twenty feet (6096 mm) or more from fixed sources of ig- 
nition. 



lisconmect switches. An approved, 
clearly identified and readily accessible emergency disconnect 
switch shall be provided at an approved location, to stop the 
transfer of fuel to the fuel dispensers in the event of a fuel spill 
or other emergency. An emergency disconnect switch for exte- 



2003 8NTERNATS0NAL FIRE CODE® 



185 



EVIOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



rior fuel dispensers shall be located within 100 feet (30 480 
mm) of, but not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from, the fuel dis- 
pensers. For interior fuel-dispensing operations, the emer- 
gency disconnect switch shall be installed at an approved 
location. Such devices shall be distinctly labeled as: EMER- 
GENCY FUEL SHUTOFR Signs shall be provided in ap- 
proved locations. 



D!SP1 



SECTION 2204 
■NSING OPERATIONS 



2204.1 Supervision of dispensing. The dispensing of fuel at 
motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be conducted by a quali- 
fied attendant or shall be under the supervision of a qualified at- 
tendant at all times or shall be in accordance with Section 
2204.3. 

2204.2 Attended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facili- 
ties. Attended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities 
shall comply with Sections 2204.2.1 through 2204.2.5. At- 
tended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall have 
at least one qualified attendant on duty while the facility is open 
for business. The attendant's primary function shall be to su- 
pervise, observe and control the dispensing of fuel. The atten- 
dant shall prevent the dispensing of fuel into containers that do 
not comply with Section 2204.4.1, control sources of ignition, 
give inmiediate attention to accidental spills or releases, and be 
prepared to use fire extinguishers. 

2204.2.1 Special-type dispensers. Approved special-dis- 
pensing devices and systems such as, but not hmited to, 
card- or coin-operated and remote-preset types, are allowed 
at motor fuel-dispensing facilities provided there is at least 
one qualified attendant on duty while the facility is open to 
the public. Remote preset-type devices shall be set in the 
"off' position while not in use so that the dispenser cannot 
be activated without the knowledge of the attendant. 

2204.2.2 Emergency controls. Approved emergency con- 
trols shall be provided in accordance with Section 2203.2. 

2204.2.3 Operating instructions. Dispenser operating in- 
structions shall be conspicuously posted in approved loca- 
tions on every dispenser. 

2204.2.4 Obstructions to view. Dispensing devices shall be 
in clear view of the attendant at all times. Obstructions shall 
not be placed between the dispensing area and the attendant. 

2204.2.5 Communications. The attendant shall be able to 
communicate with persons in the dispensing area at all 
times. An approved method of communicating with the fire 
department shall be provided for the attendant. 

2204.3 Unattended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facil- 
ities. Unattended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities 
shall comply with Sections 2204.3.1 through 2204.3.7. 

2204.3.1 General. Where approved, unattended self-ser- 
vice motor fuel-dispensing facihdes are allowed. As a con- 
dition of approval, the owner or operator shall provide, and 
be accountable for, daily site visits, regular equipment in- 
spection and maintenance. 

2204.3.2 Dispensers. Dispensing devices shall comply 
with Section 2206.7. Dispensing devices operated by the in- 



sertion of coins or currency shall not be used unless 
approved. 

2204.3.3 Emergency controls. Approved emergency con- 
trols shall be provided in accordance with Section 2203.2. 
Emergency controls shall be of a type which is only manu- 
ally resettable. 

2204.3.4 Operating instructions. Dispenser operating in- 
structions shall be conspicuously posted in approved loca- 
tions on every dispenser and shall indicate the location of the 
emergency controls required by Section 2204.3.3. 

2204.3.5 Emergency procedures. An approved emergency 
procedures sign, in addition to the signs required by Section 
2205.6, shall be posted in a conspicuous location and shall 
read: 

IN CASE OF FIRE, SPILL OR RELEASE 

1. USE EMERGENCY PUMP SHUTOFF 

2. REPORT THE ACCIDENT! 

FIRE DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE NO. 



FACILITY ADDRESS 



2204.3.6 Communications. A telephone not requiring a 
coin to operate or other approved, clearly identified means 
to notify the fire department shall be provided on the site in a 
location approved by the fire code official. 

2204.3.7 Quantity limits. Dispensing equipment used at 
unsupervised locations shall comply with one of the follow- 
ing: 

1. Dispensing devices shall be programmed or set to 
limit uninterrupted fuel delivery to 25 gallons (95 L) 
and require a manual action to resume delivery. 

2. The amount of fuel being dispensed shall be limited in 
quantity by a preprogrammed card as approved. 

2204.4 Dispensing into portable containers. The dispensing 
of flammable or combustible liquids into portable approved 
containers shall comply with Sections 2204.4.1 through 
2204.4.3. 



,1 Approved containers required. Class I, II and 
IIIA liquids shall not be dispensed into a portable container 
unless such container is of approved material and construc- 
tion, and has a tight closure with screwed or spring-loaded 
cover so designed that the contents can be dispensed without 
spilling. Liquids shall not be dispensed into portable tanks 
or cargo tanks. 

2204.4.2 Nozzle operation. A hose nozzle valve used for 
dispensing Class I liquids into a portable container shall be 
in compliance with Section 2206.7.6 and be manually held 
open during the dispensing operation. 

2204.4.3 Location of containers being filled. Portable 
containers shall not be filled while located inside the trunk, 
passenger compartment or truck bed of a vehicle. 



186 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



lOTOR FUEL-DISPEMSING FACIUTDES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



buildings. Acceptable methods include, but shall not be limited 
to, grading driveways, raising doorsills, or other approved 
means. 



Delivery operations to tanks for Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall 
comply with Sections 2205. 1 . 1 through 2205. 1 .3 and the appli- 
cable requirements of Chapter 34. 

2205.1.1 Delivery vehicle location. Where hquid delivery 
to above-ground storage tanks is accomplished by posi- 
tive-pressure operation, tank vehicles shall be positioned a 
minimum of 25 feet (7620 mm) from tanks receiving Class I 
liquids and 15 feet (4572 mm) from tanks receiving Class II 
and IIIA Hquids. 



f 



The driver, operator 
or attendant of a tank vehicle shall, before making delivery 
to a tank, determine the unfilled, available capacity of such 
tank by an approved gauging device. 

2205.13 Tamk fill comiectioms. Delivery of flammable liq- 
uids to tanks more than 1,000 gallons (3785 L) in capacity 
shall be made by means of approved liquid- and vapor-tight 
connections between the delivery hose and tank fill pipe. 
Where tanks are equipped with any type of vapor recovery 
system, all connections required to be made for the safe and 
proper functioning of the particular vapor recovery process 
shall be made. Such connections shall be made liquid and 
vapor tight and remain connected throughout the unloading 
process. Vapors shall not be discharged at grade level during 
delivery. 

2205.2 Eqeipmenil; maintemamce amd Iraspecltioii. Motor 
fuel-dispensing facility equipment shall be maintained in 
proper working order at all times in accordance with Sections 
2205.2.1 through 2205.2.3. 



isieg devices. Where maintenance to Class 
I liquid dispensing devices becomes necessary and such 
maintenance could allow the accidental release or ignition 
of hquid, the following precautions shall be taken before 
such maintenance is begun: 

1. Only persons knowledgeable in performing the re- 
quired maintenance shall perform the work. 

2. Electrical power to the dispensing device and pump 
serving the dispenser shall be shut off at the main elec- 
trical disconnect panel. 

3. The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, where 
installed, shall be closed. 

4. Vehicle traffic and unauthorized persons shall be pre- 
vented from coming within 12 feet (3658 mm) of the 
dispensing device. 

2205.2.2 Emergency shmtofff valves. Automatic-closing 
emergency shutoff valves required by Section 2206.7.4 
shall be checked not less than once per year by manually 
tripping the hold-open linkage. 

2205.2.3 Leak detectors. Leak detection devices required 
by Section 2206.7.7. 1 shall be checked and tested at least 
annually in accordance with the manufacturer's specifica- 
tions to ensure proper installation and operation. 

2205.3 Spill control. Provisions shall be made to prevent liq- 
uids spilled during dispensing operations from flowing into 



Smoking and open flames shall be 
prohibited in areas where fuel is dispensed. The engines of ve- 
hicles being fueled shall be shut off during fueling. Electrical 
equipment shall be in accordance with the ICC Electrical 
Code. 

2205.5 Fire extingoisliers. Approved portable fire 
extinguishers complying with Section 906 with a minimum rat- 
ing of 2-A:20-B:C shall be provided and located such that an 
extinguisher is not more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from pumps, 
dispensers or storage tank fill-pipe openings. 

2205.6 Warning signs. Warning signs shall be conspicuously 
posted within sight of each dispenser in the fuel-dispensing 
area and shall state the following: Q 

1 . It is illegal and dangerous to fill unapproved containers 
with fuel. 

2. Smoking is prohibited. 

3. The engine shall be shut off during the refuehng process. 

4. Portable containers shall not be filled while located in- 
side the trunk, passenger compartment, or truck bed of a 
vehicle. 



2205.7 Control of brash and debris. Fenced and diked areas 
surrounding above-ground tanks shall be kept free from vege- 
tation, debris and other material that is not necessary to the 
proper operation of the tank and piping system. 

Weeds, grass, brush, trash and other combustible materials 
shall be kept not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from fuel-han- 
dling equipment. 



FLAIflMABLE AMD COSI^BUSTIBLE LIQUID MOTOR 



2206.1 General. Storage of flammable and combustible Hq- 
uids shall be in accordance with Chapter 34 and this section. 

2206.2 Method of storage. Approved methods of storage for 
Class I, II and IIIA liquid fuels at motor fuel-dispensing facili- 
ties shall be in accordance with Sections 2206.2.1 through 
2206.2.5. 



ss. Underground tanks for the 
storage of Class I, II and IIIA liquid fuels shall comply with Q 
Chapter 34. 

2206.2.1,1 Inventory control for underground tanks. 
Accurate daily inventory records shall be maintained and 
reconciled on underground fuel storage tanks for indica- 
tion of possible leakage from tanks and piping. The re- 
cords shall be kept at the premises or made available for 
inspection by the fire code official within 24 hours of a 
written or verbal request and shall include records for 
each product showing daily reconciliation between sales, 
use, receipts and inventory on hand. Where there is more 
than one system consisting of tanks serving separate 
pumps or dispensers for a product, the reconciliation 
shall be ascertained separately for each tank system. A 



2003 SNTERMATIOMAL FIRE CODE® 



187 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



consistent or accidental loss of product shall be immedi- 
ately reported to the fire code official. 

2206.2.2 Above-ground tanks located inside buildings. 

Above-ground tanks for the storage of Class I, II and IIIA 
liquid fuels are allowed to be located in buildings. Such 
tanks shall be located in special enclosures complying with 
Section 2206.2.6, in a liquid storage room or a liquid storage 
warehouse complying with Chapter 34, or shall be listed and 
labeled as protected above-ground tanks. 

2206.2.3 Above-ground tanks located outside, above 
grade. Above-ground tanks shall not be used for the storage 
of Class I, II or IIIA liquid motor fuels except as provided by 
this section. 

1. Above-ground tanks used for outside, above-grade 
storage of Class I liquids shall be listed and labeled as 
protected above-ground tanks and be in accordance 
with Chapter 34. Such tanks shall be located in accor- 
dance with Table 2206.2.3. 

2. Above-ground tanks used for above-grade storage of 
Class II or IIIA liquids are allowed to be protected 
above-ground tanks or, when approved by the fire 
code official, other above-ground tanks that comply 
with Chapter 34. Tank locations shall be in accor- 
dance with Table 2206.2.3. 

3. Tanks containing fuels shall not exceed 12,000 gal- 
lons (45 420 L) in individual capacity or 48,000 gal- 
lons (181 680 L) in aggregate capacity. Installations 
with the maximum allowable aggregate capacity shall 
be separated from other such installations by not less 
than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

4. Tanks located at farms, construction projects, or rural 
areas shall comply with Section 3406.2. 

2206.2.4 Above-ground tanks located in above-grade vaults 
or below-grade vaults. Above-ground tanks used for storage 
of Class I, II or IIIA liquid motor fuels are allowed to be in- 



stalled in vaults located above grade or below grade in accor- 
dance with Section 3404.2.8 and shall comply with Sections 
2206.2.4.1 and 2206.2.4.2. Tanks in above-grade vaults shall 
also comply with Table 2206.2.3. 

2206.2.4.1 Tank capacity limits. Tanks storing Class I 
and Class II liquids at an individual site shall be lim- 
ited to a maximum individual capacity of 15,000 gal- 
lons (56 775 L) and an aggregate capacity of 48,000 
gallons (181 680 L). 

2206.2.4.2 Fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities. Tanks storing Class II and Class IIIA liquids at 
a fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facility shall be lim- 
ited to a maximum individual capacity of 20,000 gallons 
(75 700 L) and an aggregate capacity of 80,000 gallons 
(302 800 L). 



2206.2.5 Portable tanks. Where approved by the fire code 
official, portable tanks are allowed to be temporarily used in 
conjunction with the dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA hquids 
into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles or motorized equipment 
on premises not normally accessible to the pubhc. The ap- 
proval shall include a definite time hmit. 

2206.2.6 Special enclosures. Where installation of tanks in 
accordance with Section 3404.2.11 is impractical, or be- 
cause of property or building limitations, tanks for liquid 
motor fuels are allowed to be installed in buildings in special 
enclosures in accordance with all of the following: 

1 . The special enclosure shall be liquid tight and vapor 
fight. 

2. The special enclosure shall not contain backfill. 

3 . Sides, top and bottom of the special enclosure shall be 
of reinforced concrete at least 6 inches (152 mm) 
thick, with openings for inspection through the top 
only. 

4. Tank connections shall be piped or closed such that 
neither vapors nor liquid can escape into the enclosed 



TABLE 2206.2.3 
MINIMUM SEPARATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ABOVE-GROUND TANKS 



CLASS OF LIQUID AND 
TANK TYPE 


INDIVIDUAL TANK 
CAPACITY 
(gallons) 


MINIMUM 

DISTANCE FROM 

NEAREST 

IMPORTANT 

BUILDING ON 

SAME PROPERTY 

(feet) 


MINIMUM 

DISTANCE FROM 

NEAREST FUEL 

DISPENSER 

(feet) 


MINIMUM 

DISTANCE FROM 

LOT LINE WHICH IS 

OR CAN BE BUILT 

UPON, INCLUDING 

THE OPPOSITE 

SIDE OF A 

PUBLIC WAY 

(feet) 


MINIMUM 

DISTANCE FROM 

NEAREST SIDE OF 

ANY PUBLIC WAY 

(feet) 


MINIMUM 

DISTANCE 

BETWEEN TANKS 

(feet) 


Class I protected above- 
ground tanks or tanks in 
vaults 


Less than or equal 
to 6,000 


5 


25« 


15 


5 


3 


Greater than 
6,000 


15 


25^ 


25 


15 


3 


Class II and III 
protected above-ground 
tanks or tanks in vaults 


Same as Class I 


Same as Class I 


Same as Class I 


Same as Class I 


Same as Class I 


Same as Class I 


Other tanks 


All 


50 


50 


100 


50 


3 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. At fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities, no minimum separation distance is required. 



188 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



lOTOR FUEL-DISPEMSIMG FACBLITIES AND [REPAIR GARAGES 



space between the special enclosure and any tanks in- 
side the special enclosure. 

5 . Means shall be provided whereby portable equipment 
can be employed to discharge to the outside any va- 
pors which might accumulate inside the special enclo- 
sure should leakage occur. 

6. Tanks containing Class I, II or IIIA liquids inside a 
special enclosure shall not exceed 6,000 gallons 
(22 7 1 L) in individual capacity or 1 8,000 gallons 
(68 130 L) in aggregate capacity. 

7. Each tank within special enclosures shall be sur- 
rounded by a clear space of not less than 3 feet (910 
mm) to allow for maintenance and inspection. 

22®6.3 Security. Above-ground tanks for the storage of hquid 
motor fuels shall be safeguarded from pubhc access or unau- 
thorized entry in an approved manner. 

2206.4 Physical protectloEo Guard posts complying with Sec- 
tion 312 or other approved means shall be provided to protect 
above-ground tanks against impact by a motor vehicle unless 
the tank is hsted as a protected above-ground tank with vehicle 
impact protection. 

2206.5 Secomdary comiltaiEmeEit. Above-ground tanks shall be 
provided with drainage control or diking in accordance with 
Chapter 34. Drainage control and diking is not required for 
listed secondary containment tanks. Secondary containment 
systems shall be monitored either visually or automatically. 
Enclosed secondary containment systems shall be provided 
with emergency venting in accordance with Section 
2206.6.2.5. 



Is. The design, fab- 
rication, assembly, testing and inspection of piping, valves, fit- 
tings and ancillary equipment for use with flammable or 
combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 34 and 
Sections 2206.6.1 through 2206.6.3. 

22©6.6ol Protectlom from damage. Piping shall be located 
such that it is protected from physical damage. 



for above-groiHEd tanks for Class I, II and IIIA liquids. 
Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for 
above-ground tanks shall comply with Sections 2206.6.2.1 
through 2206.6.2.6. 

2206.6.2.1 Tamk opemimgs. Tank openings for 
above-ground tanks shall be through the top only. 



us. The fill pipe for 
above-ground tanks shall be provided with a means for 
making a direct connecfion to the tank vehicle's fuel-de- 
livery hose so that the delivery of fuel is not exposed to 
the open air during the filling operation. Where any por- 
tion of the fill pipe exterior to the tank extends below the 
level of the top of the tank, a check valve shall be installed 
in the fill pipe not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from the 
fill-hose connection. 

2206.6.2.3 Overill protection. Overfill protection shall 
be provided for above-ground flammable and combusti- 



ble hquid storage tanks in accordance with Sections 
3404.2.7.5.8 and 3404.2.9.6.6. 

2206.6.2.4 Siphon prevention. An approved anti siphon 
method shall be provided in the piping system to prevent 
flow of liquid by siphon action. 

2206.6.2.5 Emergency relief venting. Above-ground 
storage tanks, tank compartments and enclosed second- 
ary containment spaces shall be provided with emer- 
gency relief venting in accordance with Chapter 34. 



rs, A spill container having a 
capacity of not less than 5 gallons (19 L) shall be pro- 
vided for each fill connection. For tanks with a top fill 
connection, spill containers shall be noncombustible and 
shall be fixed to the tank and equipped with a manual 
drain valve that drains into the primary tank. For tanks 
with a remote fill connection, a portable spill container is 
allowed. 



Piping, valves, fittings and ancil- 
lary equipment for underground tanks shall comply with 
Chapter 34 and NFPA 30A. 



for flammable or combiuis= 
The design, fabrication and installation of 
fuel-dispensing systems for flammable or combustible liquid 
fuels shall be in accordance with this section. 



2206.7.1 Listed eqnipment. Electrical equipment, dispens- 
ers, hose, nozzles and submersible or subsurface pumps 
used in fuel-dispensing systems shall be listed. 



2206,7,2 Fixed piamps required. Class I and Class II hq- 
uids shall be transferred from tanks by means of fixed 
pumps designed and equipped to allow control of the flow 
and prevent leakage or accidental discharge. 



2206.7.3 Mounting of dispensers. Dispensing devices ex- 
cept those installed on top of a protected above-ground tank 
that qualifies as vehicle-impact resistant, shall be protected 
against physical damage by mounting on a concrete island 6 
inches (152 nmi) or more in height, or shall otherwise be 
suitably protected in accordance with Section 312. Dis- 
pensing devices shall be installed and securely fastened to 
their mounting surface in accordance with the dispenser 
manufacturer's instructions. Dispensing devices installed 
indoors shall be located in an approved position where they 
cannot be struck by an out-of-control vehicle descending a 
ramp or other slope. 

2206.7.4 Dispenser emergency valve. An approved emer- 
gency shutoff valve designed to close automatically in the 
event of a fire or impact shall be properly installed in the hq- 
uid supply line at the base of each dispenser supplied by a re- 
mote pump. The valve shall be installed so that the shear 
groove is flush with or within 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of the top 
of the concrete dispenser island and there is clearance pro- 
vided for maintenance purposes around the valve body and 
operating parts. The valve shall be installed at the hquid sup- 
ply line inlet of each overhead-type dispenser. Where in- 
stalled, a vapor return line located inside the dispenser 
housing shall have a shear section or approved flexible con- 
nector for the liquid supply line emergency shutoff valve to 



2003 BNTERMATlOiSIAL FIRE CODE® 



iOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



function. Emergency shutoff valves shall be installed and 
maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions, tested at the time of initial installation and tested at 
least yearly thereafter in accordance with Section 2205.2.2. 

2206.7o5 Dispenser hose. Dispenser hoses shall be a maxi- 
mum of 1 8 feet (5486 mm) in length unless otherwise ap- 
proved. Dispenser hoses shall be listed and approved. When 
not in use, hoses shall be reeled, racked or otherwise pro- 
tected from damage. 

2206.7.5.1 Breakaway devices. Dispenser hoses for 
Class I and 11 liquids shall be equipped with a listed 
emergency breakaway device designed to retain liquid 
on both sides of a breakaway point. Such devices shall be 
installed and maintained in accordance with the manu- 
facturer's instructions. Where hoses are attached to 
hose-retrieving mechanisms, the emergency breakaway 
device shall be located between the hose nozzle and the 
point of attachment of the hose-retrieval mechanism to 
the hose. 

2206.7.6 Fuel delivery nozzles. A listed automatic-clos- 
ing-type hose nozzle valve with or without a latch-open de- 
vice shall be provided on island-type dispensers used for 
dispensing Class I, II or IIIA liquids. 

Overhead-type dispensing units shall be provided with a 
listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve without a 
latch-open device. 

Exception: A listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle 
valve with latch-open device is allowed to be used on 
overhead-type dispensing units where the design of the 
system is such that the hose nozzle valve will close auto- 
matically in the event the valve is released from a fill 
opening or upon impact with a driveway. 

2206.7.6.1 Special requirements for nozzles. Where 
dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids is performed, a 
listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve shall be 
used incorporating all of the following features: 

1. The hose nozzle valve shall be equipped with an 
integral latch-open device. 

2. When the flow of product is normally controlled 
by devices or equipment other than the hose nozzle 
valve, the hose nozzle valve shall not be capable of 
being opened unless the delivery hose is pressur- 
ized. If pressure to the hose is lost, the nozzle shall 
close automatically. 

Exception: Vapor recovery nozzles incorporat- 
ing insertion interlock devices designed to 
achieve shutoff on disconnect from the vehicle 
fill pipe. 

3. The hose nozzle shall be designed such that the 
nozzle is retained in the fill pipe during the filling 
operarion. 

4. The system shall include listed equipment with a 
feature that causes or requires the closing of the 
hose nozzle valve before the product flow can be 
resumed or before the hose nozzle valve can be re- 
placed in its normal position in the dispenser. 



2206.7.7 Remote pumping systems. Remote pumping sys- 
tems for hquid fuels shall comply with Sections 2206.7.7.1 
and 2206.7.7.2. 

2206.7.7.1 Leak detection. Where remote pumps are 
used to supply fuel dispensers, each pump shall have in- 
stalled on the discharge side a listed leak detection device 
that will detect a leak in the piping and dispensers and 
provide an indicadon at an approved location. A leak de- 
tection device is not required if the piping from the pump 
discharge to under the dispenser is above ground and vis- 
ible. 

2206.7.7.2 Location. Remote pumps installed above 
grade, outside of buildings, shall be located not less than 
10 feet (3048 mm) from lines of adjoining property that 
can be built upon and not less than 5 feet ( 1 524 mm) from 
any building opening. Where an outside pump location is 
impractical, pumps are permitted to be installed inside 
buildings as provided for dispensers in Section 2201.4 
and Chapter 34. Pumps shall be substantially anchored 
and protected against physical damage. 

2206.7.8 Gravity and pressure dispensing. Flammable 
hquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks, drums, 
barrels or similar containers. Flammable or combustible hq- 
uids shall not be dispensed by a device operating through 
pressure within a storage tank, drum or container. 

2206.7.9 Vapor-recovery and vapor-processing systems. 

Vapor-recovery and vapor-processing systems shall be in 
accordance with Section 2206.7.9. 

2206.7.9.1 Vapor-balance systems. Vapor-balance sys- 
tems shall comply with Secdons 2206.7.9.1.1 through 
2206.7.9.1.5. 

2206.7.9.1.1 Dispensing devices. Dispensing de- 
vices incorporating provisions for vapor recovery 
shall be listed and labeled. When existing listed or la- 
beled dispensing devices are modified for vapor re- 
covery, such modifications shall be listed by report by 
a nationally recognized testing laboratory. The listing 
by report shall contain a description of the component 
parts used in the modification and recommended 
method of installation on specific dispensers. Such re- 
port shall be made available on request of the fire code 
official. 

Means shall be provided to shut down fuel dispens- 
ing in the event the vapor return line becomes blocked. 

2206.7.9.1.2 Vapor-return line closeoff. An accept- 
able method shall be provided to close off the vapor 
return line from dispensers when the product is not be- 
ing dispensed. 

2206.7.9.1.3 Piping. Piping in vapor-balance systems 
shall be in accordance with Sections 3403.6, 3404.2.9 
and 3404.2.11. Nonmetallic piping shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's installation in- 
structions. 

Existing and new vent piping shall be in accordance 
with Secdons 3403.6 and 3404.2. Vapor return piping 
shall be installed in a manner that drains back to the 



190 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



miOR FUEL-D8SPESS3S1MG FACDLITIES AMD REPAIR GARAGES 



tank, without sags or traps in which liquid can become 
trapped. If necessary, because of grade, condensate 
tanks are allowed in vapor return piping. Condensate 
tanks shall be designed and installed so that they can 
be drained without opening. 

2206.7.9.1.4 Flexible joints and shear joints. Flexi- 
ble joints shall be installed in accordance with Section 
3403.6.9. 

An approved shear joint shall be rigidly mounted 
and connected by a union in the vapor return piping at 
the base of each dispensing device. The shear joint 
shall be mounted flush with the top of the surface on 
which the dispenser is mounted. 

2206.7.9.1.5 Testing. Vapor return Unes and vent pip- 
ing shall be tested in accordance with Section 
3403.6.3. 

2206.7,9.2 Vapor-processing systems. Vapor-process- 
ing systems shall comply with Sections 2206.7.9.2.1 
through 2206.7.9.2.4. 

2206.7.9.2.1 Equipment. Equipment in vapor-pro- 
cessing systems, including hose nozzle valves, vapor 
pumps, flame arresters, fire checks or systems for pre- 
vention of flame propagation, controls and vapor-pro- 
cessing equipment, shall be individually Usted for the 
intended use in a specified manner. 

Vapor-processing systems that introduce air into 
the underground piping or storage tanks shall be pro- 
vided with equipment for prevention of flame propa- 
gation that has been tested and listed as suitable for the 
intended use. 

2206.7.9.2.2 Location. Vapor-processing equipment 
shall be located at or above grade. Sources of ignition 
shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
from fuel-transfer areas and not less than 18 inches 
(457 mm) above tank fill openings and tops of dis- 
penser islands. Vapor-processing units shall be lo- 
cated not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the nearest 
building or lot line of a property which can be built 
upon. 

Exception: Where the required distances to build- 
ings, lot lines or fuel-transfer areas cannot be ob- 
tained, means shall be provided to protect 
equipment against fire exposure. Acceptable 
means shall include but not be limited to: 

1. Approved protective enclosures, which ex- 
tend at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the 
equipment, constructed of fire-resistant or 
noncombustible materials; or 

2. Fire protection using an approved wa- 
ter-spray system. 

Vapor-processing equipment shall be located a 
minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from dispensing de- 
vices. Processing equipment shall be protected 
against physical damage by guardrails, curbs, protec- 
tive enclosures or fencing. Where approved protective 
enclosures are used, approved means shall be pro- 



vided to ventilate the volume within the enclosure to 
prevent pocketing of flammable vapors. 

Where a downslope exists toward the location of 
the vapor-processing unit from a fuel-transfer area, 
the fire code official is authorized to require addi- 
tional separation by distance and height. 



2206.7.9.2.3 Installation. Vapor-processing units 
shall be securely mounted on concrete, masonry or 
structural steel supports on concrete or other 
noncombustible foundations. Vapor-recovery and va- 
por-processing equipment is allowed to be installed 
on roofs when approved. 

2206.7.9.2.4 Piping. Piping in a mechanical-assist 
system shall be in accordance with Sections 3403.6. 



2207.1 General. Motor fuel-dispensing facihties for liquefied El 
petroleum gas (LP-gas) fuel shall be in accordance with this 
section and Chapter 38. 

2207.2 Approvals. Storage vessels and equipment used for the 
storage or dispensing of LP-gas shall be approved or listed in 
accordance with Sections 2207.2.1 and 2207.2.2. 

2207.2.1 Approved equipment. Containers, pressure relief 
devices (including pressure relief valves), pressure regula- 
tors and piping for LP-gas shall be approved. 

2207.2.2 Listed equipment. Hoses, hose connections, ve- 
hicle fuel connections, dispensers, LP-gas pumps and elec- 
trical equipment used for LP-gas shall be listed. 

2207.3 Attendants, Motor fuel-dispensing operations shall be 
conducted by qualified attendants or in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2207.6 by persons trained in the proper handhng of 

LP-gas. 

2207.4 Location off dispensing operations and equipment. 
In addition to the requirements of Section 2206.7, the point of 
transfer for dispensing operations shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) or 
more from buildings having combustible exterior wall sur- 
faces, buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces 
that are not part of a 1-hour fire -resistance-rated assembly, or 
buildings having combustible overhangs, lot lines of property 
which could be built on, public streets, or sidewalks and rail- 
roads; and at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from driveways and 
buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that 
are part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly having a rating of 1 
hour or more. 

Exception: The point of transfer for dispensing operations 
need not be separated from canopies that are constructed in 
accordance with the International Building Code and which 
provide weather protection for the dispensing equipment. 

LP-gas containers shall be located in accordance with Chap- 
ter 38. LP-gas storage and dispensing equipment shall be lo- 
cated outdoors and in accordance with Section 2206.7. 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



1911 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



2207.5 Installation of LP-gas dispensing devices and equip- 
ment. The installation and operation of LP-gas dispensing sys- 
tems shall be in accordance with Sections 2207.5.1 through 
2207.5.3 and Chapter 38. LP-gas dispensers and dispensing 
stations shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's specifications and their listing. 

2207.5.1 Valves. A manual shutoff valve and an excess 
flow-control check valve shall be located in the liquid line 
between the pump and the dispenser inlet where the dis- 
pensing device is installed at a remote location and is not 
part of a complete storage and dispensing unit mounted on a 
common base. 

An excess flow-control check valve or an emergency 
shutoff valve shall be installed in or on the dispenser at the 
point at which the dispenser hose is connected to the liquid 
piping. A differential backpressure valve shall be consid- 
ered equivalent protection. 

A listed shutoff valve shall be located at the discharge end 
of the transfer hose. 

2207.5.2 Hoses. Hoses and piping for the dispensing of 
LP-gas shall be provided with hydrostatic rehef valves. The 
hose length shall not exceed 18 feet (5486 mm). An ap- 
proved method shall be provided to protect the hose against 
mechanical damage. 

2207.5.3 Vehicle impact protection. Vehicle impact pro- 
tection for LP-gas storage containers, pumps and dispensers 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 2206.4. 

2207.6 Private fueling of motor vehicles. Self-service LP-gas 
dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispens- 
ing systems, shall not be open to the public and shall be limited 
to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on 
LP-gas powered vehicles. 

In addition to the requirements of Sections 2205 and 2206.7, 
self-service LP-gas dispensing systems shall be in accordance 
with the following: 

1 . The system shall be provided with an emergency shutoff 
switch located within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of, but not 
less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from, dispensers. 

2. The owner of the LP-gas motor fuel-dispensing facility 
shall provide for the safe operation of the system and the 
training of users. 

2207.7 Overfilling. LP-gas containers shall not be filled in ex- 
cess of the fixed outage installed by the manufacturer or the 
weight stamped on the tank. 



SECTION 2208 

I COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS MOTOR 

FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES 

I 2208.1 General. Motor fuel-dispensing facihties for com- 
pressed natural gas (CNG) fuel shall be in accordance with this 
section and Chapter 30. 



2208.2 Approvals. Storage vessels and equipment used for the 
storage, compression or dispensing of CNG shall be approved 
or hsted in accordance with Sections 2208.2.1 and 2208.2.2. 

2208.2.1 Approved equipment. Containers, compressors, 
pressure relief devices (including pressure relief valves), 
and pressure regulators and piping used for CNG shall be 
approved. 

2208.2.2 Listed equipment. Hoses, hose connections, dis- 
pensers, gas detection systems and electrical equipment 
used for CNG shall be listed. Vehicle-fueling connections 
shall be listed and labeled. 

2208.3 Location of dispensing operations and equipment. 

Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be lo- 
cated above ground, outside. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Compression, storage or dispensing equipment shall 
be allowed in buildings of noncombustible construc- 
tion, as set forth in the International Building Code, 
which are unenclosed for three quarters or more of the 
perimeter. 

2. Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall 
be allowed indoors in accordance with Chapter 30. 

2208.3.1 Location on property. In addition to the require- 
ments of Section 2203.1 , compression, storage and dispens- 
ing equipment shall be installed as follows: 

1 . Not beneath power lines. 

2. Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from the nearest building 
or lot line which could be built on, public street, side- 
walk, or source of ignition. 

Exception: Dispensing equipment need not be 
separated from canopies that are constructed in ac- 
cordance with the International Building Code and 
which provide weather protection for the dispens- 
ing equipment. 

3. Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) or more from the nearest 
rail of any railroad track and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or 
more from the nearest rail of any railroad main track 
or any railroad or transit line where power for train 
propulsion is provided by an outside electrical source 
such as third rail or overhead catenary. 

4. Fifty feet (15 240 mm) or more from the vertical plane 
below the nearest overhead wire of a trolley bus line. 

2208.4 Private fueling of motor vehicles. Self-service 
CNG-dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock 
dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of perma- 
nently mounted fuel containers on CNG-powered vehicles. 

In addition to the requirements in Section 2205, the owner of 
a self-service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility shall ensure 
the safe operation of the system and the training of users. 

2208.5 Pressure regulators. Pressure regulators shall be de- 
signed and installed or protected so that their operation will not 
be affected by the elements (freezing rain, sleet, snow or ice), 
mud or debris. The protection is allowed to be an integral part 
of the regulator. 



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2208.6 Valves. Gas piping to equipment shall be provided with 
a remote, readily accessible manual shutoff valve. 

2208.7 Emergency sHietdowm device. An emergency shut- 
down device shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of, but 
not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from, dispensers, and shall also 
be provided in the compressor area. Upon activation, the emer- 
gency shutdown shall automatically shut off the power supply 
to the compressor and close valves between the main gas sup- 
ply and the compressor and between the storage containers and 
dispensers. 



2208.8 Discliarge off CNG from motor vehicle fuel storage 
containers. The discharge of CNG from motor vehicle fuel 
cylinders for the purposes of maintenance, cylinder certifica- 
tion, calibration of dispensers or other activities shall be in ac- 
cordance with Sections 2208.8.1 through 2208.8.1.2.6. 

2208.8.1 Methods of discharge. The discharge of CNG 
from motor vehicle fuel cylinders shall be accomphshed 
through a closed transfer system in accordance with Section 
2208.8. 1 . 1 or an approved method of atmospheric venting in 
accordance with Section 2208.8.1.2. 

2208.8.1.1 Closed transfer system, A documented pro- 
cedure that explains the logical sequence for discharging 
the cylinder shall be provided to the fire code official for 
review and approval. The procedure shall include what 
actions the operator will take in the event of a low-pres- 
sure or high-pressure natural gas release during the dis- 
charging activity. A drawing illustrating the arrangement 
of piping, regulators and equipment settings shall be pro- 
vided to the fire code official for review and approval. 
The drawing shall illustrate the piping and regulator ar- 
rangement and shall be shown in spatial relation to the lo- 
cation of the compressor, storage vessels and emergency 
shutdown devices. 

2208.8.1.2 Atmospheric venting. Atmospheric venting 
of CNG shall comply with Sections 2208.8. 1 .2.1 through 
2208.8.1.2.6. 

2208.8.1.2.1 Plans and speciicatioes. A drawing il- 
lustrating the location of the vessel support, piping, 
the method of grounding and bonding, and other re- 
quirements specified herein shall be provided to the 
fire code official for review and approval. 



stability. A method of rigidly 
supporting the vessel during the venting of CNG shall 
be provided. The selected method shall provide not 
less than two points of support and shall prevent the 
horizontal and lateral movement of the vessel. The 
system shall be designed to prevent the movement of 
the vessel based on the highest gas-release velocity 
through valve orifices at the vessel's rated pressure 
and volume. The structure or appurtenance shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials. 



rated from the site equipment, features and exposures 
and shall be located in accordance with Table 
2208.8.1.2.3. 



TABLE 2208.8.1.2.3 
SEPARAT80M DBSTANCE FOR ATMOSPHERIC VENTI1^SG OF CNG 



EQUlPWiENT OR FEATURE 


mmmuM separation 

(feet) 


Buildings 


25 


Building openings 


25 


Lot lines 


15 


Public ways 


15 


Vehicles 


25 


CNG compressor and storage vessels 


25 


CNG dispensers 


25 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



sg. The Structure 
or appurtenance used for supporting the cylinder shall 
be grounded in accordance with the ICC Electrical 
Code. The cylinder valve shall be bonded prior to the 
commencement of venting operations. 



A vent tube that will divert 
the gas flow to atmosphere shall be installed on the 
cylinder prior to commencement of the venting and 
purging operation. The vent tube shall be constructed 
of pipe or tubing materials approved for use with 
CNG in accordance with Chapter 30. 

The vent tube shall be capable of dispersing the gas 
a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) above grade level. 
The vent tube shall not be provided with a rain cap or 
other feature which would limit or obstruct the gas 
flow. 

At the connection fitting of the vent tube and the 
CNG cylinder, a listed bidirectional detonation flame 
arrester shall be provided. 

2208.8.1,2.6 Signage, Approved "No Smoking" 
signs complying with Section 310 shall be posted 
within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the cylinder support 
structure or appurtenance. Approved CYLINDER 
SHALL BE BONDED signs shall be posted on the 
cylinder support structure or appurtenance. 



^DROGEN IVIOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 



The structure or appurte- 
nance used for stabihzing the cylinder shall be sepa- 



2209,1 General. Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing and genera- 
tion facilities shall be in accordance with this section and Chap- 
ter 30. Where a fuel-dispensing facility also includes a repair 
garage, the repair operation shall comply with Section 221 1. 



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2209.2 Equipment. Equipment used for the generation, com- 
pression, storage or dispensing of hydrogen shall be designed 
for the specific application in accordance with Sections 
2209.2.1 through 2209.2.3. 

2209.2.1 Approved equipment. Storage vessels, contain- 
ers, pressure vessels, cylinders, pressure relief devices, in- 
cluding pressure valves, hydrogen vaporizers, pressure 
regulators and piping used for gaseous hydrogen systems 
shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2703, NFPA 50A and NFPA 50B. 

2209.2.2 Listed equipment. Hoses, hose connections, 
compressors, hydrogen generators, dispensers, detection 
systems and electrical equipment used for hydrogen shall be 
listed for use with hydrogen. Hydrogen motor fueling con- 
nections shall be listed and labeled for use with hydrogen. 

2209.2.3 Electrical equipment. Electrical installations 
shall be in accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. 

2209.3 Location on property. In addition to the requirements 
of Section 2203.1, generation, compression, storage and dis- 
pensing equipment shall be located in accordance with Sec- 
tions 2209.3.1 through Section 2209.3.4. 

2209.3.1 Outdoor exposures. Outdoor exposures shall re- 
quire separation from other fuels or equivalent risks to life 
safety and buildings or public areas in accordance with Ta- 
ble 2209.3.1. 

Exception: Closed systems with a hydrogen capacity of 
3,000 cubic feet or less at NTP (85 m^). 

2209.3.2 Location of dispensing operations and equip- 
ment. Generation, compression, storage and dispensing 
equipment shall be located outdoors, above ground. 

Exceptions: 

1. Generation, compression, storage or dispensing 
equipment shall be allowed in buildings of Type I 
and II construction, as defined in the International 
Building Code, which are unenclosed for three 
quarters or more of the perimeter and constructed 
in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hy- 
drogen gas. 

2. Generation, compression, storage and dispensing 
equipment shall be allowed indoors in accordance 
with Chapter 30 and as set forth in the Interna- 
tional Building Code and International Fuel Gas 
Code. 

2209.3.3 Canopies. Dispensing equipment need not be sep- 
arated from canopies that are constructed in accordance 
with the International Building Code, in a manner that pre- 
vents the accumulation of hydrogen gas. 

2209.3.4 Overhead lines. The proximity to overhead lines 
shall be as follows: 

1. Not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the vertical 
plane below the nearest overhead wire of an electric 
trolley, train or bus line; and 

2. Not less than 5 feet ( 1 524 mm) from the vertical plane 
below the nearest overhead electrical wire. 



TABLE 2209.3.1 

OUTDOOR MINBiVIUM SEPARATION FOR GASEOUS HYDROGEN 

DISPENSERS, COMPRESSORS, GENERATORS AND STORAGE 

VESSELS 



OUTDOOR EQUIPMENT OR FEATURE 


DISTANCE (feet) 


Building — Noncombustible walls, sprinklered or 
nonsprinklered 


10 


Building — Combustible walls, sprinklered or 
nonsprinklered 


25b, e 


Building — Noncombustible walls, 2-hour fire 
barrier interrupts line of sight 


5 


Offsite sidewalks and on-site/offsite parked 
vehicles 


15^'*' 


Lot line 


10^ 


Air intake openings 


25= 


Wall openings located less than 25 feet 
vertically above 


20'^ 


Wall openings located greater than 25 feet 
vertically above 


25 


Outdoor public assembly 


25^ 


Ignition source*^ 


10 


Flammable or combustible liquid 

storage — Above ground, diked in accordance 

with Section 3404.2.9.6. 


20 


Flammable or combustible liquid 
storage — Above ground, not diked 


50 


Flammable or combustible liquid 

storage — Below ground, vent or fill opening 


20 


Flammable gas storage (nonhydrogen) — Above 
ground, with common shutoff 


25 


Flammable gas storage (nonhydrogen) — Above 
ground, no common shutoff 


50 


Combustible waste material (see Section 
304.1.1) 


50 


Liquefied hydrogen storage — Distance to 
buildings, openings, lot lines, pubhc ways and 
on-site/off-site parked vehicles 


25^ 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m^. 

a. Reduction to 5 feet shall be permitted where a 2-hour fire barrier interrupts 
the line of sight between the equipment and the exposure. The height of the 
barrier for vertical tanks shall be not less than one-third of the height of the 
tank measured vertically, and the length of the wall shall be 1.5 times the 
maximum diameter of the tank. 

b. A reduction to feet shall be permitted for dispensing equipment and vehi- 
cles being refueled. 

c. Measured along the natural and unobstructed line of travel (e.g., around pro- 
tective walls, around comers of buildings). 

d. Ignition source. A flame, spark or hot surface capable of igniting flammable 
vapors or fumes. Such sources include appliance burner ignitors and hot 
work, such as welding and open flames. 

e. For storage volume greater than or equal to 15,000 cubic feet at NTP. 



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« 



gee motor ffuel=dispen§ieg IFaciMties. Self-service hydrogen 
motor fuel-dispensing systems, including key, code and card 
lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the fiUing of per- 
manently mounted fuel containers on hydrogen-powered vehi- 
cles. 

In addition to the requirements in Section 2211 , the owner of 
a self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing facility shall 
provide for the safe operation of the system through the institu- 
tion of a fire safety plan submitted in accordance with Section 
404, the training of employees and operators who use and 
maintain the system in accordance with Section 406, and provi- 
sions for hazard communication in accordance with Section 
407. 



Safety precautions at hydrogen 
motor fuel-dispensing and generation facilities shall be in ac- 
cordance with Sections 2209.5.1 through 2209.5.4.3. 



Piping to equipment shall be provided 
with a readily accessible manual shutoff valve that is readily 
identifiable. 



Guard posts or other 
approved means shall be provided to protect hydrogen stor- 
age systems and use areas subject to vehicular damage in ac- 
cordance with Section 312. 



An emergency shutdown 
device shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of, but 
not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from, dispensers and hydro- 
gen generators, and shall also be provided in the compressor 
area. On activation, emergency shutdown shall automati- 
cally shut off the power supply to all hydrogen storage, com- 
pression, dispensing and generating equipment, shut off 
natural gas or other fuel supply to the hydrogen generator, 
and close valves between the main supply and the compres- 
sor and between the storage containers and dispensing 
equipment. 

2209.5.4 Emergeecy veeltEinig off toydrogem systems. Hy- 
drogen systems shall be equipped with venting that will re- 
lieve excessive internal pressure. Hydrogen systems shall 
not discharge inside buildings. All portions of the system 
shall be protected by pressure-relieving devices. 

22®9.5.4,1 Vent pipe. A vent pipe that will divert the gas 
flow to atmosphere shall be installed on the vessel for 
purging operations. The vent pipe shall be designed and 
constructed as follows: 

1 . The piping shall be constructed of pipe or tubing 
materials approved for hydrogen service in accor- 
dance with ASME B31.3 for the rated pressure, 
volume and temperature. The vent piping shall be 
designed for the maximum back pressure within 
the pipe, but not less than 335 pounds per square 
inch gauge (psig) (2310 kPa). 

2. The vent pipe shall be properly supported and shall 
be provided with a rain cap or other feature which 



would not limit or obstruct the gas flow from vent- 
ing vertically upward. 

3 . A means shall be provided to prevent water, ice and 
other debris from accumulating inside the vent 
pipe or obstructing the vent pipe. 

4. At the connection fitting of the vent pipe and the 
hydrogen cylinder, a listed bidirectional detona- 
tion flame arrester shall be provided. 

rogem gas. Venting of hydro- 



gen gas shall be as follows: 



1, 



The height (//) and separation distance (D) of the 
vent pipe shall meet the criteria set forth in Table 
2209.5.4.2 for the combinations of maximum hy- 
drogen flow rates and vent stack opening diame- 
ters listed; 

The maximum emergency purging flow rate shall 
be specified for verification by the authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction. The maximum emergency purg- 
ing flow rate shall be the pressure rehef device 
release rate in accordance with CGA S-1.3 for a 
nonengulfing flame or the maximum on-site pro- 
duction rate, whichever is larger; or 

Where alternative venting arrangements are pro- 
posed, an analysis of radiant heat exposures shall 
be provided showing [in a 30 ft./sec (9.14 m/sec) 
wind]: exposures to employees are limited to no 
more than 1,500 Btuh/ft^ (4732 W/m^) for a maxi- 
mum of three minutes, exposures to 
noncombustible equipment are limited to no more 
than 8,000 Btuh/ft^ (25 237 W/m^), exposures sim- 
ulated at the property line are limited to no more 
than 500 Btuh/ft^ (1577 W/m^); and that no equip- 
ment or personnel within D or H, or any property 
line within 1 .25 D would be exposed to more than 
one-half of the lower flammable limit (LFL) for 
hydrogen (2 percent by volume). 



imem rate off disclhiarge. The mini- 
mum rate of discharge of pressure relief devices on 
the hydrogen storage tanks shall be in accordance 
with CGA S-1.3, except for the provision in Section 
2209.5.4.3, or the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code, as applicable. 



j§. Where above-ground 
storage of flammable or combustible liquids occurs and 
the tanks are diked, or no above-ground storage of flam- 
mable or combustible hquids exists, the sizing of the 
maximum flow for the vent pipe need not include the 
vent flow as a result of an "engulfing fire" of the hydro- 
gen storage tanks. The pressure relief valve(s) on the gas- 
eous hydrogen storage tanks shall be sized to 
accommodate a hydrogen compressor that fails to shut- 
down or unload as a minimum. 



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TABLE 2209.5.4.2 

VENT PIPE HEIGHT AND SEPARATION DISTANCE 

VERSUS HYDROGEN FLOW RATE AND VENT PIPE DIAMETER^''-'^'^®'' 



HYDROGEN 
FLOW RATE 


0-500 CFM 
atNTP 


500-1000 CFM 
atNTP 


1,000-2,000 CFM 
atNTP 


2,000-5,000 CFM 
atNTP 


5,000-10,000 CFM 
atNTP 


10,000-20,000 CFM 
atNTP 


Vent Diameter 
(inches) 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


3 


2 


3 


Height (ft) 


8 


8 


8 


8 


12 


12 


17 


12 


13 


25 


25 


22 


36 


36 


Distance (ft) 


13 


13 


15 


17 


22 


26 


39 


36 


40 


53 


53 


53 


81 


81 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 Btuh/ft^ = 3.153 W/m^ 1 foot/second = 304.8 mm/sec. 

a. Minimum distance to lot Hne is 1.25 times the separation distance. 

b. Designs seeking to achieve greater heights with commensurate reductions in separation distances shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering prac- 
tice. 

c. With this table, personnel on the ground or on the building/equipment are exposed to a maximum of 1 ,500 Btuh/ ft.^, and are assumed to be provided with a means 
to escape to a shielded area within 3 minutes, including the case of a 30 ft./sec. wind. 

d. Designs seeking to achieve greater radiant exposures to noncombustible equipment shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. 

e. The analysis reflected in this table does not permit hydrogen air mixtures that would exceed one-half of the lower flammable limit (LFL) for hydrogen (2 percent 
by volume) at the building or equipment, including the case of a 30 ft./sec. wind. 

f See Figure 2209.5.4.2. 



Vent 
Pipe 



H 



<— ' 1.25D 



ground 



Lot 
Line 



Structure 

or 
Equipment 




Structure 

or 
Equipment 



ground 



H = Minimum height in feet of vent pipe above the ground or above any structure or equipment 
within distance (D) where personnel might be present. 

D = Distance in feet to adjacent structure or equipment where personnel might be present. 



FIGURE 2209.5.4.2 
HYDROGEN VENT PIPE HEIGHT (H) VERSUS DISTANCE (D) REQUIREMENTS 



lARINE 



SECTION 2210 
iOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES 



The construction of marine motor fuel-dis- 
pensing facilities shall be in accordance with the International 
Building Code and NFPA 30 A. The storage of Class I, II or III A 
liquids at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in ac- 
cordance with this chapter and Chapter 34. 

2210.2 Storage and handling. The storage and handUng of 
Class I, II or IIIA hquids at marine motor fuel-dispensing facil- 
ities shall be in accordance with Sections 2210.2.1 through 

2210.2.3. 



2210.2.1 Class I, II or IIIA liquid storage. Class I, II or 
IIIA liquids stored inside of buildings used for marine motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities shall be stored in approved con- 
tainers or portable tanks. Storage of Class I hquids shall not 
exceed 10 gallons (38 L). 

Exception: Storage in liquid storage rooms in accor- 
dance with Section 3404.3.7. 

2210.2.2 Class II or IIIA liquid storage and dispensing. 
Class II or IIIA liquids stored or dispensed inside of build- 
ings used for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall 
be stored in and dispensed from approved containers or por- 
table tanks. Storage of Class 11 and IIIA liquids shall not ex- 
ceed 120 gallons (454 L). 



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221©<,2o3 Heating eqeipmeeto Heating equipment installed 
in Class I, II or IIIA liquid storage or dispensing areas shall 
comply with Section 2201.6. 

221®3 DispeESingo The dispensing of liquid fuels at marine 
□ motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Sections 
2210.3.1 through 2210.3.5. 

221®o3ol GeeeraL Wharves, piers or floats at marine motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities shall be used exclusively for the 
dispensing or transfer of petroleum products to or from ma- 
rine craft, except that transfer of essential ship stores is al- 
lowed. 

2210,3.2 Sepervlsnomo Marine motor fuel-dispensing facili- 
ties shall have an attendant or supervisor who is fully aware 
of the operation, mechanics and hazards inherent to fueUng 
of boats on duty whenever the facility is open for business. 
The attendant's primary function shall be to supervise, ob- 
serve and control the dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids 
or flanamable gases. 



j§. Dispensing of Class I, II or 
IIIA hquids into the fuel tanks of marine craft shall be by 
means of an approved-type hose equipped with a hsted auto- 
matic-closing nozzle without a latch-open device. 

Hoses used for dispensing or transferring Class I, II or 
IIIA liquids, when not in use, shall be reeled, racked or oth- 
erwise protected from mechanical damage. 



rs. Class I, II or IIIA liquids 
shall not be dispensed into a portable container unless such 
container is approved. 



as. Liquefied petroleum 
gas cylinders shall not be filled at marine motor fuel-dis- 
pensing facilities unless approved. Approved storage facili- 
ties for LP-gas cylinders shall be provided. See also Section 

2207. 



marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities. Fueling of floating 
marine craft with Class I fuels at other than a marine motor 
fuel-dispensing facility is prohibited. Fueling of floating ma- 
rine craft with Class II or III fuels at other than a marine motor 
fuel-dispensing facility shall be in accordance with all of the 
following: 

1 . The premises and operations shall be approved by the fire 
code official. 

2. Tank vehicles and fueling operations shall comply with 
Section 3406.6. 

3. The dispensing nozzle shall be of the listed auto- 
matic-closing type without a latch-open device. 

4. Nighttime deliveries shall only be made in Ughted areas. 

5 . The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in operation while 
dispensing. 

6. Fuel expansion space shall be left in each fuel tank to pre- 
vent overflow in the event of temperature increase. 

2210.5 Fire prevention regelatioms. General fire safety regu- 
I lations for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply 
with Sections 2210.5.1 through 2210.5.7. 



.1 Housekeeping. Marine motor fuel-dispensing fa 
cilities shall be maintained in a neat and orderly manner. Ac- I 
cumulations of rubbish or waste oils in excessive amounts 
shall be prohibited. 



Spills of Class I, II or IIIA liquids at or on 
the water shall be reported immediately to the fire depart- 
ment and jurisdictional authorities. 



Metal containers with 
tight-fitting or self-closing metal lids shall be provided for 
the temporary storage of combustible trash or rubbish. 

221CD.5.4 Marine vessels and craft Vessels or craft shall 
not be made fast to fuel docks serving other vessels or craft 
occupying a berth at a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility. 



Construction, maintenance, 
repair and reconditioning work involving the use of open 
flames, arcs or spark-producing devices shall not be per- 
formed at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities or within □ 
50 feet (15 240 mm) of the dispensing facilities, including 
piers, wharves or floats, except for emergency repair work 
approved in writing by the fire code official. Fueling shall 
not be conducted at the pier, wharf or float during the course 
of such emergency repairs. 

22WS,SA Smoking, Smoking or open flames shall be 
prohibited within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of fueling opera- 
tions. "No Smoking" signs complying with Section 310 
shall be posted conspicuously about the premises. Such 
signs shall have letters not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
height on a background of contrasting color. 



Boat owners 

and operators shall not offer their craft for fueling unless the 
tanks being filled are properly vented to dissipate fumes to 
the outside atmosphere. 



221(0,5,7 Warnimg signs. Warning signs shall be promi- 
nently displayed at the face of each wharf, pier or float at 
such elevation as to be clearly visible from the decks of ma- 
rine craft being fueled. Such signs shall have letters not less 
than 3 inches (76 mm) in height on a background of con- 
trasting color bearing the following or approved equivalent 
wording: 

WARNING 

NO SMOKING— STOP ENGINE WHILE 

FUELING, SHUT OFF ELECTRICITY. 

DO NOT START ENGINE UNTIL AFTER 
BELOW DECK SPACES ARE VENTILATED. 



m. Fire protection features for marine 
motor fuel-dispensing facihties shall comply with Sections | 
2210.6.1 through 2210.6.4. 

2210.6,1 Standpipe tiose stations. Fire hose, where pro- 
vided, shall be enclosed within a cabinet, and hose stations 
shall be labeled: FIRE HOSE— EMERGENCY USE 
ONLY. 



ipment. Ma- 
terials shall not be placed on a pier in such a manner as to ob- 
struct access to fire-fighting equipment or piping system 
control valves. 



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2210.6.3 Access. Where the pier is accessible to vehicular 
traffic, an unobstructed roadway to the shore end of the 
wharf shall be maintained for access by fire apparatus. 

2210.6.4 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire 
extinguishers in accordance with Section 906, each having a 
minimum rating of 20-B:C, shall be provided as follows: 

1 . One on each float. 

2. One on the pier or wharf within 25 feet (7620 mm) of 
the head of the gangway to the float, unless the office 
is within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the gangway or is on 
the float and an extinguisher is provided thereon. 



SECTION 2211 
REPAIR GARAGES 

2211.1 General. Repair garages shall comply with this section 
and the International Building Code. Repair garages for vehi- 
cles that use more than one type of fuel shall comply with the 
applicable provisions of this section for each type of fuel used. 

Where a repair garage also includes a motor fuel-dispensing 
facility, the fuel-dispensing operation shall comply with the re- 
quirements of this chapter for motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

2211.2 Storage and use of flammable and combustible liq- 
uids. The storage and use of flammable and combustible liq- 
uids in repair garages shall comply with Chapter 34 and 
Sections 2211.2.1 through 2211.2.4. 

2211.2.1 Cleaning of parts. Cleaning of parts shall be con- 
ducted in listed and approved parts-cleaning machines in 
accordance with Chapter 34. 

2211.2.2 Waste oil, motor oil and other Class IIIB liq- 
uids. Waste oil, motor oil and other Class IIIB liquids shall 
be stored in approved tanks or containers, which are allowed 
to be stored and dispensed from inside repair garages. 

Tanks storing Class IIIB liquids in repair garages are al- 
lowed to be located at, below or above grade, provided that 
adequate drainage or containment is provided. 

Crankcase drainings shall be classified as Class IIIB liq- 
uids unless otherwise determined by testing. 

2211.2.3 Drainage and disposal of liquids and oil-soaked 
waste. Garage floor drains, where provided, shall drain to 
approved oil separators or traps discharging to a sewer in ac- 
cordance with the International Plumbing Code. Contents 
of oil separators, traps and floor drainage systems shall be 
collected at sufficiently frequent intervals and removed 
from the premises to prevent oil from being carried into the 
sewers. 

Crankcase drainings and liquids shall not be dumped into 
sewers, streams or on the ground, but shall be stored in ap- 
proved tanks or containers in accordance with Chapter 34 
until removed from the premises. 

Self-closing metal cans shall be used for oily waste. 

2211.2.4 Spray finishing. Spray finishing with flammable 
or combustible liquids shall comply with Chapter 15. 



2211.3 Sources of ignition. Sources of ignition shall not be lo- 
cated within 18 inches (457 mm) of the floor and shall comply 
with Chapters 3 and 26. 

2211.3.1 Equipment. Apphances and equipment installed 
in a repair garage shall comply with the provisions of the In- 
ternational Building Code, the International Mechanical 
Code and the ICC Electrical Code. 

2211.3.2 Smoking. Smoking shall not be permitted in repair 
garages except in approved locations. 

2211.4 Below-grade areas. Pits and below-grade work areas 
in repair garages shall comply with Sections 221 1.4.1 through 
2211.4.3. 

2211.4.1 Construction. Pits and below-grade work areas 
shall be constructed in accordance with the International 
Building Code. 

2211.4.2 Means of egress. Pits and below-grade work areas 
shall be provided with means of egress in accordance with 
Chapter 10. 

2211.4.3 Ventilation. Where Class I Hquids or LP-gas are 
stored or used within a building having a basement or pit 
wherein flammable vapors could accumulate, the basement 
or pit shall be provided with mechanical ventilation in ac- 
cordance with the International Mechanical Code, at a min- 
imum rate of 1.5 cubic feet per minute per square foot 
(cfm/ft^) [0.008 mV(s • m^)] to prevent the accumulation of 
flammable vapors. 

2211.5 Preparation of vehicles for repair. For vehicles pow- 
ered by gaseous fuels, the fuel shutoff valves shall be closed 
prior to repairing any portion of the vehicle fuel system. 

Vehicles powered by gaseous fuels in which the fuel system 
has been damaged shall be inspected and evaluated for fuel sys- 
tem integrity prior to being brought into the repair garage. The 
inspection shall include testing of the entire fuel delivery sys- 
tem for leakage. 

2211.6 Fire extinguishers. Fire extinguishers shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 906. 

2211.7 Repair garages for vehicles fueled by 

lighter-than-air fuels. Repair garages for the conversion and 
repair of vehicles which use CNG, liquefied natural gas (LNG), 
hydrogen or other lighter-than-air motor fuels shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 22 1 1 .7 in addition to the other requirements 
of Section 2211. 

Exception: Repair garages where work is not performed on 
the fuel system and is limited to exchange of parts and main- 
tenance requiring no open flame or welding. 

2211.7.1 Ventilation. Repair garages used for the repair of 
natural gas- or hydrogen-fueled vehicles shall be provided 
with an approved mechanical ventilation system. The me- 
chanical ventilation system shall be in accordance with the 
International Mechanical Code and Sections 2211.7.1.1 
and 2211.7.1.2. 

Exception: Repair garages with natural ventilation when 
approved. 



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raiOe FOEL-DISPEMSING FACILITDES AND REPASR GARAGES 



2211o7.1.1 Desngmio Indoor locations shall be ventilated 
utilizing air supply inlets and exhaust outlets arranged to 
provide uniform air movement to the extent practical. In- 
lets shall be uniformly arranged on exterior walls near 
floor level. Outlets shall be located at the high point of the 
room in exterior walls or the roof. 

Ventilation shall be by a continuous mechanical venti- 
lation system or by a mechanical ventilation system acti- 
vated by a continuously monitoring natural gas detection 
system where a gas concentration of not more than 25 
percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) is present. In 
either case, the system shall shut down the fueling system 
in the event of failure of the ventilation system. 

The ventilation rate shall be at least 1 cubic foot per 
minute per 12 cubic feet (0.00139 mVs • m^) of room vol- 
ume. 



2211o7olo2 Operatnomio The mechanical ventilation sys- 
tem shall operate continuously. 



1. Mechanical ventilation systems that are inter- 
locked with a gas detection system designed in 
accordance with Section 221 1.7.2. 

2. Mechanical ventilation systems in repair ga- 
rages that are used only for repair of vehicles 
fueled by liquid fuels or odorized gases, such as 
CNG, where the ventilation system is electri- 
cally interlocked with the lighting circuit. 

2211.7o2 Gas detectnom systemo Repair garages used for re- 
pair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases, such as hydro- 
gen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with an 
approved flammable gas detection system. 



2211.70201 System deslgim. The flammable gas detection 
system shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases 
used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection system 
shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable 
gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammable limit 
(LFL). Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication 
or chassis repair pits of repair garages used for repairing 
nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles. 

2211.70202 Operatnom. Activation of the gas detection 
system shall result in all the following: 

1 . Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm sig- 
nals in the repair garage. 

2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the 
repair garage. 

3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, 
when the system is interlocked with gas detection. 

2211o7<,2o3 Fantore off the gas detectnom system. Failure 
of the gas detection system shall result in the deactivation 
of the heating system, activation of the mechanical venti- 
lation system and where the system is interlocked with 
gas detection and causes a trouble signal to sound in an 
approved location. 

E211.8 Defeellng of Ihydrogeini ffrom motor velincle fmiel §tor= 
3 age cootanmers. The discharge or defueling of hydrogen from 



motor vehicle fuel storage tanks for the purpose of mainte- 
nance, cylinder certification, calibration of dispensers or other 
activities shall be in accordance with Section 2210.8.1. 

2211J J Methods of discharge. The discharge of hydro- 
gen from motor vehicle fuel storage tanks shall be accom- 
pUshed through a closed transfer system in accordance with 
Section 2210.8.1.1 or an approved method of atmospheric 
venting in accordance with Section 2210.8.1.2. 



22II.8.I0I Closed transfer system. A documented pro- 
cedure that explains the logic sequence for discharging 
the storage tank shall be provided to the code official for 
review and approval. The procedure shall include what 
actions the operator is required to take in the event of a 
low-pressure or high-pressure hydrogen release during 
discharging activity. Schematic design documents shall 
be provided illustrating the arrangement of piping, regu- 
lators and equipment settings. The construction docu- 
ments shall illustrate the piping and regulator 
arrangement and shall be shown in spatial relation to the 
location of the compressor, storage vessels and emer- 
gency shutdown devices. 

2211,8.1.2 Atmospheric veetang of hydrogen from 
motor vehicle fuel storage comtaimers. When atmo- 
spheric venting is used for the discharge of hydrogen 
from motor vehicle fuel storage tanks , such venting shall 
be in accordance with Sections 2210.8.1.2.1 through 
2210.8.1.2.4. 

2211.8,1.2.1 Defuelmg equnpmemit required at ve- 
hicle maimtemaece and repair facilities. All facili- 
ties for repairing hydrogen systems on hydrogen- 
fueled vehicles shall have equipment to defuel vehicle 
storage tanks. Equipment used for defueling shall be 
listed and labeled for the intended use. 



2211.8.1.2.1.1 MamifactMrer's equipment re- 
quired. Equipment supplied by the vehicle manu- 
facturer shall be used to connect the vehicle 
storage tanks to be defueled to the vent pipe sys- 
tem. 



2211.8.1.2.1.2 Vemt pipe maximum diameter. 
Defueling vent pipes shall have a maximum inside 
diameter of 1 inch (25 mm) and be installed in ac- 
cordance with Section 2209.5.4. 

2211.8.1.2.1.3 Maximum flow rate. The maxi- 
mum rate of hydrogen flow through the vent pipe 
system shall not exceed 1,000 cfm at NTP (2.5 
kg/min) and shall be controlled by means of the 
manufacturer's equipment, at low pressure and 
without adjustment. 

2211.8.1.2.1.4 Isolated use. The vent pipe used 
for defueling shall not be connected to another 
venting system used for any other purpose. 

2211.8,1,2,2 Constructiom documemts. Construc- 
tion documents shall be provided illustrating the 
defuehng system to be utilized. Plan details shall be of 
sufficient detail and clarity to allow for evaluation of 
the piping and control systems to be utilized and in- 
clude the method of support for cylinders, containers 



2003 IMTERNATIONAL PURE CODE® 



MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



or tanks to be used as part of a closed transfer system, 
the method of grounding and bonding, and other re- 
quirements specified herein. 

2211.8.1.2.3 Stability of cylinders, containers and 
tanks. A method of rigidly supporting cylinders, con- 
tainers or tanks used during the closed transfer system 
discharge or defueling of hydrogen shall be provided. 
The method shall provide not less than two points of 
support and shall be designed to resist lateral move- 
ment of the receiving cylinder, container or tank. The 
system shall be designed to resist movement of the re- 
ceiver based on the highest gas-release velocity 
through valve orifices at the receiver's rated service 
pressure and volume. Supporting structure or appur- 
tenance used to support receivers shall be constructed 
of noncombustible materials in accordance with the 
International Building Code. 

2211.8.1.2.4 Grounding and bonding. Cylinders, 
containers or tanks and piping systems used for 
defueling shall be bonded and grounded. Structures or 
appurtenances used for supporting the cylinders, con- 
tainers or tanks shall be grounded in accordance with 
the ICC Electrical Code. The valve of the vehicle stor- 
age tank shall be bonded with the defueling system 
prior to the commencement of discharge or defueling 
operations. 

2211.8.2 Repair of hydrogen piping. Piping systems con- 
taining hydrogen shall not be opened to the atmosphere for 
repair without first purging the piping with an inert gas to 
achieve 1 percent hydrogen or less by volume. Defueling 
operations and exiting purge flow shall be vented in accor- 
dance with Section 2211.8.1.2. 

2211.8.3 Purging. Each individual manufactured compo- 
nent of a hydrogen generating, compression, storage or dis- 
pensing system shall have a label affixed as well as a 
description in the installation and owner's manuals describ- 
ing the procedure for purging air from the system during 
startup, regular maintenance and for purging hydrogen from 
the system prior to disassembly (to admit air). 

For the interconnecting piping between the individual 
manufactured components, the pressure rating must be at 
least 20 times the absolute pressure present in the piping 
when any hydrogen meets any air. 

2211.8.3.1 System purge required. After installation, 
repair or maintenance, the hydrogen piping system shall 
be purged of air in accordance with the manufacturer's 
procedure for purging air from the system. 



200 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 



HIGH^PIU 



SECTION 2301 
GENERAL 

.1 Scope, High-piled combustible storage shall be in ac- 
cordance with this chapter. In addition to the requirements of 
this chapter, the following material-specific requirements shall 
apply: 

1. Aerosols shall be in accordance with Chapter 28. 

2. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 34. 

3. Hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Chapter 

27. 

4. Storage of combustible paper records shall be in accor- 
dance with NFPA 23 IC. 

5. Storage of combustible fibers shall be in accordance with 
Chapter 29. 

6. Storage of miscellaneous combustible material shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 3. 

2301o2 Permits. A permit shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

2301,3 Comstructiomi documeimts. At the time of building per- 
mit application for new structures designed to accommodate 
high-piled storage or for requesting a change of occupancy/use, 
and at the time of application for a storage permit, plans and 
specifications shall be submitted for review and approval. In 
addition to the information required by the International Build- 
ing Code, the storage permit submittal shall include the infor- 
mation specified in this section. Following approval of the 
plans, a copy of the approved plans shall be maintained on the 
premises in an approved location. The plans shall include the 
following: 

1 . Floor plan of the building showing locations and di- 
mensions of high-piled storage areas. 

2. Usable storage height for each storage area. 

3. Number of tiers within each rack, if applicable. 

4. Commodity clearance between top of storage and the 
sprinkler deflector for each storage arrangement. 

5. Aisle dimensions between each storage array. 

6. Maximum pile volume for each storage array. 

7. Location and classification of commodities in accor- 
dance with Section 2303. 

8 . Location of commodities which are banded or encapsu- 
lated. 

9. Location of required fire department access doors. 

10. Type of fire suppression and fire detection systems. 

1 1 . Location of valves controlling the water supply of ceil- 
ing and in-rack sprinklers. 

12. Type, location and specifications of smoke removal and 
curtain board systems. 



13. Dimension and location of transverse and longitudinal 
flue spaces. 

14. Additional information regarding required design fea- 
tures, commodities, storage arrangement and fire pro- 
tection features within the high-piled storage area shall 
be provided at the time of permit, when required by the 
fire code official. 

2301.4 Evacfliatlom plam. When required by the fire code offi- 
cial, an evacuation plan for public accessible areas and a sepa- 
rate set of plans indicating location and width of aisles, location 
of exits, exit access doors, exit signs, height of storage, and lo- 
cations of hazardous materials shall be submitted at the time of 
permit application for review and approval. Following ap- 
proval of the plans, a copy of the approved plans shall be main- 
tained on the premises in an approved location. 



DEFINITIONS 

2302,1 DeSnitnoiiiis, The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ARRAY, The configuration of storage. Characteristics consid- 
ered in defining an array include the type of packaging, flue 
spaces, height of storage and compactness of storage. 



^D. A storage configuration having a 6-inch 
(152 mm) or smaller width vertical flue space that restricts air 
movement through the stored commodity. 

BIN BOX. A five-sided container with the open side facing an 
aisle. Bin boxes are self-supporting or supported by a structure 
designed so that tittle or no horizontal or vertical space exists 
around the boxes. 



(o A combination of products, packing materi- 
als and containers. 

DRAFT CURTAIN. A structure arranged to limit the spread 
of smoke and heat along the underside of the ceiling or roof. 

EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) 
SPRINKLER, A sprinkler Usted for early suppression fast-re- 
sponse performance. 

EXPANDED PLASTIC. A foam or cellular plastic material 
having a reduced density based on the presence of numerous 
small cavities or cells dispersed throughout the material. 

EXTRA=HIGH=RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE, 
Storage on racks of Class I, II, III or IV commodities which ex- 
ceed 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height and storage on racks of 
high-hazard commodities which exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) in 
height. 

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE, Storage of 
combustible materials in closely packed piles or combustible 
materials on pallets, in racks or on shelves where the top of 
storage is greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) in height. When re- 



C3 



2003 8NTERNAT10NAL FIRE CODE® 



201 



-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 



quired by the fire code official, high-piled combustible storage 
also includes certain high-hazard commodities, such as rubber 
tires, Group A plastics, flammable hquids, idle pallets and sim- 
ilar commodities, where the top of storage is greater than 6 feet 
(1829 mm) in height. 

HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. An area within a building 
which is designated, intended, proposed or actually used for 
high-piled combustible storage. 

LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. The flue space between 
rows of storage perpendicular to the direction of loading. 

MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking methods uti- 
lizing ladders or other nonmechanical equipment to move 
stock. 

MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking meth- 
ods utihzing motorized vehicles or hydraulic jacks to move 
stock. 

SHELF STORAGE. Storage on shelves less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) deep with the distance between shelves not exceed- 
ing 3 feet (914 mm) vertically. For other shelving arrange- 
ments, see the requirements for rack storage. 

SOLID SHELVING. Shelving that is solid, slatted or of other 
construction located in racks and which obstructs sprinkler dis- 
charge down into the racks. 

TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. The space between rows of 
storage parallel to the direction of loading. 

SECTION 2303 
COMMODITY CLASSIFICATION 

2303.1 Classification of commodities. Commodities shall be 
classified as Class I, II, III, IV or high hazard in accordance 
with this section. Materials listed within each commodity clas- 
sification are assumed to be unmodified for improved combus- 
tibility characteristics. Use of flame-retarding modifiers or the 
physical form of the material could change the classification. 
See Section 2303.7 for classification of Group A, B and C plas- 
tics. 

2303.2 Class I commodities. Class I commodities are essen- 
tially noncombustible products on wooden or nonexpanded 
polyethylene solid deck pallets, in ordinary corrugated cartons 
with or without single-thickness dividers, or in ordinary paper 
wrappings with or without pallets. Class I commodities are al- 
lowed to contain a limited amount of Group A plastics in accor- 
dance with Section 2303.7.4. Examples of Class I commodities 
include, but are not limited to, the following: 

Alcoholic beverages not exceeding 20-percent alcohol 

Appliances noncombustible, electrical 

Cement in bags 

Ceramics 

Dairy products in nonwax-coated containers (excluding 
bottles) 

Dry insecticides 

Foods in noncombustible containers 

Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers 

Frozen foods 



Glass 

Glycol in metal cans 

Gypsum board 

Inert materials, bagged 

Insulation, noncombustible 

Noncombustible liquids in plastic containers having less 
than a 5-gallon (19 L) capacity 

Noncombustible metal products 

2303.3 Class II commodities. Class II commodities are Class I 
products in slatted wooden crates, solid wooden boxes, multi- 
ple-thickness paperboard cartons or equivalent combustible 
packaging material with or without pallets. Class II commodi- 
ties are allowed to contain a limited amount of Group A plastics 
in accordance with Section 2303.7.4. Examples of Class II 
commodities include, but are not limited to, the following: 

Alcoholic beverages not exceeding 20-percent alcohol, in 
combustible containers 

Foods in combustible containers 

Incandescent or fluorescent light bulbs in cartons 

Thinly coated fine wire on reels or in cartons 

2303.4 Class III commodities. Class III commodities are 
commodities of wood, paper, natural fiber cloth, or Group C 
plastics or products thereof, with or without pallets. Products 
are allowed to contain limited amounts of Group A or B plas- 
tics, such as metal bicycles with plastic handles, pedals, seats 
and tires. Group A plastics shall be limited in accordance with 
Section 2303.7.4. Examples of Class III commodities include, 
but are not limited to, the following: 

Aerosol, Level 1 (see Chapter 28) 

Combustible fiberboard 

Cork, baled 

Feed, bagged 

Fertilizers, bagged 

Food in plastic containers 

Furniture: wood, natural fiber, upholstered, nonplastic, 
wood or metal with plastic-padded and covered arm rests 

Glycol in combustible containers not exceeding 25 percent 

Lubricating or hydraulic fluid in metal cans 

Lumber 

Mattresses, excluding foam rubber and foam plastics 

Noncombustible liquids in plastic containers having a ca- 
pacity of more than 5 gallons (19 L) 

Paints, oil base, in metal cans 

Paper, waste, baled 

Paper and pulp, horizontal storage, or vertical storage that is 
banded or protected with approved wrap 

Paper in cardboard boxes 

Pillows, excluding foam rubber and foam plastics 

Plastic-coated paper food containers 




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2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



H8GH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 



Plywood 

Rags, baled 

Rugs, without foam backing 

Sugar, bagged 

Wood, baled 

Wood doors, frames and cabinets 

Yams of natural fiber and viscose 

2303.5 Class IV commodltleSo Class IV commodities are Class 
I, II or III products containing Group A plastics in ordinary cor- 
rugated cartons and Class I, II and III products, with Group A 
plastic packaging, with or without pallets. Group B plastics and 
free-flowing Group A plastics are also included in this class. The 
total amount of nonfree-flowing Group A plastics shall be in ac- 
cordance with Section 2303.7.4. Examples of Class IV com- 
modities include, but are not limited to, the following: 

Aerosol, Level 2 (see Chapter 28) 

Alcoholic beverages, exceeding 20-percent but less than 
80-percent alcohol, in cans or bottles in cartons. 

Clothing, synthetic or nonviscose 

Combustible metal products (solid) 

Furniture, plastic upholstered 

Furniture, wood or metal with plastic covering and padding 

Glycol in combustible containers (greater than 25 percent 
and less than 50 percent) 

Linoleum products 

Paints, oil base in combustible containers 

Pharmaceutical, alcoholic elixirs, tonics, etc. 

Rugs, foam back 

Shingles, asphalt 

Thread or yam, synthetic or nonviscose 

23CD3.6 Higlh-lliazardl commodntnes. High-hazard commodities 
are high-hazard products presenting special fire hazards be- 
yond those of Class I, II, III or IV. Group A plastics not other- 
wise classified are included in this class. Examples of 
high-hazard commodities include, but are not limited to, the 
following: 

Aerosol, Level 3 (see Chapter 28) 

Alcoholic beverages, exceeding 80-percent alcohol, in bot- 
tles or cartons 

Commodities of any class in plastic containers in carousel 
storage 

Flammable sohds (except solid combustible metals) 

Glycol in combustible containers (50 percent or greater) 

Lacquers, which dry by solvent evaporation, in metal cans 
or cartons 

Lubricating or hydrauhc fluid in plastic containers 

Mattresses, foam rubber or foam plastics 

Pallets and flats which are idle combustible 

Paper, asphalt, rolled, horizontal storage 



Paper, asphalt, rolled, vertical storage 

Paper and pulp, rolled, in vertical storage which is unhanded 
or not protected with an approved wrap 

Pillows, foam rubber and foam plastics 

Pyroxylin 

Rubber tires 

Vegetable oil and butter in plastic containers 

2303.7 Classifflcatiom of plastics. Plastics shall be designated 
as Group A, B or C in accordance with this section. 

23®3.7ol Group A plasticSo Group A plastics are plastic 
materials having a heat of combustion that is much higher 
than that of ordinary combustibles, and a burning rate higher 
than that of Group B plastics. Examples of Group A plastics 
include, but are not limited to, the following: 

ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer) 

Acetal (polyformaldehyde) 

Acrylic (polymethyl methacrylate) 

Butyl rubber 

EPDM (ethylene propylene mbber) 

FRP (fiberglass-reinforced polyester) 

Natural rubber (expanded) 

Nitrile rubber (acrylonitrile butadiene mbber) 

PET or PETE (polyethylene terephthalate) 

Polybutadiene 

Polycarbonate 

Polyester elastomer 

Polyethylene 

Polypropylene 

Polystyrene (expanded and unexpanded) 

Polyurethane (expanded and unexpanded) 

PVC (polyvinyl chloride greater than 15 percent 
plasticized, e.g., coated fabric unsupported film) 

SAN (styrene acrylonitrile) 

SBR (styrene butadiene rubber) 

2303.7,2 Group B plastics. Group B plastics are plastic ma- 
terials having a heat of combustion and a buming rate higher 
than that of ordinary combustibles, but not as high as those 
of Group A plastics. Examples of Group B plastics include, 
but are not limited to, the following: 

Cellulosics (cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, 
ethyl cellulose) 

Chloroprene rubber 

Fluoroplastics (ECTFE, ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethyl- 
ene copolymer; ETFE, ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene co- 
polymer; FEP, fluorinated ethylene-propylene 
copolymer) 

Natural mbber (nonexpanded) 

Nylon (Nylon 6, Nylon 6/6) 



2003 INTERNATlOfsSAL FiRE CODE® 



203 



HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 



PVC (polyvinyl chloride greater than 5 -percent, but not 
exceeding 15-percent plasticized) 

Silicone rubber 

2303.7.3 Group C plastics. Group C plastics are plastic ma- 
terials having a heat of combustion and a burning rate similar 
to those of ordinary combustibles. Examples of Group C 
plastics include, but are not hmited to, the following: 

Fluoroplastics (PCTFE, polychlorotrifluoroethylene; 
PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene) 

Melamine (melamine formaldehyde) 

Phenol 

PVC (polyvinyl chloride, rigid or plasticized less than 5 
percent, e.g., pipe, pipe fittings) 

PVDC (polyvinylidene chloride) 

PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) 

PVF (polyvinyl fluoride) 

Urea (urea formaldehyde) 

2303.7.4 Limited quantities of Group A plastics In mixed 

commodities. Figure 2303.7.4 shall be used to determine 
the quantity of Group A plastics allowed to be stored in a 
package or carton or on a pallet without increasing the com- 
modity classification. 

SECTION 2304 
DESIGNATION OF HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREAS 

2304.1 General. High-piled storage areas, and portions of 
high-piled storage areas intended for storage of a different 
commodity class than adjacent areas, shall be designed and 
specifically designated to contain Class I, Class II, Class III, 
Class IV or high-hazard commodities. The designation of a 
high-piled combustible storage area, or portion thereof in- 
tended for storage of a different commodity class, shall be 
based on the highest hazard commodity class stored except as 
provided in Section 2304.2. 

2304.2 Designation based on engineering analysis. The des- 
ignation of a high-piled combustible storage area, or portion 
thereof, is allowed to be based on a lower hazard class than that 
of the highest class of commodity stored when a limited quan- 
tity of the higher hazard commodity has been demonstrated by 
engineering analysis to be adequately protected by the auto- 
matic sprinkler system provided. The engineering analysis 
shall consider the abihty of the sprinkler system to deliver the 
higher density required by the higher hazard commodity. The 
higher density shall be based on the actual storage height of the 
pile or rack and the minimum allowable design area for sprin- 
kler operation as set forth in the density /area figures provided 
in NFPA 231 and NFPA 23 IC. The contiguous area occupied 
by the higher hazard commodity shall not exceed 120 square 
feet (11 m^), and additional areas of higher hazard commodity 
shall be separated from other such areas by 25 feet (7620 mm) 
or more. The sprinkler system shall be capable of delivering the 
higher density over a minimum area of 900 square feet (84 m^) 
for wet pipe systems and 1 ,200 square feet (111 m^) for dry pipe 



systems. The shape of the design area shall be in accordance 
with Section 903. 

SECTION 2305 
HOUSEKEEPING AND MAINTENANCE 

2305.1 Rack structures. The structural integrity of racks shall 
be maintained. 

2305.2 Ignition sources. Clearance from ignition sources shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 305. 

2305.3 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited. Approved "No 
Smoking" signs shall be conspicuously posted in accordance 
with Section 310. 

2305.4 Aisle maintenance. When restocking is not being con- 
ducted, aisles shall be kept clear of storage, waste material and 
debris. Fire department access doors, aisles and exit doors shall 
not be obstructed. During restocking operations using manual 
stocking methods, a minimum unobstructed aisle width of 24 
inches (610 mm) shall be maintained in 48-inch (1219 mm) or 
smaller aisles, and a minimum unobstructed aisle width of 
one-half of the required aisle width shall be maintained in aisles 
greater than 48 inches (1219 mm) . During mechanical stocking 
operations, a minimum unobstructed aisle width of 44 inches 
(1118 mm) shall be maintained in accordance with Section 
2306.9. 

2305.5 Pile dimension and height limitations. Pile dimen- 
sions and height limitations shall comply with Section 2307 . 3 . 

2305.6 Arrays. Arrays shall comply with Section 2307.4. 

2305.7 Flue spaces. Flue spaces shall comply with Section 
2308.3. 

SECTION 2306 

GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND 

LIFE SAFETY FEATURES 

2306.1 General. Fire protection and life safety features for 
high-piled storage areas shall be in accordance with this section. 

2306.2 Extent and type of protection. Where required by Ta- 
ble 2306.2, fire detection systems, smoke and heat removal, 
draft curtains and automatic sprinkler design densities shall ex- 
tend the lesser of 15 feet (4572 mm) beyond the high-piled stor- 
age area or to a permanent partition. Where portions of 
high-piled storage areas have different fire protection require- 
ments because of commodity, method of storage or storage 
height, the fire protection features required by Table 2306.2 
within this area shall be based on the most restrictive design re- 
quirements. 

2306.3 Separation of high-piled storage areas. High-piled 
storage areas shall be separated from other portions of the 
building where required by Sections 2306.3.1 through 
2306.3.2.2. 

2306.3.1 Separation from other uses. Mixed occupancies 
shall be separated in accordance with the International 
Building Code. 

2306.3.2 Multiple high-piled storage areas. Multiple 
high-piled storage areas shall be in accordance with Section 
2306.3.2.1 or 2306.3.2.2. 



204 



2003 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



HDGH-PILED COSViBUSTIBLE STORAGE 



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PERCENT BY WEIGHT OF UNEXPANDED PLASTIC' 

FBGURE 2303.7.4 
MIXED COMMOOmES^''' 

a. This figure is intended to determine the commodity classification of a mixed conmiodity in a package, carton or on a pallet where plastics are involved. 

b. The following is an example of how to apply the figure: A package containing a Class III commodity has 12-percent Group A expanded plastic by volume. The 
weight of the unexpanded Group A plastic is 1 percent. This commodity is classified as a Class IV commodity. If the weight of the unexpanded plastic is in- 
creased to 14 percent, the classification changes to a high-hazard commodity. 

„ , , Volume of plastic in pallet load 

c. Percent by volume - 



d. Percent by weight 



Total volume of pallet load, including pallet 

Weight of plastic in pallet load 
Total weight of pallet load, including pallet 



2003 SNTERNATSOMAL FIRE CODE® 



205 



HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 







TABLE 2306.2 
GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 






COMMODITY 
CLASS 


SIZE OF HIGH-PILED 

STORAGE AREA^ 

(square feet) 

(see Sections 2306.2 

and 2306.4) 


ALL STORAGE AREAS 
(See Sections 2306, 2307 and 2308)" 


SOLID-PILED STORAGE, SHELF 

STORAGE AND PALLETIZED STORAGE 

(see Section 2307.3) 


Automatic fire- 
extinguishing 

system 
(see Section 

2306.4) 


Fire 

detection 

system 

(see Section 

2306.5) 


Building 

access 

(see Section 

2306.6) 


Smoke and 

heat removal 

(see Section 

2306.7) 


Draft 

curtains 

(see Section 

2306.7) 


Maximum pile 

dimension*^ 

(feet) 


Maximum 

permissible 

storage 

height" 

(feet